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An adaptive neural stress response is essential to adequately cope with a changing environment. It was previously argued that sympathetic/noradrenergic activity during acute stress increases salience network (SN) connectivity and reduces executive control network (ECN) connectivity in healthy controls, with opposing effects in the late aftermath of stress. Altered temporal dynamics of these networks in response to stress are thought to play a role in the development of psychopathology in vulnerable individuals.
We exposed male healthy controls (n = 40, mean age = 33.9) and unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients (n = 39, mean age = 33.2) to the stress or control condition of the trier social stress test and subsequently investigated resting state functional connectivity of the SN and ECN directly after and 1.5 h after stress.
Acute stress resulted in increased functional connectivity within the SN in healthy controls, but not in siblings (group × stress interaction pfwe < 0.05). In the late aftermath of stress, stress reduced functional connectivity within the SN in both groups. Moreover, we found increased functional connectivity between the ECN and the cerebellum in the aftermath of stress in both healthy controls and siblings of schizophrenia patients.
The results show profound differences between siblings of schizophrenia patients and controls during acute stress. Siblings lacked the upregulation of neural resources necessary to quickly and adequately cope with a stressor. This points to a reduced dynamic range in the sympathetic response, and may constitute a vulnerability factor for the development of psychopathology in this at-risk group.
Contamination of raw milk by psychrotrophs can lead to the production of heat-resistant proteases and subsequent spoilage of UHT milk. Therefore, this research communication evaluated the effect of a pre-milking teat disinfectant (active components: L-(+)-lactic acid and salicylic acid) and a liner disinfectant (active components: peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide) on the number of mesophilic and (proteolytic) psychrotrophic bacteria prior to milking. The teat orifices of 10 cows were sampled using a swabbing procedure before and after treatment with a pre-milking teat disinfectant on six subsequent days. On the teat orifices, there was a small but statistically significant decrease in the psychrotrophic bacterial counts between pre and post dipping. No differences were observed for the mesophilic bacterial counts and proteolytic active counts. Liners were also sampled using swabs pre and post disinfection. No statistically significant decrease in the bacterial counts was observed post liner disinfection, although there was a numerical decrease. Sixty-two percent of the proteolytic psychrotrophs were pseudomonads: 16.5% of which were P. fragi, 14.3% P. lundensis, 10.0% P. fluorescens and 2.9% P. putida. Trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) analysis revealed a wide variety in proteolytic activity (from 0 to 55 µmol glycine/ml milk) and the presence of high producers. It can be concluded that there was only a minor effect of teat and liner disinfection on the psychrotrophic bacterial counts indicating that the measures presented did not result in a reduction of the targeted bacteria on teat orifices and liners.
Crystallization is one of the most important separation and product-formation technologies in the chemical industry. Typical advantages of crystallization are the low energy consumption, mild process conditions, and high product purity that can be obtained in a single separation step. The future impact of crystallization is even expected to increase further because many new high-added-value products are often in crystalline form. However, future crystalline products are also subject to increasingly stringent product quality requirements related to, for example, flowability, filterability, bioavailability, stability, and dissolution behavior. Product quality requirements for crystalline products typically vary strongly depending on the field of application.
Background rotation causes different flow structures and heat transfer efficiencies in Rayleigh–Bénard convection. Three main regimes are known: rotation unaffected, rotation affected and rotation dominated. It has been shown that the transition between rotation-unaffected and rotation-affected regimes is driven by the boundary layers. However, the physics behind the transition between rotation-affected and rotation-dominated regimes are still unresolved. In this study, we employ the experimentally obtained Lagrangian velocity and acceleration statistics of neutrally buoyant immersed particles to study the rotation-affected and rotation-dominated regimes and the transition between them. We have found that the transition to the rotation-dominated regime coincides with three phenomena; suppressed vertical motions, strong penetration of vortical plumes deep into the bulk and reduced interaction of vortical plumes with their surroundings. The first two phenomena are used as confirmations for the available hypotheses on the transition to the rotation-dominated regime while the last phenomenon is a new argument to describe the regime transition. These findings allow us to better understand the rotation-dominated regime and the transition to this regime.
Small Island Developing States (SIDS) are island nations that experience specific social, economic and environmental vulnerabilities associated with small populations, isolation and limited resources. Globally, SIDS exhibit exceptionally high rates of non-communicable disease (NCD) risk and incidence. Despite this, there is a lack of context-specific research within SIDS focused on life course approaches to NCD prevention, particularly the impact of the early-life environment on later disease risk as defined by the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) framework. Given that globalization has contributed to significant nutritional transitions in these populations, the DOHaD paradigm is highly relevant. SIDS in the Pacific region have the highest rates of NCD risk and incidence globally. Transitions from traditional foods grown locally to reliance on importation of Western-style processed foods high in fat and sugar are common. The Cook Islands is one Pacific SIDS that reports this transition, alongside rising overweight/obesity rates, currently 91%/72%, in the adult population. However, research on early-life NCD prevention within this context, as in many low- and middle-income countries, is scarce. Although traditional research emphasizes the need for large sample sizes, this is rarely possible in the smaller SIDS. In these vulnerable, high priority countries, consideration should be given to utilizing ‘small’ sample sizes that encompass a high proportion of the total population. This may enable contextually relevant research, crucial to inform NCD prevention strategies that can contribute to improving health and well-being for these at-risk communities.
Introduction: Bed boarding of admitted patients in the Emergency Department (ED) is widely recognized as a major contributor to overcrowding, particularly in very high-volume hospitals. The issue of bed boarding is directly tied to hospital-wide capacity, flow and operations. Early morning discharge from inpatient units has been identified as a low-cost intervention to decrease bed boarding, as it allows earlier transfer of admitted patients from the ED. Several hospitals have instituted discharge before noon, or discharge before 10AM policies, practices and targets. Our objectives were 1) to assess the current status of flow within 3 high-volume community hospitals with respect to time of day of discharges from the in-patient units and time of day of transfers from the ED to in-patient units, and 2) to assess the association between time of transfer from the ED and total ED Length of Stay (EDLOS) of admitted patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective multi-centre observational study during the period of January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015 at three high-volume community hospitals within Ontario, Canada. All patients admitted to the Medicine service were identified. Time of discharge from the in-patient units and time of transfer from the ED were collected for all patients. EDLOS was calculated for all patients as a function of time of transfer from the ED. Results: Preliminary findings show that, for the three community hospitals, only 11.7% - 19.6% of admitted patients were discharged from the in-patient units during the period between 6AM and 12PM, with a peak discharge time of 2PM in all three hospitals. A concurrent lag was observed in the time of transfer of patients from the ED, with peak transfer times occurring the late afternoon between 3PM and 9PM, and coinciding with a peak in patient volume in the ED. Patients transferred out of the ED earlier in the day (between 12AM 11:59AM) had between 1.4 hours to 8.0 hours lower mean EDLOS when compared to those patients transferred later in the day (between 12PM 11:59PM). Conclusion: Hospital-wide flow and operational issues have a significant impact on ED bed boarding, and potential efficiencies seem at the current time to be underutilized. Interventions aimed at optimizing flow must be implemented alongside those aimed at increasing capacity in order to improve bed boarding. ** These findings are best communicated in graphic form to better represent the dynamics of the flow in and out of the ED over a 24-hour period, and will be presented in graphic format if selected for the conference.
Introduction: Delays in transfer to an in-patient bed of admitted patients boarded in the ED has been identified as one of the chief drivers of ED overcrowding. Our study aims to replicate findings from a previous study in identifying patient characteristics associated with increased boarding time, and the impact of increased boarding time on in-patient length of stay (IPLOS). Methods: We conducted a retrospective single-centre observational study during the period between January 1, 2015 December 31, 2015 at a very high volume community hospital (~ 75,000 ED visits/year). All patients admitted from the ED to Medicine, Pediatrics, Surgery, and Critical Care were identified. The mean time to in-patient bed (TTB), as well as patient-specific and institutional factors that were associated with prolonged boarding times ( 12 hours) were identified. Mean IP LOS was calculated for those with prolonged boarding times and compared to those without prolonged boarding times. Results: There were 8,096 unique admissions during the study period. Patients admitted to the Medicine service exhibited significantly higher boarding times than those admitted to other services, with a mean boarding time of 17.4 hrs, as compared to 4.2 hrs, 5.7 hrs, and 4.0 hrs for those admitted to Surgery, Critical Care and Pediatrics respectively. Within Medicine patients, there was a statistically significant greater odds of prolonged boarding time for patients who were older, had a greater comorbidity burden, and required more specialized in-patient care (i.e. an isolation bed or telemetry bed). Medicine patients with prolonged boarding times also experienced 0.7 days longer IP LOS, even after correcting for age and comorbidity (mean adjusted IP LOS 10.6 days versus 11.3 days). Conclusion: Within our study period, older, sicker patients and those patients requiring more resource-intensive in-patient care have the longest ED boarding times. These prolonged ‘boarding’ times are associated with significantly increased IP LOS.
Recent results in the development of diode-driven high energy, high repetition rate, picosecond lasers, including the demonstration of a cryogenic Yb:YAG active mirror amplifier that produces 1.5 J pulses at 500 Hz repetition rate (0.75 kW average power) are reviewed. These pulses are compressed resulting in the generation of
duration, 1 J pulses with 0.5 kW average power. A full characterization of this high power cryogenic amplifier, including at-wavelength interferometry of the active region under
average power pump conditions, is presented. An initial demonstration of operation at 1 kW average power (1 J, 1 kHz) is reported.
This experimental study focuses on the effect of horizontal boundaries with pyramid-shaped roughness elements on the heat transfer in rotating Rayleigh–Bénard convection. It is shown that the Ekman pumping mechanism, which is responsible for the heat transfer enhancement under rotation in the case of smooth top and bottom surfaces, is unaffected by the roughness as long as the Ekman layer thickness
is significantly larger than the roughness height
. As the rotation rate increases, and thus
decreases, the roughness elements penetrate the radially inward flow in the interior of the Ekman boundary layer that feeds the columnar Ekman vortices. This perturbation generates additional thermal disturbances which are found to increase the heat transfer efficiency even further. However, when
, the Ekman boundary layer is strongly perturbed by the roughness elements and the Ekman pumping mechanism is suppressed. The results suggest that the Ekman pumping is re-established for
as the faces of the pyramidal roughness elements then act locally as a sloping boundary on which an Ekman layer can be formed.
A new model is proposed on how to account for the inertia of scatterers in radar-based turbulence intensity retrieval techniques. Rain drop inertial parameters are derived from fundamental physical laws, which are gravity, the buoyancy force, and the drag force. The inertial distance is introduced, which is a typical distance at which a particle obtains the same wind velocity as its surroundings throughout its trajectory. For the measurement of turbulence intensity, either the Doppler spectral width or the variance of Doppler mean velocities is used. The relative scales of the inertial distance and the radar resolution volume determine whether the variance of velocities is increased or decreased for the same turbulence intensity. A decrease can be attributed to the effect that inertial particles are less responsive to the variations of wind velocities. An increase can be attributed to inertial particles that have wind velocities corresponding to an average of wind velocities over their backward trajectories, which extend outside the radar resolution volume. Simulations are done for the calculation of measured radar velocity variance, given a 3-D homogeneous isotropic turbulence field, which provides valuable insight in the correct tuning of parameters for the new model.
Mather and colleagues postulate that norepinephrine promotes selective processing of emotionally salient information through local “hotspots” where norepinephrine release interacts with glutamatergic activity. However, findings in rodents and humans indicate that norepinephrine is ineffective in modulating mnemonic processes in the absence of a functional amygdala. We therefore argue that emphasis should shift toward modulatory effects of amygdala-driven changes at the network level.
Leafy vegetables are an essential component of a healthy diet; however, they have been associated with high-profile outbreaks causing severe illnesses. We reviewed leafy vegetable-associated outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention between 1973 and 2012. During the study period, 606 leafy vegetable-associated outbreaks, with 20 003 associated illnesses, 1030 hospitalizations, and 19 deaths were reported. On average, leafy vegetable-associated outbreaks were larger than those attributed to other food types. The pathogens that most often caused leafy vegetable-associated outbreaks were norovirus (55% of outbreaks with confirmed aetiology), Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) (18%), and Salmonella (11%). Most outbreaks were attributed to food prepared in a restaurant or catering facility (85%). An ill food worker was implicated as the source of contamination in 31% of outbreaks. Efforts by local, state, and federal agencies to control leafy vegetable contamination and outbreaks should span from the point of harvest to the point of preparation.
In their target article, Kalisch and colleagues advocate a paradigm shift in research on stress-related mental disorders away from vulnerability factors and toward determinants of resilience. We endorse this shift but argue that their focus on “appraisal style” as the ultimate path to resilience may be too narrow. We illustrate this point by examining recent literature on the role of corticosteroids in resilience.
We captured 3-dimensional accelerometry data from the wrists of 116 healthcare professionals as they performed hand hygiene (HH). We then used these data to train a k-nearest-neighbors classifier to recognize specific aspects of HH technique (ie, fingertip scrub) and measure the duration of HH events.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014;35(10):1298–1300
We conducted a quantitative and a qualitative study to assess the extent to which industrial and organizational (I–O) psychology has moved to business schools, understand the nature of this move, and offer a balanced discussion of positive and negative consequences of this phenomenon. In quantitative Study 1, we provide evidence that I–O psychologists affiliated with business schools currently constitute a majority of editorial board members and authors of articles published in Journal of Applied Psychology and Personnel Psychology but that I–O psychology, as a field, is growing. These results suggest that it is not the field of I–O psychology but some of the most active and influential I–O psychology researchers who are moving to business schools. In qualitative Study 2, we gathered perspectives from 144 SIOP Fellows and 27 SIOP presidents suggesting different views on Study 1's results ranging from very negative (i.e., “brain drain”) to very positive (i.e., “eye opener”) depending on the affiliation of the respondent. On the basis of these results, we offer 10 admittedly provocative predictions to stimulate follow-up research and serve as a catalyst for an important conversation, as well as the development of action plans, regarding the future of I–O psychology as a field.