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Growing evidence suggests that emotion socialization may be disrupted by maternal depression. However, little is known about emotion-related parenting by mothers with bipolar disorder or whether affective modeling in early childhood is linked to young adults’ recollections of emotion socialization practices. The current study investigates emotion socialization by mothers with histories of major depression, bipolar disorder, or no mood disorder. Affective modeling was coded from parent–child interactions in early childhood and maternal responses to negative emotions were recollected by young adult offspring (n = 131, 59.5% female, M age = 22.16, SD = 2.58). Multilevel models revealed that maternal bipolar disorder was associated with more neglecting, punishing, and magnifying responses to children's emotions, whereas maternal major depression was associated with more magnifying responses; links between maternal diagnosis and magnifying responses were robust to covariates. Young adult recollections of maternal responses to emotion were predicted by affective modeling in early childhood, providing preliminary validity evidence for the Emotions as a Child Scale. Findings provide novel evidence that major depression and bipolar disorder are associated with altered emotion socialization and that maternal affective modeling in early childhood prospectively predicts young adults’ recollections of emotion socialization in families with and without mood disorder.
Interdisciplinary public health solutions are vital for an effective coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) response and recovery. However, there is often a lack of awareness and understanding of the environmental health workforce connections and capabilities. In the United States, this is a foundational function of health departments and is the second largest public health workforce. The primary role is to protect the public from exposures to environmental hazards, disasters, and disease outbreaks. More specifically, this includes addressing risks relating to sanitation, drinking water, food safety, vector control, and mass gatherings. This profession is also recognized in the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness and Advancing Innovation Act of 2019. Despite this, the profession is often not considered an essential service. Rapid integration into COVID-19 activities can easily occur as most are government employees and experienced working in complex and stressful situations. This role, for example, could include working with leaders, businesses, workplaces, and churches to safely reopen, and inspections to inform, educate, and empower employers, employees, and the public on safe actions. There is now the legislative support, evidence and a window of opportunity to truly enable interdisciplinary public health solutions by mobilizing the environmental health workforce to support COVID-19 response, recovery, and resilience activities.
Dialysis patients may not have access to conventional renal replacement therapy (RRT) following disasters. We hypothesized that improvised renal replacement therapy (ImpRRT) would be comparable to continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in a porcine acute kidney injury model.
Following bilateral nephrectomies and 2 hours of caudal aortic occlusion, 12 pigs were randomized to 4 hours of ImpRRT or CRRT. In the ImpRRT group, blood was circulated through a dialysis filter using a rapid infuser to collect the ultrafiltrate. Improvised replacement fluid, made with stock solutions, was infused pre-pump. In the CRRT group, commercial replacement fluid was used. During RRT, animals received isotonic crystalloids and norepinephrine.
There were no differences in serum creatinine, calcium, magnesium, or phosphorus concentrations. While there was a difference between groups in serum potassium concentration over time (P < 0.001), significance was lost in pairwise comparison at specific time points. Replacement fluids or ultrafiltrate flows did not differ between groups. There were no differences in lactate concentration, isotonic crystalloid requirement, or norepinephrine doses. No difference was found in electrolyte concentrations between the commercial and improvised replacement solutions.
The ImpRRT system achieved similar performance to CRRT and may represent a potential option for temporary RRT following disasters.
In this paper we explore ancient DNA (aDNA) as a powerful new technique for archaeologists. We argue that for aDNA to reach its full potential we need to carefully consider its theoretical underpinnings. We suggest that at present much aDNA research rests upon two problematic theoretical assumptions: first, that nature and culture exist in binary opposition and that DNA is a part of nature; second, that cultures form distinct and bounded identities. The nature–culture binary, which underpins much aDNA research, not only is a misunderstanding of our world but also results in placing archaeology and material culture in a secondary and subservient position to science and aDNA. Viewing cultures as distinct and bounded creates exclusionary, simplistic and singular identities for past populations. This stands in contrast to the work of social scientists, which has revealed identity to be complex, multiple, changing and contradictory. We offer a new way forward drawing upon assemblage thinking and post-humanism. This allows us to consider the messy and complex nature of our world and of human identities, and demands that we expect equally messy and complex results to emerge when we bring aDNA into conversation with other forms of archaeological evidence.
Violence and aggression are a major concern in acute inpatient psychiatric wards. Hard outcome data on the impact of service change are scarce. This poster presents the outcomes of service changes designed to improve the acute ward environment and patient experience.
Aims and objectives
To implement changes to the delivery of acute inpatient psychiatric services and to measure the outcome of these changes in objective verifiable form.
Significant changes were introduced to an acute psychiatric inpatient service. These included introducing a dedicated inpatient psychiatrist “hospitalist”, replacing weekly ward rounds with daily multidisciplinary care and discharge planning meetings and promoting increased roles for nursing staff in decision-making and patient contact. Outcomes measured included routinely recorded incidents of violence with and without injury, use of restraint for medication and use of constant nursing observation. The control group was a similar service in the same hospital subject to the same general policies and admitting patients demographically comparable, but that did not at the time undergo the interventions implemented in the trial service. All data was recorded by staff who were unaware of this study or even that any analysis of the data would occur.
Results and conclusions
Violent incidents in the intervention ward dropped by 34% per patient (p=< 0.02) whilst increasing by 3% in the control ward; restraints decreased by 28% (p=ns) whilst increasing by 12% in the control ward; with an overall reduction in constant observation. The intervention was highly effective in reducing violent incidents.
We have examined gyral folding in a total of more than 500 subjects with first episode schizophrenia, subjects at high risk who do and do not become ill, people with learning disabilities (LD) with and without schizophrenia, and LD with schizotypal or autistic features, as well as appropriate healthy controls.
The gyrification index (GI), the ratio of the inner and outer cortical surface contours, was hand-traced bilaterally on every second 1.88-mm image slice throughout the brain in about 100 scans. We then developed an Automated-GI (A-GI) approach to determine cortical folding in pre-frontal lobes, and have applied this to the other scans.
Gyrification index values were significantly increased in the right temporal lobe of the schizophrenic patients. Right prefrontal lobe GI values were significantly increased in high risk individuals who subsequently developed schizophrenia (especially in BA 9 and 10). A-GI reduces the analysis time, improves repeatability, has low susceptibility to scanner noise and variability. Using A-GI we have replicated hand-traced results and also found a similar pattern of increased ‘gyrification’ in LD with schizophrenia or schizotypy but not LD alone or with autistic features.
Differences in fronto-temporal GI might reflect trait disconnectivity predictive of schizophrenia across a range of IQ levels. GI is however poorly understood and influenced by age, sex and volume measures. Further examination of sulco-gyral patterns is required to clarify this. A-GI could be usefully applied to MRI data sets of the brain in health and disease to address these issues.
Prospective studies of young individuals at high genetic risk of schizophrenia allow investigation of whether any neurodevelopmental abnormalities usefully predict the development of the disorder.
163 high risk subjects with an initial mean age of 21 years were recruited as they had at least two relatives with schizophrenia. Together with 36 control subjects, they were examined at baseline (with developmental, clinical, neuropsychological and structural/functional MRI measures) and at 18 month intervals thereafter. Comparisons were made between those who developed schizophrenia, well controls, a well high risk group and those of the high risk sample with partial or isolated psychotic symptoms.
21 high risk subjects developed schizophrenia within an average time of two and a half years. A much larger number have shown isolated or partial psychotic symptoms and the whole high risk sample differed from controls on several variables. Those who developed schizophrenia differed from those with psychotic symptoms who did not on several measures including: interview and self-report measures of schizotypy, the AVLT1-5, and fMRI-BOLD responses on three separate tasks.
Schizophrenia is a disorder which has its origins very early in life, but develops over years. Its mode of inheritance affects many more individuals than will develop the illness and partial impairment can be found in them. Highly significant predictors of the development of schizophrenia are detectable years before onset.
The rate-corrected Q-T interval (QTc) prolongation is a risk factor for sudden death and may be produced by antipsychotic drugs.
To determined the frequency and psychopharmacological correlates of baseline prolongation of QTc in a large pediatric cohort.
The QTc was measured on the electrocardiograms obtained on 811 children and adolescents (404 males and 407 females, mean age: 15.5 ± 2.4 years) consecutively evaluated in the admissions unit of a psychiatric hospital. Each patient with QTc > 440 msec was age- and gender-matched with 5 patients with QTc< 420 msec. The psychiatric diagnoses and psychotropic treatment of patients with prolonged QTc and control subjects were compared in univariate and logistic analyses.
QTc duration was > 440 msec (mean 454 ± 10 msec, range 442–481 msec) in 16 patients (1.97%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17%–3.25%). The 80 control subjects had a mean QTc of 391 ± 21 msec. The groups were similar with regard to the proportion of patients on antipsychotics (43.8% vs. 40.8%, p = 0.78) and chlorpromazine equivalents (165.5 ± 109.7 mg vs. 167.6 ± 217.8 mg, p = 0.98). Logistic regression identified schizophrenia as the only psychiatric predictor of baseline QTc prolongation (odds-ratio: 6.17, 95% CI: 1.24–30.69, p = 0.042).
In a large cohort of children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders, baseline QTc prolongation was infrequent and, at most, of moderate severity. The findings argue against performing electrocardiograms prior to the initiation of antipsychotics in all patients from this age group.
Pregnancy and new motherhood are challenging times for families. Promoting positive maternal mental health improves overall health and can prevent mental health problems, which could be detrimental to the woman, her baby, and her family.
Since maternal mental well-being is fundamental to the health of her entire family, it is essential that we promote the development and maintenance of positive mental health in perinatal women. Positive mental health is believed to be the optimal way to minimize the risk of mental illness. It is more than the mere absence of mental illness; it also encompasses strategies that will maximize a woman's mental health throughout the perinatal period. Positive mental health also promotes recovery from mental health problems and should be part of every treatment plan. Therefore, it is critical that we help women learn how to deal with the changes associated with pregnancy and new motherhood in ways that promote mental wellbeing and allow them to adapt and enjoy this important period of their life.
This presentation explores positive mental health, resilience, optimism, wellbeing, and empowerment in pregnant and postpartum woman. In addition, it provides strategies to promote maternal mental health, specifically, incorporating protective assets for mothers and families.
Mental health promotion for pregnant and postpartum women will improve health outcomes for individual women and their families, and will contribute to a more optimistic and thriving society.
Aberrant activity of the subcallosal cingulate (SCC) is a common theme across pharmacologic treatment efficacy prediction studies. The functioning of the SCC in psychotherapeutic interventions is relatively understudied, as are functional differences among SCC subdivisions. We conducted functional connectivity analyses (rsFC) on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, collected before and after a course of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), using seeds from three SCC subdivisions.
Resting-state data were collected from unmedicated patients with current MDD (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 > 16) before and after 14-sessions of CBT monotherapy. Treatment outcome was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Rostral anterior cingulate (rACC), anterior subcallosal cingulate (aSCC), and Brodmann’s area 25 (BA25) masks were used as seeds in connectivity analyses that assessed baseline rsFC and symptom severity, changes in connectivity related to symptom improvement after CBT, and prediction of treatment outcomes using whole-brain baseline connectivity.
Pretreatment BDI negatively correlated with pretreatment rACC ~ dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and aSCC ~ lateral prefrontal cortex rsFC. In a region-of-interest longitudinal analysis, rsFC between these regions increased post-treatment (p < 0.05FDR). In whole-brain analyses, BA25 ~ paracentral lobule and rACC ~ paracentral lobule connectivities decreased post-treatment. Whole-brain baseline rsFC with SCC did not predict clinical improvement.
rsFC features of rACC and aSCC, but not BA25, correlated inversely with baseline depression severity, and increased following CBT. Subdivisions of SCC involved in top-down emotion regulation may be more involved in cognitive interventions, while BA25 may be more informative for interventions targeting bottom-up processing. Results emphasize the importance of subdividing the SCC in connectivity analyses.
The updated common rule, for human subjects research, requires that consents “begin with a ‘concise and focused’ presentation of the key information that will most likely help someone make a decision about whether to participate in a study” (Menikoff, Kaneshiro, Pritchard. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2017; 376(7): 613–615.). We utilized a community-engaged technology development approach to inform feature options within the REDCap software platform centered around collection and storage of electronic consent (eConsent) to address issues of transparency, clinical trial efficiency, and regulatory compliance for informed consent (Harris, et al. Journal of Biomedical Informatics 2009; 42(2): 377–381.). eConsent may also improve recruitment and retention in clinical research studies by addressing: (1) barriers for accessing rural populations by facilitating remote consent and (2) cultural and literacy barriers by including optional explanatory material (e.g., defining terms by hovering over them with the cursor) or the choice of displaying different videos/images based on participant’s race, ethnicity, or educational level (Phillippi, et al. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing. 2018; 47(4): 529–534.).
We developed and pilot tested our eConsent framework to provide a personalized consent experience whereby users are guided through a consent document that utilizes avatars, contextual glossary information supplements, and videos, to facilitate communication of information.
The eConsent framework includes a portfolio of eight features, reviewed by community stakeholders, and tested at two academic medical centers.
Early adoption and utilization of this eConsent framework have demonstrated acceptability. Next steps will emphasize testing efficacy of features to improve participant engagement with the consent process.
The number of psychiatrists continues to grow in Canada. Patient psychiatry utilization statistics, including reasons for termination of such services, are important factors that have the potential to impact future Canadian and international psychiatry service policies and practices. In addition, understanding the reasons for psychiatry service termination is necessary to improve service quality and effectiveness.
This study focused on utilization trends, perceived effectiveness of psychiatry services, and reasons for termination of psychiatry services in Canada.
Prevalence of psychiatry service use, perceived effectiveness, and reasons for termination of such services were investigated in a Canadian sample (n = 25,113). Prevalence rates were investigated by geography, sex, and age. Data were self-reported and collected through a national Canadian phone survey focused on mental and physical health.
Results highlight that a small percentage of participants reported utilizing psychiatry services. The majority of participants using such services perceived them as useful. Across geographical regions, reasons for discontinuing services were most often related to completing treatment, feeling better, or not seeing the treatment as helpful.
This study explored psychiatry utilization trends, perceived psychiatry effectiveness, and reasons for patient termination of such services. Results are explored through a geographical region breakdown, sex differences, and age stratification. Implications for policy, practice, and training are discussed from a Canadian and international perspective.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Between 2001 and 2017, the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh conducted training and research in Belize built around an annual two-week field course, part of the Edinburgh M.Sc. programme in Biodiversity and Taxonomy of Plants, focused on tropical plant identification, botanical-collecting and tropical fieldwork skills. This long-term collaboration in one country has led to additional benefits, most notably capacity building, acquisition of new country records, completion of M.Sc. thesis projects and publication of the findings in journal articles, and continued cooperation. Detailed summaries are provided for the specimens collected by students during the field course or return visits to Belize for M.Sc. thesis projects. Additionally, 15 species not recorded in the national checklist for Belize are reported. The information in this paper highlights the benefits of collaborations between institutions and countries for periods greater than the typical funding cycles of three to five years.
A classic example of microbiome function is its role in nutrient assimilation in both plants and animals, but other less obvious roles are becoming more apparent, particularly in terms of driving infectious and non-infectious disease outcomes and influencing host behaviour. However, numerous biotic and abiotic factors influence the composition of these communities, and host microbiomes can be susceptible to environmental change. How microbial communities will be altered by, and mitigate, the rapid environmental change we can expect in the next few decades remain to be seen. That said, given the enormous range of functional diversity conferred by microbes, there is currently something of a revolution in microbial bioengineering and biotechnology in order to address real-world problems including human and wildlife disease and crop and biofuel production. All of these concepts are explored in further detail throughout the book.
Cognitive impairment associated with lifetime major depressive disorder (MDD) is well-supported by meta-analytic studies, but population-based estimates remain scarce. Previous UK Biobank studies have only shown limited evidence of cognitive differences related to probable MDD. Using updated cognitive and clinical assessments in UK Biobank, this study investigated population-level differences in cognitive functioning associated with lifetime MDD.
Associations between lifetime MDD and cognition (performance on six tasks and general cognitive functioning [g-factor]) were investigated in UK Biobank (N-range 7,457–14,836, age 45–81 years, 52% female), adjusting for demographics, education, and lifestyle. Lifetime MDD classifications were based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Within the lifetime MDD group, we additionally investigated relationships between cognition and (a) recurrence, (b) current symptoms, (c) severity of psychosocial impairment (while symptomatic), and (d) concurrent psychotropic medication use.
Lifetime MDD was robustly associated with a lower g-factor (β = −0.10, PFDR = 4.7 × 10−5), with impairments in attention, processing speed, and executive functioning (β ≥ 0.06). Clinical characteristics revealed differential profiles of cognitive impairment among case individuals; those who reported severe psychosocial impairment and use of psychotropic medication performed worse on cognitive tests. Severe psychosocial impairment and reasoning showed the strongest association (β = −0.18, PFDR = 7.5 × 10−5).
Findings describe small but robust associations between lifetime MDD and lower cognitive performance within a population-based sample. Overall effects were of modest effect size, suggesting limited clinical relevance. However, deficits within specific cognitive domains were more pronounced in relation to clinical characteristics, particularly severe psychosocial impairment.
Shared patient–clinician decision-making is central to choosing between medical treatments. Decision support tools can have an important role to play in these decisions. We developed a decision support tool for deciding between nonsurgical treatment and surgical total knee replacement for patients with severe knee osteoarthritis. The tool aims to provide likely outcomes of alternative treatments based on predictive models using patient-specific characteristics. To make those models relevant to patients with knee osteoarthritis and their clinicians, we involved patients, family members, patient advocates, clinicians, and researchers as stakeholders in creating the models.
Stakeholders were recruited through local arthritis research, advocacy, and clinical organizations. After being provided with brief methodological education sessions, stakeholder views were solicited through quarterly patient or clinician stakeholder panel meetings and incorporated into all aspects of the project.
Participating in each aspect of the research from determining the outcomes of interest to providing input on the design of the user interface displaying outcome predications, 86% (12/14) of stakeholders remained engaged throughout the project. Stakeholder engagement ensured that the prediction models that form the basis of the Knee Osteoarthritis Mathematical Equipoise Tool and its user interface were relevant for patient–clinician shared decision-making.
Methodological research has the opportunity to benefit from stakeholder engagement by ensuring that the perspectives of those most impacted by the results are involved in study design and conduct. While additional planning and investments in maintaining stakeholder knowledge and trust may be needed, they are offset by the valuable insights gained.