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Effective assessment and remediation of hazardous waste sites dictates that analytical methodologies be developed which assist in the evaluation of site contamination and simultaneously make efficient use of sampling time and resources (1). Optimally, a technique would provide on-site personnel with immediate and accurate information concerning the identity and concentration of inorganic soil contaminants (2).
Unfavourable dietary habits, such as skipping breakfast, are common among ethnic minority children and may contribute to inequalities in cardiometabolic disease. We conducted a longitudinal follow-up of a subsample of the UK multi-ethnic Determinants of Adolescent Social well-being and Health cohort, which represents the main UK ethnic groups and is now aged 21–23 years. We aimed to describe longitudinal patterns of dietary intake and investigate their impact on cardiometabolic risk in young adulthood. Participants completed a dietary behaviour questionnaire and a 24 h dietary intake recall; anthropometry, blood pressure, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol and HbA1c were measured. The cohort consisted of 107 White British, 102 Black Caribbean, 132 Black African, 98 Indian, 111 Bangladeshi/Pakistani and 115 other/mixed ethnicity. Unhealthful dietary behaviours such as skipping breakfast and low intake of fruits and vegetables were common (56, 57 and 63 %, respectively). Rates of skipping breakfast and low fruit and vegetable consumption were highest among Black African and Black Caribbean participants. BMI and cholesterol levels at 21–23 years were higher among those who regularly skipped breakfast at 11–13 years (BMI 1·41 (95 % CI 0·57, 2·26), P=0·001; cholesterol 0·15 (95 % CI –0·01, 0·31), P=0·063) and at 21–23 years (BMI 1·05 (95 % CI 0·22, 1·89), P=0·014; cholesterol 0·22 (95 % CI 0·06, 0·37), P=0·007). Childhood breakfast skipping is more common in certain ethnic groups and is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in young adulthood. Our findings highlight the importance of targeting interventions to improve dietary behaviours such as breakfast consumption at specific population groups.
Age- and sex-based BMI cut-offs are used to define overweight and obesity, but the relationship between BMI and body composition has not been very well studied in children or compared between children of different ethnic groups. Body size and composition in childhood are also influenced by size at birth. Our aim was to compare body size and composition at 2 years in children with different ethnicity and size at birth. We prospectively followed a multi-ethnic cohort of 300 children born with risk factors for neonatal hypoglycaemia (infants of diabetics, large or small at birth or late preterm) to 2 years corrected age. Complete data on weight, height and head circumference and body composition using bioelectrical impedance 24±1 months corrected age were available in 209 children. At birth, compared with European children, Chinese, Indian and other ethnicity children were lighter, and Indian children had smaller head circumferences, but birth lengths were similar in all ethnic groups. At 2 years, Pacific children were heavier and had higher BMI z scores, and Indian children had smaller head circumferences and lower BMI z scores than those from other ethnic groups. However, fat mass and fat-free mass indices were similar in all groups. At median BMI, fat mass:fat-free mass ratio was 23 % lower in Pacific than in Indian children (0·22 v. 0·27, P=0·03). BMI is not a good indicator of adiposity in this multi-ethnic cohort of 2-year-old New Zealand children.
Urbanisation and climate change are altering the pattern of California serogroup viruses in North America. As La Crosse virus (LACV) is the most pathogenic of the California serogroup, it is important to identify changes in distribution, transmission and pathogenesis. A scoping review (ScR) was prioritised to summarise the global evidence on LACV. A comprehensive search strategy was used, identified references were screened for relevance and relevant articles were characterised. Each step was conducted by two independent reviewers using pre-tested forms. Analysis identified areas of research saturation and gaps. The ScR included 481 research articles that were mostly journal articles (78.2%) conducted in North America (90.9%) from 1969 to 2016. Most evidence focused on epidemiology (44.9%), virus characteristics (25.8%), transmission conditions (18.7%) and pathogenesis of LACV in hosts (18.3%). Fewer studies evaluated the accuracy of diagnostic tests (8.7%), the efficacy of treatments (3.5%), prevention and control strategies (3.1%), the economic burden of infection (0.6%) and social impact (0.2%) of LACV. None of the literature predicted the impact of climate change on LACV, nor were any cases reported in Canada. These findings are intended to guide research to close knowledge gaps and inform evidence-based decisions surrounding activities for the prevention and control of LACV.
Childhood obesity is a common concern across global cities and threatens sustainable urban development. Initiatives to improve nutrition and encourage physical exercise are promising but are yet to exert significant influence on prevention. Childhood obesity in London is associated with distinct ethnic and socio-economic patterns. Ethnic inequalities in health-related behaviour endure, underpinned by inequalities in employment, housing, access to welfare services, and discrimination. Addressing these growing concerns requires a clearer understanding of the socio-cultural, environmental and economic contexts of urban living that promote obesity. We explore opportunities for prevention using asset based-approaches to nutritional health and well-being, with a particular focus on adolescents from diverse ethnic backgrounds living in London. We focus on the important role that community engagement and multi-sectoral partnership play in improving the nutritional outcomes of London's children. London's children and adolescents grow up in the rich cultural mix of a global city where local streets are characterised by diversity in ethnicities, languages, religions, foods, and customs, creating complex and fluid identities. Growing up with such everyday diversity we argue can enhance the quality of life for London's children and strengthen their social capital. The Determinants of young Adult Social well-being and Health longitudinal study of about 6500 of London's young people demonstrated the positive impact of cultural diversity. Born to parents from over a hundred countries and exposed to multi-lingual households and religious practices, they demonstrated strong psychological resilience and sense of pride from cultural straddling, despite material disadvantage and discrimination. Supporting the potential contribution of such socio-cultural assets is in keeping with the values of social justice and equitable and sustainable development. Our work signals the importance of community engagement and multisectoral partnerships, involving, for example, schools and faith-based organisations, to improve the nutrition of London's children.
Fifty herds with the highest annual average mastitis cell counts in England and Wales were compared with 50 herds with the lowest cell counts. The milk-quality test results of these herds for milk fat, protein and lactose contents, and total bacterial count (TBC), over the 6 winter months, October 1982 to March 1983, were examined.
The herds with high cell counts had an arithmetic mean of 2.50 × 109 cells/1 and the herds with the low cell counts had 0.117 × 109 cells/1. The milk-quality test results were: milk fat, 39.8 and 40.0 g/kg; protein, 33.2 and31.5 g/kg; lactose, 42.8 and 46.9 g/kg; and TBC, 139 and 12.0 × 106/1 for the herds with the high and low cell counts, respectively. There were highly significant differences in protein and lactose contents and in TBC. When the average monthly results were compared, these differences were statistically significant in all months. On average, lactose was 9% lower and protein 5% higher in the herds with the high cell counts when compared with the herds with the low cell counts.
Underlying mechanisms responsible for the cholesterol-lowering effect of β-glucan have been proposed, yet have not been fully demonstrated. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether the consumption of barley β-glucan lowers cholesterol by affecting the cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis or bile acid synthesis. In addition, this study was aimed to assess whether the underlying mechanisms are related to cholesterol 7α hydroxylase (CYP7A1) SNP rs3808607 as proposed by us earlier. In a controlled, randomised, cross-over study, participants with mild hypercholesterolaemia (n 30) were randomly assigned to receive breakfast containing 3 g high-molecular weight (HMW), 5 g low-molecular weight (LMW), 3 g LMW barley β-glucan or a control diet, each for 5 weeks. Cholesterol absorption was determined by assessing the enrichment of circulating 13C-cholesterol over 96 h following oral administration; fractional rate of synthesis for cholesterol was assessed by measuring the incorporation rate of 2H derived from deuterium oxide within the body water pool into the erythrocyte cholesterol pool over 24 h; bile acid synthesis was determined by measuring serum 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one concentrations. Consumption of 3 g HMW β-glucan decreased total cholesterol (TC) levels (P=0·029), but did not affect cholesterol absorption (P=0·25) or cholesterol synthesis (P=0·14). Increased bile acid synthesis after consumption of 3 g HMW β-glucan was observed in all participants (P=0·049), and more pronounced in individuals carrying homozygous G of rs3808607 (P=0·033). In addition, a linear relationship between log (viscosity) of β-glucan and serum 7α-HC concentration was observed in homozygous G allele carriers. Results indicate that increased bile acid synthesis rather than inhibition of cholesterol absorption or synthesis may be responsible for the cholesterol-lowering effect of barley β-glucan. The pronounced TC reduction in G allele carriers of rs3808607 observed in the previous study may be due to enhanced bile acid synthesis in response to high-viscosity β-glucan consumption in those individuals.
The strong self-damped Lyman α absorption systems present in the spectra of high redshift QSOs represent a unique population of absorber which has recently been associated with the precursors of current disk galaxies. In a low resolution survey for what we have come to call “Lyman α disk systems” performed at Lick Observatory (Wolfe, et al. 1986, Ap. J. Suppl. 61, 249) approximately 18 systems with confirmed damped Lyman α profiles and rest frame equivalent widths greater than 5 Å were detected in a sample of 68 high redshift QSOs (Smith, Cohen and Bradley 1986, Ap. J. 310, 583). Subsequent higher resolution study has shown these systems to have the following properties (Turnshek, et al. 1988, Ap. J., in press):
2.Low-mixed ionization state. Typically the low ionization states dominate the high ionization states (e.g. CII ≫ CIV). Some enrichment has occurred, −2≲[X/H]⊙ ≲0.
3.Gas density, n ≲ 1 cm−3.
4.The gas shows two components, a quiescent (disk) component, σν ≲ 10 km s−1, and a turbulent (halo) component, σν ≲ 20 km s−1. Some systems show only the low velocity dispersion component.
5.At least one system intervening toward a radio QSO (Pks 0458-020) shows 21-cm absorption. The system shows multiple cloud structure with σν ≈ 6 km s−1, Ts ≈ 100 K, and structure extended over several kpc on the sky.
6.There is evidence that these systems may be self gravitating with scale height of the order of 300 pc.
7.These systems represent a unique population of absorber (distinct from the ‘Lyman a forest’ and heavy element systems) covering approximately 20% of the sky to z ≈ 3 and accounting for all of the baryonic matter at that redshift.
Reports of air showers with E > 1015 eV from Cygnus X-3, LMC X-4, Vela X-1 and Hercules X-1 have been interpreted as requiring production of neutral secondaries by cosmic rays accelerated by the compact partner in these systems. If neutral pions are the source of photons that produce the observed air showers, then charged pions must also be produced, and they will give rise to neutrinos. We consider limits that may be placed on binary systems like Cygnus X-3 in which a neutron star is a strong source of ultra-high energy (UHE) particles that produce photons, neutrinos and other secondary particles in the companion star through nuclear interactions. The highest energy neutrinos (> 1 TeV), which have the largest interaction cross sections, are absorbed deep in the companion. From a detailed numerical calculation of the hadronic cascade induced in the atmosphere of the companion star, we estimate the neutrino production spectrum from an isotropic flux of monoenergetic 1017 eV protons and we estimate the resulting neutrino absorption in the stellar core. In the case of Cyg X-3 and LMC X-4, the cosmic-ray luminosities required to produce the observed gamma rays would result in energy deposition from neutrino absorption exceeding the intrinsic stellar luminosity of the companion. Over a timescale of 104−105 yr, the star would absorb its own binding energy and be disrupted. On shorter timescales, the energy deposition will cause significant expansion of the star, perhaps leading to quenching of high-energy signals from the source. From these results, we conclude that systems requiring intense UHE proton fluxes are either very young or the companion star is not the site of observed gamma-ray production. Alternatively, if the gamma-ray source is highly variable, the proton flux requirements would be lower, providing some relaxation of the above constraints.
[See Gaisser et al. 1986, Ap. J. (Oct. 15), in press].
Conjugated polymers have been proposed as promising materials for scaffolds in tissue engineering applications. However, the restricted processability and biodegradability of conjugated polymers limit their use for biomedical applications. Here we synthesized a block-co-polymer of aniline tetramer and PCL (AT–PCL), and processed it into fibrous non-woven scaffolds by electrospinning. We showed that fibronectin (Fn) adhesion was dependent on the AT–PCL oxidative state, with a reduced Fn unfolding length on doped membranes. Furthermore, we demonstrated the cytocompatibility and potential of these membranes to support the growth and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells over 21 days.
This paper presents the thermospheric winds and temperature properties measured with a Fabry-Pérot interferometer (FPI) over Oukaimeden observatory (31.2°N, 7.8°W, 22.8°N magnetic) in Morocco. After Three years of successful functioning from 2014 to 2017, we can address the seasonal behavior of the temperature and the winds (vertical, zonal and meridional). The dependence of the thermospheric winds and temperature on the solar cycle is also presented. The day-to-day variations of the quiet time wind pattern exhibits the importance of other type of waves superposed to the main diurnal tides. The storm time wind and temperature exhibits also a variety of ways to react to the storm. However, there is seasonal effect to the storm that will be illustrated in this paper. The signature of the MTM phenomenon is also present in the winds and temperature in geomagnetically quiet and disturbed nights. The occurrence of this phenomenon over the studied area is also addressed.
The perinatal environment has a major influence on long-term health and disease risk. Preterm birth alters early-life environment and is associated with altered metabolic function in adulthood. Whether preterm birth per se or the early nutritional interventions used to support growth in preterm infants underpins this association is unknown. Lambs born preterm, following dexamethasone induction of labour, or spontaneously at term were randomised to receive nutrient supplementation, analogous to the milk fortifier used clinically or water as a control for the first 2 weeks after birth. Thereafter, nutrition was not different between groups. Growth was monitored, and the glucose–insulin axis function was assessed in juvenile (4 months) and adult life (14 months). Early nutrition influenced adult metabolic function and body composition to a greater extent than preterm birth. In supplemented females, arginine-stimulated insulin secretion was increased in preterm but reduced in term-born juveniles compared with controls (repeated-measures ANOVA P<0·01). In supplemented preterm males, adult weight, ponderal index (PI) and fasting insulin concentrations were elevated compared with preterm controls (weight, 75 (sem 3) v. 69 (sem 2) kg; PI, 48·0 (sem 2·1) v. 43·7 (sem 1·7) kg/m3; fasting insulin, 0·19 (sem 0·02) v. 0·10 (sem 0·02) ng/ml). Conversely, supplemented term-born males had reduced adult weight, PI and fasting insulin concentrations compared with term-born controls (weight, 64 (sem 2) v. 70 (sem 2) kg; PI, 44·4 (sem 1·8) v. 48·2 (sem 1·7) kg/m3; fasting insulin, 0·09 (sem 0·02) v. 0·14 (sem 0·02) ng/ml; all group×supplement interactions P<0·05). Adult metabolic health may reflect both gestational age at birth and early nutrition. Human studies are urgently needed to investigate the adult sex-specific health implications of neonatal nutritional strategies.
We give an update of our ongoing survey for intracluster light (ICL), in a sample of distant Abell clusters. We find that the amount of intracluster starlight is comparable to that seen in nearby clusters, and that tidal debris appear to be common.
Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIGs) are locally more numerous than normal galaxies, AGN, and QSOs above L ˜ 1011L⊙ and may be the evolutionary precursors of classical radio-quiet quasars. VLBI observations of a complete sample show that high-Tb radio cores are common, perhaps universal among LIGs. VLBI imaging shows that these radio cores may be produced by intense starbursts which generate luminous radio supernovae, as in the case of Arp 220 (Smith et al. 1998), or by a classical AGN core, as in the case of Mrk 231, which we interpret as a newly formed QSO emerging from a starburst. Compact OH 1667MHz maser emission appears to be common in LIGs and may be related to AGN activity. These results lend further support to the scenario suggested by Sanders et al (1988) in which mergers of gas-rich galaxies lead first to luminous starbursts which evolve into radio-quiet quasars.
Since our unexpected discovery of 12 compact radio sources in one of the nuclei of Arp220 we have been monitoring the structure using global VLBI and the VLBA. With several epochs of data we can now demonstrate that the fluxes of the radio sources are, in general, decreasing sytematically but not smoothly. The sources also have steep spectra. Both facts support our earlier supposition that these are highly luminous radio supernovae. We initially predicted a radio supernova rate of approximately 2yr−1 Our most recent observations indicate that the occurrence rate of luminous RSN is several times lower than predicted, thus our model of the Arp220 starburst must be revised.