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Gaining a deeper understanding into the underlying mechanisms associated with intestinal function and immunity during the weaning transition is critical to help shed new light into applied nutrition approaches to improve piglet performance and health during this critical life-stage transition. The transient anorexia triggered at weaning leads to compromised intestinal barrier function and a localized inflammatory response. Considering barrier function, specific nutrient fractions appear to have a significant impact on the development and function of the immune and microbial systems around weaning. Understanding the specific impact of nutrients in the small intestine and hindgut is important for helping to bring more focus and consistency to nutritional approaches to support health and immunity during the weaning transition period. The challenge continues to be how to translate these modes of action into practical and scalable approaches for swine nutrition. We will focus specifically on practical nutritional approaches to influence intestinal immunity through lipid, protein and antioxidant nutrition.
Early life stress (ELS) is a risk factor for the development of depression in adolescence; the mediating neurobiological mechanisms, however, are unknown. In this study, we examined in early pubertal youth the associations among ELS, cortisol stress responsivity, and white matter microstructure of the uncinate fasciculus and the fornix, two key frontolimbic tracts; we also tested whether and how these variables predicted depressive symptoms in later puberty. A total of 208 participants (117 females; M age = 11.37 years; M Tanner stage = 2.03) provided data across two or more assessment modalities: ELS; salivary cortisol levels during a psychosocial stress task; diffusion magnetic resonance imaging; and depressive symptoms. In early puberty there were significant associations between higher ELS and decreased cortisol production, and between decreased cortisol production and increased fractional anisotropy in the uncinate fasciculus. Further, increased fractional anisotropy in the uncinate fasciculus predicted higher depressive symptoms in later puberty, above and beyond earlier symptoms. In post hoc analyses, we found that sex moderated several additional associations. We discuss these findings within a broader conceptual model linking ELS, emotion dysregulation, and depression across the transition through puberty, and contend that brain circuits implicated in the control of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis function should be a focus of continued research.
In (8, § 3.2) Steinberg proved the following result.
THEOREM. Let K be a finite field, G′ a simple Chevalley group (“normal type1’) over K. Then every automorphism of G’ is the composite of inner, graph, field, and diagonal automorphisms.
For the meaning of these notions, see (8). Our aim in this note is to indicate how the Theorem may be extended to arbitrary infinite fields K, provided we replace G′ by the group denoted G in (5) and ĝ in (8). This amounts to proving the Theorem for automorphisms of G′ which are induced by automorphisms of G; when K is finite, Steinberg's results show that all automorphisms of G′ arise in this way. As Steinberg points out, the sole use made of the finiteness of K in his argument is in the proof of the following statement: Let U be the subgroup of G′ corresponding to the set of positive roots, and let σ be any automorphism of G′; then Uσ is conjugate to U in G′.
Foundations of the Global Value Chain Framework
Gary Gereffi, Professor of Sociology and Director of the Global Value Chains Center at Duke University, Durham, USA.,
John Humphrey, Honorary Professor at the Department of Business and Management at Sussex University.,
Timothy J. Sturgeon, Senior Researcher at the Industrial Performance Center at Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The world economy has changed in significant ways during the past several decades, especially in the areas of international trade and industrial organization. Two of the most important new features of the contemporary economy are the globalization of production and trade, which have fueled the growth of industrial capabilities in a wide range of developing countries, and the vertical disintegration of transnational corporations, which are redefining their core competencies to focus on innovation and product strategy, marketing, and the highest value-added segments of manufacturing and services, while reducing their direct ownership over ‘non-core’ functions such as generic services and volume production. Together, these two shifts have laid the groundwork for a variety of network forms of governance situated between arm's length markets, on the one hand, and large vertically integrated corporations, on the other. The purpose of this chapter is to generate a theoretical framework for better understanding the shifting governance structures in sectors producing for global markets, structures we refer to as ‘global value chains’. Our intent is to bring some order to the variety of network forms that have been observed in the field.
The evolution of global-scale industrial organization affects not only the fortunes of firms and the structure of industries, but also how and why countries advance—or fail to advance—in the global economy. Global value chain research and policy work examine the different ways in which global production and distribution systems are integrated, and the possibilities for firms in developing countries to enhance their position in global markets. We hope that the theory of global value chain governance that we develop here will be useful for the crafting of effective policy tools related to industrial upgrading, economic development, employment creation, and poverty alleviation.
Fragmentation, Coordination, and Networks in the Global Economy
For us, the starting point for understanding the changing nature of international trade and industrial organization is contained in the notion of a value-added chain, as developed by international business scholars who have focused on the strategies of both firms and countries in the global economy. In its most basic form, a value-added chain is ‘the process by which technology is combined with material and labor inputs, and then processed inputs are assembled, marketed, and distributed.
Compensatory gain describes an accelerated growth seen in animals following a period of nutrient restriction. Methionine (Met) is the second limiting amino acid in typical swine diets and is essential for muscle growth. This study was conducted to determine (1) if a Met-deficient diet can cause growth retardation in growing pigs, (2) if returning to a normal feeding can yield compensatory gain in the pigs previously fed the Met-deficient diet, and (3) if this Met-deficiency followed by the normal feeding program affects carcass characteristics. Twenty individually-penned crossbred young barrows were randomly allotted to two dietary treatments (n = 10). One Met-deficient (D1) and one Met-adequate (D2) diets were formulated based on corn and soybean meal and fed to respective pigs for 31 days. After that, all pigs were fed the same commercial grower-finisher diet until market weight (around 125 kg), then slaughtered, and carcass characteristics measured. The D1 and D2 pigs began with similar body weights (23.5 vs. 23.6 kg; P = 0.935), but after 31-days on the dietary treatments, D1 pigs were lighter than D2 pigs (51.6 vs. 55.0 kg; P = 0.102). After feeding the normal diet for 55 days, D1 and D2 pigs had similar body weights (122.7 vs. 122.6 kg; P = 0.989). In terms of carcass characteristics, however, D1 pigs had thicker back-fat (at 10th rib; 2.95 vs. 2.51 cm; P = 0.015), heavier belly weight (11.0 vs. 9.6 kg; P = 0.005), lighter ham weights (untrimmed: 20.8 vs. 21.6 kg; P = 0.043; trimmed: 19.6 vs. 20.6 kg; P = 0.016), lighter picnic shoulder weight (8.72 vs. 9.80 kg; P = 0.041), lighter total lean cut weight (51.8 vs. 53.8 kg; P = 0.055), and lower lean cut percentage (56.4 vs. 59.0%; P = 0.012). These results indicate that the Met-deficient diet produced growth-retarded pigs, which showed compensatory gain after the normal feeding. At slaughter, the pigs previously fed the Met-deficient diet had more fat and less lean tissue than their non-deficient counterparts.
This paper considers the manner in which turbulent premixed flames respond to a superposition of turbulent and narrowband disturbances. This is an important fundamental problem that arises in most combustion applications, as turbulent flames exist in hydrodynamically unstable flow fields and/or in confined systems with narrowband acoustic waves. This paper presents the first measurements of the sensitivity of the turbulent displacement speed to harmonically oscillating flame wrinkles. The flame is attached to a transversely oscillating, heated wire, resulting in the introduction of coherent, convecting wrinkles on the flame. The approach flow turbulence is varied systematically using a variable turbulence generator, enabling quantification of the effect of turbulent flow disturbances on the harmonic wrinkles. Mie scattering measurements are used to quantify the flame edge dynamics, while high speed particle image velocimetry is used to measure the flow field characteristics. By ensemble averaging the results, the ensemble-averaged flame edge and flow characteristics are recovered. For low turbulence intensities, sharp cusps are present in the negative curvature regions of the ensemble-averaged flame position, similar to laminar flames. These cusps are smoothed out at high turbulence intensities. The coherent, ensemble-averaged flame wrinkle amplitude decays with increasing turbulence intensity and with downstream distance. In addition, the ensemble-averaged turbulent flame speed is modulated in space and time. The most significant result of these measurements is the clear demonstration of the correlation between the ensemble-averaged turbulent flame speed and ensemble-averaged flame curvature, with the phase-dependent flame speed increasing in regions of negative curvature. These results have important implications on turbulent combustion physics and modelling, since quasi-coherent velocity disturbances are nearly ubiquitous in shear driven, high turbulent flows and/or confined systems with acoustic feedback. Specifically, these data clearly show that nonlinear interactions occur between the multi-scale turbulent disturbances and the more narrowband disturbances associated with coherent structures. In other words, conceptual models of the controlling physics in combustors with shear driven turbulence must account for the fundamentally different effects of spectrally distributed turbulent disturbances and more narrowband, quasi-coherent disturbances.
Early life stress (ELS) is a significant risk factor for the emergence of internalizing problems in adolescence. Beginning in adolescence, females are twice as likely as males to experience internalizing disorders. The present study was designed to examine sex differences in the association between ELS and internalizing problems in early pubertal adolescents, and whether and how corticolimbic function and connectivity may underlie these associations. Fifty-nine early pubertal males and 78 early pubertal females, ages 9–13 years (all Tanner Stage 3 or below) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging as they performed an emotion label task that robustly interrogates corticolimbic function. Participants were also interviewed about their experience of ELS. Females exhibited a positive association between ELS and internalizing problems, whereas males exhibited no such association. Whole-brain and amygdala region of interest analyses indicated that whereas females exhibited a positive association between ELS and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex during implicit emotion regulation, males showed no such association. Activation in these regions was positively associated with internalizing problems in females but not males; however, activation in these regions did not mediate the association between ELS and internalizing problems. Finally, both boys and girls exhibited an association between ELS and increased negative connectivity between the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and bilateral amygdala. Using a carefully characterized sample of early pubertal adolescents, the current study highlights important sex differences in the development of corticolimbic circuitry during a critical period of brain development. These sex differences may play a significant role in subsequent risk for internalizing problems.
Novel lines of high sugar ryegrass have been shown to increase the efficiency of N use and milk production in zero-grazed cattle (Miller et al., 1999). An experiment was carried out to determine whether this was in part due to an increase in the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in response to the amount and availability of water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) increasing the balance between energy and nitrogen supply to the rumen microbial population.
The efficiency of grass nitrogen utilisation for milk production tends to be low, due partly to the slow rate of release of energy in the rumen which reduces the efficiency of capture of rapidly degradable plant proteins by the rumen microbial population. When additional sugars are infused into the rumen, microbial protein production is increased (Rooke et al., 1987). The objective of this study was to assess milk production using a grass variety that has been bred to express elevated water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) concentrations.
Eight multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in mid lactation (176 days ± s.e. 3.6) were used in a continuous design, zero-grazing experiment. Following covariate measurements taken from all animals on a standard grazing diet, four animals were each offered one of two varieties of perennial ryegrass at ad libitum rate: AberDove, bred to express high WSC concentrations; and AberElan, a commercially available variety, used as a control.
An experimental program at Worthington Glacier, Alaska, U.S.A., has yielded the first in situ measurement of the full stress tensor in glacier ice. Measurements were made with an array of stiff (low-compliance) normal-force sensors frozen into a borehole at 120 m depth. Freezing in temperate ice was accomplished by a down-hole heat exchanger which extracted heat at a rate of 15 W. Under slowly varying stress conditions, relaxation of stress anomalies by viscous creep following drilling of the hole and installation of the sensors allows for equilibration of measured stresses with far-field stresses. Equilibration of local and far-field stresses was confirmed and pressure sensors calibrated in laboratory experiments prior to the field program. Results of the stress measurements show principal axes of the stress tensor oriented in directions consistent with the geometry of the glacier and broadly consistent with measured englacial strain rate. The magnitudes of stress-tensor components are more error-prone and more sensitive to uncertainty in sensor magnitude than uncertainty in sensor orientation. Mean stress determined by pressure measurements agrees with estimated lithostatic overburden to within approximately 15%. Unexpected results include a stress perturbation lasting about 5 days that caused a rotation of the orientations of the principal stress axes of approximately 5° about an axis pointing in the down-flow direction.
Observations from basal water-pressure sensors along the length of Bench Glacier, Alaska, USA, show that diurnal fluctuations of water pressure are seasonal and restricted to summer. Most notable about these fluctuations is their disappearance in the late summer and early autumn, long before the seasonal end of diurnal meltwater input. Here we present data documenting the end of diurnal water-pressure fluctuations during the 2002 and 2003 melt seasons. The end of diurnal fluctuations occurred abruptly in multiple boreholes spaced meters to kilometers apart. There was no obvious spatial progression of termination events, and a clear correlation with meteorological forcing or discharge in the outlet stream was not apparent. After diurnal pressure fluctuations ended, basal water pressure returned to a high, generally steady, value either in an irregular pattern or by a distinct increase. This high water pressure was interrupted by episodic, acyclic events throughout the autumn before becoming stable and high in winter.
To evaluate the efficacy of a multijet cold-plasma system and its efficacy in decontaminating 2 surfaces commonly found in hospitals
An in vitro study of common causes of healthcare-acquired infection
Log10 9 cultures of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, extended spectrum β-lactamase–producing Escherichia coli, and Acinetobacter baumannii were applied to 5-cm2 sections of stainless steel and mattress. Human serum albumin (HSA) was used as a proxy marker for organic material, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the impact on bacterial cell structure. The inoculated surfaces were exposed to a cold-air-plasma–generating multijet prototype for 15, 20, 30, and 45 seconds.
After 45 seconds, at least 3 to 4 log reductions were achieved for all bacteria on the mattress, while 3 to 6 log reductions were observed on stainless steel. The presence of HSA had no appreciable effect on bacterial eradication. The surfaces with bacteria exposed to AFM showed significant morphological changes indicative of “etching” due to the action of highly charged ions produced by the plasma.
This multijet cold-plasma prototype has the potential to augment current environmental decontamination approaches but needs further evaluation in a clinical setting to confirm its effectiveness.
Plasmodium knowlesi has risen in importance as a zoonotic parasite that has been causing regular episodes of malaria throughout South East Asia. The P. knowlesi genome sequence generated in 2008 highlighted and confirmed many similarities and differences in Plasmodium species, including a global view of several multigene families, such as the large SICAvar multigene family encoding the variant antigens known as the schizont-infected cell agglutination proteins. However, repetitive DNA sequences are the bane of any genome project, and this and other Plasmodium genome projects have not been immune to the gaps, rearrangements and other pitfalls created by these genomic features. Today, long-read PacBio and chromatin conformation technologies are overcoming such obstacles. Here, based on the use of these technologies, we present a highly refined de novo P. knowlesi genome sequence of the Pk1(A+) clone. This sequence and annotation, referred to as the ‘MaHPIC Pk genome sequence’, includes manual annotation of the SICAvar gene family with 136 full-length members categorized as type I or II. This sequence provides a framework that will permit a better understanding of the SICAvar repertoire, selective pressures acting on this gene family and mechanisms of antigenic variation in this species and other pathogens.
Conjugated polymers have been proposed as promising materials for scaffolds in tissue engineering applications. However, the restricted processability and biodegradability of conjugated polymers limit their use for biomedical applications. Here we synthesized a block-co-polymer of aniline tetramer and PCL (AT–PCL), and processed it into fibrous non-woven scaffolds by electrospinning. We showed that fibronectin (Fn) adhesion was dependent on the AT–PCL oxidative state, with a reduced Fn unfolding length on doped membranes. Furthermore, we demonstrated the cytocompatibility and potential of these membranes to support the growth and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells over 21 days.
The 7 and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have reduced the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children in many countries. The objective of this work was to assess the impact of PCVs and potential herd-protection in older adults in Ireland. IPD notification and typing data from adults ⩾65 years of age from July 2007 to June 2016 was assessed using national surveillance data. There was a 94% reduction in PCV7 serotypes from 2007–2008 to 2015–2016, incidence rate ratio (IRR 0·05, P < 0·0001). However, there was no decline in the additional PCV13 (PCV13-7) serotypes over the same period (IRR 0·90) nor in comparison with the pre-PCV13 period 2009–2010 (IRR 0·92). The incidence of serotypes in the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine only (PPV23-PCV13) and non-vaccine types (NVTs) increased significantly (IRR 2·17, P = 0·0002 and IRR 3·43, P = 0·0001 respectively). Consequently, the overall IPD incidence rate in adults has remained relatively unchanged (from 28·66/100 000 to 28·88/100 000, IRR 1·01, P = 0·9477). Serotype 19A and NVTs were mainly responsible for penicillin resistance in recent years. The decline of PCV7 serotypes indicate that the introduction of PCV7 resulted in herd-protection for adults. However, increases in PPV23-PCV13 and NVTs suggest that changes in vaccination strategy amongst older adults are needed to build on the success of PCVs in children.
Values of the strain-rate tensor represented at a 20 m length scale are found to explain the pattern and orientation of crevasses in a 0.13 km2 reach of Worthington Glacier, Alaska, U.S.A. The flow field of the reach is constructed from surveyed displacements of 110 markers spaced 20-30 m apart. A velocity gradient method is then used to calculate values of the principal strain-rate axes at the nodes of a 20 m x 20 m orthogonal grid. Crevasses in the study reach are of two types, splaying and transverse, and are everywhere normal to the trajectories of greatest (most tensile) principal strain rate. Splaying crevasses exist where the longitudinal strain rate (
x) is ≤ 0 and transverse crevasses are present under longitudinally extending flow (i.e.
x > 0). The orientation of crevasses changes in the down-glacier direction, but the calculated rotation by the flow field does not account for this change in orientation. Observations suggest that individual crevasses represent local values of the regional flow field and are transient on the time-scale of 1-2 years; they are not persistent features that are translated and rotated by flow. Crevasse patterns are thus found to be a useful tool for mapping the strain-rate tensor in this reach of a temperate valley glacier.
We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array’s performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.