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Throughout their 250 Myr history, archosaurian reptiles have exhibited a wide array of body sizes, shapes, and locomotor habits, especially in regard to terrestriality. These features make Archosauria a useful clade with which to study the interplay between body size, shape, and locomotor behavior, and how this interplay may have influenced locomotor evolution. Here, digital volumetric models of 80 taxa are used to explore how mass properties and body proportions relate to each other and locomotor posture in archosaurs. One-way, nonparametric, multivariate analysis of variance, based on the results of principal components analysis, shows that bipedal and quadrupedal archosaurs are largely distinguished from each other on the basis of just four anatomical parameters (p < 0.001): mass, center of mass position, and relative forelimb and hindlimb lengths. This facilitates the development of a quantitative predictive framework that can help assess gross locomotor posture in understudied or controversial taxa, such as the crocodile-line Batrachotomus (predicted quadruped) and Postosuchus (predicted biped). Compared with quadrupedal archosaurs, bipedal species tend to have relatively longer hindlimbs and a more caudally positioned whole-body center of mass, and collectively exhibit greater variance in forelimb lengths. These patterns are interpreted to reflect differing biomechanical constraints acting on the archosaurian Bauplan in bipedal versus quadrupedal groups, which may have shaped the evolutionary histories of their respective members.
Idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and motorically it is characterized by tremor, ridigity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. Whilst it was historically considered to be a movement disorder there are multiple non-motor symptoms, which often precede the motor symptoms by years or even decades. These include dysautonomia, sleep disturbances, neuropsychiatric disturbances, pain, and sensory problems. These have a negative effect on quality of life and are associated with overall higher carer burden and, potentially, higher care costs whilst being frequently undeclared by patients.
The health belief model and protection motivation theory are two of the earliest formulated expectancy-value accounts of behavior change. Across nearly six decades, the importance of these accounts has persisted. Both models advocate that behavior change is a consequence of two important processes: threat appraisal comprising the extent to which an individual perceives personal susceptibility to a consequence, combined with the severity of that consequence, and coping appraisal comprising evaluations of the likely efficacy of a recommended action to reduce threat, expectations that taking that action will involve difficulties and psychological costs, and personal efficacy to achieve behavior change. Multiple studies support the predictive validity of the models and many interventions have been developed based on the theoretical principles provided. Behavior change based on these models requires careful consideration of behavior-specific cognitions and careful targeting of these cognitions. Moreover, behavior change interventions should target threat appraisal enhancement only in combination with detailed and extensive training or communication that targets efficacy to enact behavior change.
To explore stakeholder perspectives regarding online diabetes nutrition education for American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) with type 2 diabetes (T2D).
Qualitative data were collected through focus groups and interviews. Focus group participants completed a brief demographic and internet use survey.
Focus groups and community participant interviews were conducted in diverse AI/AN communities. Interviews with nationally recognised content experts were held via teleconference.
Eight focus groups were conducted with AI/AN adults with T2D (n 29) and their family members (n 22). Community participant interviews were conducted with eleven clinicians and healthcare administrators working in Native communities. Interviews with nine content experts included clinicians and researchers serving AI/AN.
Qualitative content analysis used constant comparative method for coding and generating themes across transcripts. Descriptive statistics were computed from surveys. AI/AN adults access the internet primarily through smartphones, use the internet for many purposes and identify opportunities for online diabetes nutrition education.
Online diabetes nutrition education may be feasible in Indian Country. These findings will inform the development of an eLearning diabetes nutrition education programme for AI/AN adults with T2D.
Given a large number of community-based older adults with mild cognitive impairment, it is essential to better understand the relationship between unmet palliative care (PC) needs and mild cognitive impairment in community-based samples.
Participants consisted of adults ages 60+ receiving services at senior centers located in New York City. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Unmet Palliative Care Needs screening tool were used to assess participants’ cognitive status and PC needs.
Our results revealed a quadratic relationship between unmet PC needs and mild cognitive impairment, controlling for gender, living status, and age. Participants with either low or high MoCA scores reported lower PC needs than participants with average MoCA scores, mean difference of the contrast (low and high vs. middle) = 2.15, P = 0.08.
Significance of results
This study is a first step toward elucidating the relationship between cognitive impairment and PC needs in a diverse community sample of older adults. More research is needed to better understand the unique PC needs of older adults with cognitive impairment living in the community.
Social contact is one of the most effective strategies for improving inter-group relations and is supported by decades of positive evidence. Several studies specifically support social contact interventions as a way of reducing stigma against people with mental health problems. Despite the effectiveness of this approach, some social groups have few opportunities for social contact in the real world.
Using the England Time to Change anti-stigma campaign as an example, we investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of delivering social contact interventions at the mass population level to reduce stigma and discrimination against people with mental health problems.
To investigate: (i) the feasibility of scaling up social contact interventions to reduce stigma and discrimination against people with mental health problems and (ii) the effectiveness of mass population social contact interventions to: improve intended stigmatising behaviour, increase willingness to disclose mental health problems and to promote engagement in antistigma activities.
Two types of mass participation social contact programmes within England's Time to Change campaign were evaluated via self-report questionnaire. Participants at social contact events were asked about the occurrence and quality of contact, attitudes, readiness to discuss mental health, and intended behaviour towards people with mental health problems.
Findings on feasibility and effectiveness of social contact programmes will be presented.
This study suggests that social contact interventions can be used by anti-stigma campaigns to reduce stigma and discrimination against people with mental health problems. Further investigation is needed regarding the maintenance of these changes
Although recent studies have found that there is significant association between anticholinergic and cognitive impairment, especially in the elderly population, there seems to be minimal emphasis on anticholinergic burden (ACB) when prescribing medications to the inpatient psychogeriatric population.
To evaluate the prescribing patterns in Older Person Mental Health Inpatient Unit (OPMHU), whether the ACB Score on admission has been reviewed for lowest possible ACB while maintaining therapeutic effects. A protocol will be developed to ensure that ACB is reviewed for future admissions and discharges.
Fifty patients admitted and discharged from OPMHU are recruited retrospectively from 30th September 2015, excluding outliers and deceased patients. For those who had multiple admissions during that period, only the most recent admission would be included for evaluation. Individual ACB score is calculated on admission and discharge based on pharmacist final medication summary. Their mental health records are also audited for any documented ACB review by the treating team, while making note for any pre-existing cognitive impairment.
ACB has not been taken into consideration in all patients by the treating team on admission as well as when prescribing medications on discharge. Hence, it is unsurprising that the ACB score showed an increment of 30% on discharge (3.25) when compared to the admission score (2.5).
The study found that although ACB poses significant risks on cognitive impairment, this knowledge has not been employed pragmatically. A protocol should be developed to ensure that ACB is evaluated and managed accordingly.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Historically, Parkinson's disease was viewed as a motor disorder and it is only in recent years that the spectrum of non-motor disorders associated with the condition has been fully recognised. There is a broad scope of neuropsychiatric manifestations, including depression, anxiety, apathy, psychosis and cognitive impairment. Patients are more predisposed to delirium, and Parkinson's disease treatments give rise to specific syndromes, including impulse control disorders, dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome and dopamine dysregulation syndrome. This article gives a broad overview of the spectrum of these conditions, describes the association with severity of Parkinson's disease and the degree to which dopaminergic degeneration and/or treatment influence symptoms. We highlight useful assessment scales that inform diagnosis and current treatment strategies to ameliorate these troublesome symptoms, which frequently negatively affect quality of life.
Healthcare personnel (HCP) were recruited to provide serum samples, which were tested for antibodies against Ebola or Lassa virus to evaluate for asymptomatic seroconversion.
From 2014 to 2016, 4 patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) and 1 patient with Lassa fever (LF) were treated in the Serious Communicable Diseases Unit (SCDU) at Emory University Hospital. Strict infection control and clinical biosafety practices were implemented to prevent nosocomial transmission of EVD or LF to HCP.
All personnel who entered the SCDU who were required to measure their temperatures and complete a symptom questionnaire twice daily were eligible.
No employee developed symptomatic EVD or LF. EVD and LF antibody studies were performed on sera samples from 42 HCP. The 6 participants who had received investigational vaccination with a chimpanzee adenovirus type 3 vectored Ebola glycoprotein vaccine had high antibody titers to Ebola glycoprotein, but none had a response to Ebola nucleoprotein or VP40, or a response to LF antigens.
Patients infected with filoviruses and arenaviruses can be managed successfully without causing occupation-related symptomatic or asymptomatic infections. Meticulous attention to infection control and clinical biosafety practices by highly motivated, trained staff is critical to the safe care of patients with an infection from a special pathogen.
We used a survey to characterize contemporary infection prevention and antibiotic stewardship program practices across 64 healthcare facilities, and we compared these findings to those of a similar 2013 survey. Notable findings include decreased frequency of active surveillance for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, frequent active surveillance for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and increased support for antibiotic stewardship programs.