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Layered ice has been used to investigate the initiation of fabrics in shear zones where there is preservation of a refolded layering The fabrics were measured using an apparatus that acquires pixel-based images that illustrate the variation of c-axis orientation within and between grains. In the centre of the shear zones there is dynamic recrystallization with the production of an asymmetric two-maxima fabric. The way dynamic recrystallization modifies the inherited folds and microstructure suggests that there is little effect of inheritance from a precursor grain microstructure or fabric No obvious evidence has been found for the occurrence of sub-grains, which implies that the role of sub-grain rotation is minimal or is obliterated by the recrystallization process. The final c-axis pattern is asymmetric with respect to the direction of shortening, with a strong maximum at ~5° to the pole of the shear zone, and a sense of asymmetry in the direction of the shear, and a secondary maximum inclined at ~45° to the plane of shearing. Distinct sets of nearest-neighbour c-axis distributions, namely, intermediate-angle (10–25°), high-angle (50–65°) and very high-angle (120–150°), suggest there may be special grain-boundary relationships.
Goosegrass biotypes from golf courses in Richmond, VA (CCV) and New Bern, NC (RB) historically treated with oxadiazon were identified as resistant compared to susceptible standard (PBU) based on comparisons of oxadiazon applied preemergence at increasing rates (0.03 to 2.24 kg ha-1). Oxadiazon at rates ≤ 2.24 kg ha-1 rate did not prevent emergence of suspected resistant CCV and RB seedlings. PBU emergence was completely prevented at 0.14 kg ha-1. Based on percent seedling emergence relative to non-treated and percent above-ground biomass reduction relative to non-treated, the oxadiazon rate at which emergence would be reduced 50% (I50) or 90% (I90) ranged from 0.12 to 0.18 kg ha-1 or 10.83 to 85.57 kg ha-1, respectively for suspected resistant CCV and RB, compared to 0.03 to 0.4 kg ha-1 or 0.12 to 0.19 kg ha-1, respectively for susceptible standard PBU. Seedling emergence data predicted 7.9 and 3.0 times greater I90 values for CCV and RB, respectively compared to biomass data. All three biotypes were completely controlled by preemergence applied labeled rates of prodiamine and indaziflam. This is the first peer-reviewed report of evolved weed resistance to oxadiazon.
Adulthood psychological health predicts labour force activity but few studies have examined childhood psychological health. We hypothesized that childhood psychological ill-health would be associated with labour force exit at 55 years.
Data were from the 55-year follow-up of the National Child Development Study (n = 9137). Labour force participation and exit (unemployment, retirement, permanent sickness, homemaking/other) were self-reported at 55 years. Internalizing and externalizing problems in childhood (7, 11 and 16 years) and malaise in adulthood (23, 33, 42, 50 years) were assessed. Education, social class, periods of unemployment, partnership separations, number of children, and homemaking activity were measured throughout adulthood.
Childhood internalizing and externalizing problems were associated with unemployment, permanent sickness and homemaking/other at 55 years, after adjustment for adulthood psychological health and education: one or two reports of internalizing was associated with increased risk for unemployment [relative risk (RR) 1.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12–2.25; RR 2.37, 95% CI 1.48–3.79] and permanent sickness (RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.00–1.74; RR, 1.48, 95% CI 1.00–2.17); three reports of externalizing was associated with increased risk for unemployment (RR 2.26, 95% CI 1.01–5.04), permanent sickness (RR 2.63, 95% CI 1.46–4.73) and homemaking/other (RR 1.95, 95% CI 1.00–3.78).
Psychological ill-health across the lifecourse, including during childhood, reduces the likelihood of working in older age. Support for those with mental health problems at different life stages and for those with limited connections to the labour market, including homemakers, is an essential dimension of attempts to extend working lives.
Specimens of polycrystalline ice were experimentally deformed in plane strain at a temperature of –1°C, under a constant load and with shortening strains varying from 2 to 27%. The random c-axis orientation of the initial ice aggregates changes continuously with increasing strain towards a steady-state, small-circle containing two maxima lying about the shortening direction. The ice microstructure is sequentially transformed from undeformed grains to smaller, irregular, deformed grains containing recrystallized grains. Grain growth then occurs forming a coarse interlocking-grain aggregate. These microstructural changes are attributed to solid-state processes occurring during deformation. The previously deformed specimens were then annealed without a load at –1°C. Annealing resulted in a substantial grain-size coarsening. However, no c-axis preferred-orientation difference developed between annealed and unannealed samples.
Lakes Barrine and Eacham and their small, discrete, forested catchments are sites of intensive sedimentological, palynological and ecological research. The studies that we present here concentrate on integrating population statistics of tree species of the living forest with their histories, as documented by fine-resolution pollen analysis (Green and Dolman 1988). Most of the work has been undertaken at Lake Barrine, where the last 5 ka is recorded in laminated sediments. Additional information about these sites and about aspects of the project is contained in Chen (1986, 1987, 1988), Goodfield (1988), Grindrod (1979), Timms (1976, 1979) and Walker (1988).
Stratigraphic investigations together with climatic proxy data measurements and reliable radiocarbon dating show a history of fluctuations of dry and wet environmental conditions in the arid to semi-arid zone of northern China since the late Pleistocene. Based on these data, we are able to reconstruct shifts of the desert margin in two period extremes, the last glacial maximum (21–15 ka) and the Holocene Optimum (9–5 ka). We have compared the present desert margin with that for the two extremes. The results indicate that a southward shift of the present margin of about 3 degrees in latitude might be caused by anthropogenic impact. Hence the influence of human activity must be taken into consideration for sustainable development and environment protection. Future research will be to find a two-way feedback existing between climate and anthropogenic impacts.
The following list contains most of the measurements made during 1974, since our last list (R, 1973, v 15, p 241-251). All measurements were performed on a Beckman LS-200 Liquid Scintillation Spectrometer following previously published setting up (Polach, 1974), automatic cycling (Polach, 1969) and benzene synthesis (Polach and Stipp, 1966; Polach et al, 1972) procedures.
The 14C dating of organic fractions from paleosol layers containing <2% carbon in loess-paleosol sequences from the loess plateau in China has yielded results that are quite often much younger than the true age of the sediments. Percolation of modern organic materials from agricultural activities, and binding of these materials within the weathered clays of the paleosols has meant that conventional pretreatment techniques for 14C dating would not isolate a reliable chemical fraction. The total sequence from Bei Zhuang Cun, in Shaanxi Province, reflects the climatic history of the area for ca 30,000 years, ranging from the interstadial of the last glacial period to the postglacial period. Analysis of solvent extracts of organic material from this site indicates that they are mainly composed of carbohydrate residues originating from the relatively recent agricultural activity. Validity of the humic components for dating will be discussed.
Through the establishment of radiocarbon chronozones relating common geological events within lacustrine and eolian sediments from five profiles representative of loess yuan (tablelands), river valley and northwest margin features of the Loess Plateau, we propose a series of stratigraphic divisions within the last 30 ka. The focus of this detailed study involves stratigraphic relationships contributing to evidence of Younger Dryas events, with the recognition of cold-dry, cool-wet and cold-dry periods represented within the Heiheze silt, Midiwan peat and Liushuwan eolian sand. The stratigraphic profiles reflect century-scale fluctuations of the East Asian monsoons. The precursor events enable us to place the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary at 10,000 bp.
Loess deposition within the Loess Plateau of China records the history of environmental change over the last 2.5 Myr. Loess-paleosol sequences of the last 10 ka, which have preserved information of global climate change, relate closely to human occupation of the area. Hence, studies of the deposition and development of Holocene loess are significant for studying environmental change and problems associated with engineering geology. We present here stratigraphic relations among four profiles from the south, west and center of the Loess Plateau. On the basis of 14C radiometric and AMS dates of organic material extracted from the paleosols, together with magnetic susceptibility measurements down each profile, we discuss Holocene stratigraphic divisions within the Loess Plateau, and suggest that the Holocene optimum, characterized by paleosol complexes, occurred between 10 and 5 ka bp. From 5 ka BP to the present, neoglacial activity is characterized by recently deposited loess.
We tested the feasibility of dating freshwater and terrestrial molluscs from the semiarid and arid zone in China, since these types of shell material deposit only aragonite to form their shell structure, and shell integrity can be easily observed using X-ray diffraction. We also tested the possibility of estimating microenvironmental changes from shell δ13C values, but variations within shell populations preclude the use of these values as a reliable indicator. Reservoir ages were calculated for living shells of the same species as fossil shells by using their measured 14C ages, which were recalculated using an average value of atmospheric 14C activity for the years spanning their time of collection as the modern standard. The results indicate that freshwater and terrestrial shells are potentially useful as dating material, provided extreme care is taken in their collection and other datable material (in this case wood and pollen) is within the profile to act as a comparison.
The Xi'an Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology has developed a small sample 14C dating facility consisting of a Wallac 1220 Quantulus™ liquid scintillation spectrometer, and a miniature benzene synthesis line based on the synthesis procedures used at the Australian National University (ANU). This line can produce ca. 0.3-ml benzene samples, which are then measured for 14C activity using 0.3-ml Teflon vials developed by Wallac Oy. The counting performance of the Quantulus™ spectrometer using 0.3-ml vials has been evaluated, and a potential age limit of ca. 45,000 BP has been obtained for samples containing up to 250 mg carbon. This dating facility fills the gap between large sample (2.4–6 g carbon) and microsample (<1 mg carbon) handling to form a 14C dating method sequence.
δ13C and 14C activity measurements were made on terrestrial, marsh and aquatic plants growing in their natural habitat of the Plitvice Lakes in northwest Yugoslavia. δ13C values were ca −47 for aquatic mosses, which indicate that the carbon source was dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) from alkaline karst waters, following a C3 pathway, and ca −25 for marsh plants, indicating the carbon source was atmospheric CO2. 14C activity of true aquatic plants and submerged parts of helophytes was close to 14C activity of DIC, whereas that of emergent parts of helophytes and terrestrial plants was similar to atmospheric CO2 activity. Aquatic plants which use DIC in freshwater for their photosynthesis are not suitable for 14C dating, unless the initial activity of incorporated carbon is known. δ13C values of plant material also depend on the carbon source and cannot be used for 14C age correction.
A 14C measurement capability has been developed on the 14UD accelerator at the Australian National University. At present, this system operates on a medium-precision, low-throughput basis with slow cycling between isotopes. We describe unusual features of the system, and review preliminary experience with this mode of operation, in sample preparation, and with a recently installed injection system.
The valley of the Baxie River, situated in the western region of the Loess Plateau in central China, contains a loess profile 15 m thick, which can be considered representative of loess-paleosol sequences formed over the last 17 ka. Both thermoluminescence (TL) determinations on fine-grained sediment (4–11 μm) and 14C determinations on various organic fractions of paleosols from the profile have provided an extremely useful chronological framework for these sequences. These sequences indicate a weakened summer monsoon during the last glacial maximum followed by a strengthening of the summer monsoon, beginning ca. 13 ka cal bp. An abrupt change to a weakened summer monsoon regime lasted from ca. 10.9 to 10.2 ka cal bp. The Asian summer monsoon circulation, recording the Holocene optimum, then increased and lasted from ca. 10.2 to 6 ka cal bp. The organic component of samples taken down the profile has δ13C values ranging from −21 to −24‰ with respect to the PDB standard. The more positive δ13C values suggest that the proportion of C4-type plants in river valleys of the Loess Plateau increased as Asian summer monsoon influence weakened, and C3-type vegetation increased as the summer monsoon influence strengthened. Magnetic susceptibility and organic content were low during loess deposition, also reflecting weakening of summer monsoon. Two 14C determinations on the humin fraction of the organic component near the top of the lower paleosol and the base of the upper paleosol complex gave ages of 10.2 and 10.9 ka cal BP, respectively. These ages mark the beginning and termination of a brief event involving increased dust influx under weakened summer monsoon conditions.
In a separate study, we conducted a series of high-precision radiocarbon measurements using wood from Britain and New Zealand to investigate interhemispheric offsets and possible temporal variations. To minimize variability associated with different species, the pretreatment of the oak (Quercus patraea) and cedar (Librocedrus bidwilli) was to α-cellulose for both. This study investigates the thoroughness of a range of pretreatment processes by the stable isotope analysis of the products.
It is generally recognised that spring grass does not provide a balanced ration for the grazing animal, since it contains excess of nitrogenous substances in relation to carbohydrate. Young lucerne similarly contains more nitrogen than is necessary to provide a balanced feed. When grazing these types of herbage, the animal wastes much of the ingested nitrogen. If the ration included carbohydrate rich foods in addition to the high quality herbage, the animal might be able to utilise more of the nitrogen it is consuming.
In this country little experimental evidence is available on the use of carbohydrate supplements for beef cattle, although several firms produce high carbohydrate cakes with low fibre content, for feeding in conjunction with young succulent grass.
Ecometrics is the quantitative study of functional traits at the community level, and the environmental sorting of those traits at regional and continental scales. Functional traits are properties of organisms that have a direct physical or physiological relationship to an underlying quality of the environment, which in turn has indirect links to broader environmental factors such as temperature, precipitation, elevation, atmospheric composition, or sea level. When the same environmental factor affects the performance of many taxa, ecometric sorting is the result. Ecometric patterns in trait distributions across space and through time are therefore a product of biogeographic sorting, evolution, and extinction driven by changes in Earth systems. We review concepts associated with ecometrics, with examples that illustrate how trait-based approaches differ from taxon-based methods, how ecometrics can be used to study Earth-life transitions in the fossil record, and how ecometrics can be used to compare Earth-life transitions that differ in temporal or geographic scale. This paper focuses on the climatic and biome changes of the Great Plains of North America during the Miocene, when grasslands came to be the dominant vegetation type, and of the Anthropocene of the American Midwest, which saw extensive landscape changes in the nineteenth century.