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A series of direct numerical simulations of a fully developed turbulent channel flow is conducted in order to clarify the effects of travelling wave-like wall blowing and suction on dissimilar heat transfer enhancement. While the wave form is kept sinusoidal and its amplitude is set to be 5 % of the bulk mean velocity, the wavelength and phase speed of the travelling wave are systematically changed in a wide parameter space. As a result, the global optimum of the parameter set for maximizing the analogy factor, which is defined as the ratio between the Stanton number and the skin-friction coefficient, is identified. Interestingly, the obtained globally optimal mode agrees well with that predicted from the optimal control theory taking into account the future dynamics within a limited time horizon by Yamamoto et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 733, 2013, pp. 189–220). The instantaneous velocity and thermal fields are decomposed into coherent and random components in order to evaluate the contribution from each component to dissimilar heat transfer enhancement. The detailed mechanisms of dissimilarity are explained by the budget analyses of the coherent and random contributions. Also, their relationships with the near-wall turbulent structures modified by the applied control are discussed through flow visualization. It is found that the random component makes a dominant contribution to dissimilarity, and this can be explained by an indirect effect through the modification of the coherent field by the applied control. Based on the above mechanisms, we propose a simple unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) approach, where the phase-averaged velocity and thermal fields are solved directly whereas the effects of the random component are modelled by the Boussinesq eddy viscosity and diffusivity hypothesis. It is shown that the present URANS can capture the overall trend of dissimilar heat transfer enhancement in a wide parameter range. The present results also explain why the optimal control theory with a limited time horizon succeeds in predicting the globally optimal control mode.
We apply two methods to estimate the 21-cm bispectrum from data taken within the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) project of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). Using data acquired with the Phase II compact array allows a direct bispectrum estimate to be undertaken on the multiple redundantly spaced triangles of antenna tiles, as well as an estimate based on data gridded to the uv-plane. The direct and gridded bispectrum estimators are applied to 21 h of high-band (167–197 MHz; z = 6.2–7.5) data from the 2016 and 2017 observing seasons. Analytic predictions for the bispectrum bias and variance for point-source foregrounds are derived. We compare the output of these approaches, the foreground contribution to the signal, and future prospects for measuring the bispectra with redundant and non-redundant arrays. We find that some triangle configurations yield bispectrum estimates that are consistent with the expected noise level after 10 h, while equilateral configurations are strongly foreground-dominated. Careful choice of triangle configurations may be made to reduce foreground bias that hinders power spectrum estimators, and the 21-cm bispectrum may be accessible in less time than the 21-cm power spectrum for some wave modes, with detections in hundreds of hours.
Recently, an epoch-making printing technology called “SuPR-NaP (Surface Photo-Reactive Nanometal Printing)” that allows easy, high-speed, and large-area manufacturing of ultrafine silver wiring patterns has been developed. Here we demonstrate low-voltage operation of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) composed of printed source/drain electrodes that are produced by the SuPR-NaP technique. We utilize an ultrathin layer of perfluoropolymer, Cytop, that functions not only as a base layer for producing patterned reactive surface in the SuPR-NaP technique but also as an ultrathin gate dielectric layer of OTFTs. By the use of 22 nm-thick Cytop gate dielectric layer, we successfully operate polycrystalline pentacene OTFTs below 2 V with negligible hysteresis. We also observe the improvement of carrier injection by the surface modification of printed silver electrodes. We discuss that the SuPR-NaP technique allows the production of high-capacitance gate dielectric layers as well as high-resolution printed silver electrodes, which provides promising bases for producing practical active-matrix OTFT backplanes.
Here we discuss requirements for high performance and solution processable organic semiconductors, by presenting a systematic investigation of 7-alkyl-2-phenylbenzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophenes (Ph-BTBT-Cn’s). We found that the solubility and thermal properties of Ph-BTBT-Cn’s depend systematically on the substituted alkyl-chain length n. The observed features are well understood in terms of the change of molecular packing motif with n: The compounds with n ≤ 4 do not form independent alkyl chain layers, whereas those with n ≥ 5 form isolated alkyl chain layers. The latter compounds afford a series of isomorphous bilayer-type crystal structures that form two-dimensional carrier transport layers within the crystals. We also show that the Ph-BTBT-C10 afford high performance single-crystalline field-effect transistors the mobility of which reaches as high as 15.9 cm2/Vs. These results demonstrate a crucial role of the substituted alkyl chain length for obtaining high performance organic semiconductors and field-effect transistors.
Polymeric nanoparticles having redox-active catechol moieties, a common structural motif found in naturally-occurring antioxidants, were developed. We synthesized an amphiphilic catechol-bearing polymer that self-assembled to form nanoparticles with a diameter of 126 nm. The nanoparticles showed enhanced ROS-scavenging activity compared to the small catecholic compound dopamine. Furthermore, the nanoparticles inhibited ROS-mediated angiogenesis as shown by the endothelial cell tube formation assay and the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay.
As a method to evaluate high-temperature equation of state (EOS) data of fissile materials precisely and safely, we numerically examined an experimental setup based on a sub-range fissile target and a high-intensity short-pulsed heavy-ion beam. As an example, we calculated one-dimensional hydrodynamic motion of a uranium target with ρ = 0.03ρsolid (ρsolid ≡ solid density = 19.05 g/cm3) induced by a pulsed 23Na+ beam with a duration of 2 ns and a peak power of 5 GW/mm2. The projectile stopping power was calculated using a density- and temperature-dependent dielectric response function. To heat the target uniformly, we optimized the experimental condition so that the energy deposition could occur almost at the top of the Bragg peak. The energy deposition inhomogeneity could be reduced to ±5% by adjusting the incident energy and the target thickness to be 2.02 MeV/u and 180 μm, respectively. The target could be heated homogeneously up to kT =7 eV well before the arrival of the rarefaction waves at the center of the target. In principle, the EOS data can be evaluated by iteratively adjusting the data embedded in the hydro code until the measured hydrodynamic motion is reproduced by the calculation. This method is consistent with the conditions of nuclear nonproliferation, because a very small amount of fissile material is enough to perform the experiment, and no shock compression occurs in the target.
Donor-acceptor mixed-stack charge-transfer (CT) compounds can be regarded as a model system for charge carrier separation in molecular-scale donor-acceptor heterojunctions. Here we investigated fundamental photocarrier generation characteristics in single crystals of a donoracceptor mixed-stack system, phenothiazine-tetracyanoquinodimethane (PTZ-TCNQ). The laser beam-induced current (LBIC) measurement on the crystals allowed the discrimination between the exciton and the photocarrier diffusion on the basis of the observed spatial decay profiles. We found that the photocarriers are directly generated by higher-lying CT band excitation and exhibit extremely long diffusion length reaching more than 10 μm. We discuss the origin of the efficient photocarrier generation in terms of the geminate electron-hole pair formation.
Recent epidemiological data suggest a link between the consumption of bovine offal products and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection in Japan. This study thus examined the prevalence of STEC in various types of these foods. PCR screened 229 bovine offal products for the presence of Shiga toxin (stx) gene. Thirty-eight (16·6%) samples were stx positive, of which eight were positive for rfbEO157 and three were positive for wzyO26. Four O157 and one O26 STEC isolates were finally obtained from small-intestine and omasum products. Notably, homogenates of bovine intestinal products significantly reduced the extent of growth of O157 in the enrichment process compared to homogenates of beef carcass. As co-incubation of O157 with background microbiota complex from bovine intestinal products in buffered peptone water, in the absence of meat samples, tended to reduce the extent of growth of O157, we reasoned that certain microbiota present in offal products played a role. In support of this, inoculation of generic E. coli from bovine intestinal products into the homogenates significantly reduced the extent of growth of O157 in the homogenates of bovine intestinal and loin-beef products, and this effect was markedly increased when these homogenates were heat-treated prior to inoculation. Together, this report provides first evidence of the prevalence of STEC in a variety of bovine offal products in Japan. The prevalence data herein may be useful for risk assessment of those products as a potential source of human STEC infection beyond the epidemiological background. The growth characteristic of STEC O157 in offal products also indicates the importance of being aware when to test these food products.
The most common eruptions observed by humans, and by far the most dangerous to human populations, are those from volcanoes above the world's subduction zones (Simkin and Siebert, 2000). Population growth and development of technology are also concentrated in areas such as the Pacific Rim, where subduction-zone volcanism is prevalent. Many new and proposed nuclear facilities are therefore located in regions of active subduction (Connor et al., Chapter 3, this volume). Because nuclear facilities require low-risk sites, and because some nuclear facilities, such as high-level radioactive waste repositories, require very long performance periods, it is necessary to understand the nature of volcanism in subduction zones from a regional, plate tectonic perspective. This perspective will allow us to develop more robust hazard models for future volcanic activity on a variety of timescales, and to better assess assumptions made by these volcanic hazard models. The goal of this chapter is to provide state-of-the-art information about the geological processes operating on a regional scale in subduction zones. Subduction zones are locations where oceanic plates subduct into the mantle; they are characterized geomorphologically by deep ocean trenches and volcanic arcs or continental margins, seismically by landward-dipping deep seismic zones and magmatically by arcuate belts of volcanoes. Subduction and arc magmatism are fundamental processes in the evolution of the Earth, because they play crucial roles in the present-day differentiation of Earth's materials and are believed to be major sites of continental crust generation that have operated throughout geologic time (e.g. Taylor, 1967; Arculus, 1981; Gill, 1981; Eiler, 2003; Rudnick and Gao, 2003).
Large shift of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectrum of gold nanoparticles was attained by electrochemical oxidation of the nanoparticle surface. This oxidation occurred in a cell consisting of a pair of indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes with water medium between the electrodes. On one side of the ITO electrode, the gold nanoparticles were adsorbed. The LSPR spectrum was moved consecutively to the red by increasing the applied positive voltage. By the application of 5 V to the cell, the spectrum shift as large as 55 nm was obtained. Though the spectrum shift has already been observed by changing liquid crystal (LC) orientation surrounding gold nanoparticles, the amount of the shift was not large (11 nm). That was because the variation of the effective refractive index of LC was rather small. Our large shift due to electrochemical oxidation resulted from the large refractive index of Au-O. The upper limit of the LSPR spectrum shift by our method is estimated to be 138 nm.
We investigate the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy for the field-induced carriers in rubrene single-crystal field-effect transistors (SC-FETs), and compare the results with those on pentacene thin-film transistors (TFTs). We observe Lorentz-type ESR signal in rubrene SC-FETs whose linewidth is narrowed with increasing gate voltage and temperature. It demonstrates that the ESR linewidth is determined by motional narrowing effect as we reported on pentacene TFTs. Based on the observations, we discuss the multiple trap-and-release (MTR) processes in the two systems with and without grain boundaries.
Stability of Pd-Co-Ni-Cu-P metallic glass was investigated in terms of free energy using first principle cluster calculations, thermal analysis, and photoemission spectroscopy measurements. We found that the internal energy of the Pd-based metallic glasses is dominated by the electronic structure near the Fermi level. The analyses on the electronic structure and local atomic arrangements indicate that the substitution of cobalt or a hypothetical atom Co0.5Cu0.5 for nickel in the Pd40Ni40P20 metallic glass decreases the free energy of the Pd-Ni-P metallic glass by increasing entropy without altering significantly internal energy. On the basis of the idea mentioned above, we prepared Pd28Co24Ni24P24, Pd25Co25Ni25P25 and Pd40Co40/3Ni40/3Cu40/3P20 metallic glasses. These metallic glasses certainly showed the nearly highest TX, which directly reflect the activation energy against crystallization, among the Pd-based metallic glasses ever reported.
We have discovered new transparent conducting oxides (TCOs), anatase Ti1-xMxO2 (M=Nb,Ta), in thin film form. Both films with 0.03 ≤ × ≤ 0.06 showed resistivity of 2−3 × 10−4 Ωcm and internal transmittance of ∼95% in the visible light region (40 nm in thickness), at room temperature. These values are comparable to those of typical TCOs, such as In2−xSnxO3 (ITO).
An ion source for generation of low-charged heavy ions has been
developed using low-power KrF excimer and frequency-doubled Nd:YAG
lasers. The ion source was examined with two experimental modes of
low-voltage DC extraction at ∼20 kV and high-voltage pulse
extraction at 150 kV. Normalized emittance of extracted beams composed
of Cu+ and Cu2+ ions was measured to be about
0.05 and 0.8 πmm-mrad for the DC extraction and the pulse
extraction, respectively. Electron temperature was observed by means of
a single probe method to be 0.8 to 2.5 eV, depending on the intensity
of the KrF laser.
The interaction process between fast heavy ions and dense plasma
was experimentally investigated. We injected 4.3-MeV/u or
6.0-MeV/u iron ions into a z-pinch-discharge helium
plasma and measured the energy loss of the ions by the time
of flight method. The energy loss of 4.3-MeV/u ions fairly
agreed with theoretical prediction when the electron density
of the target was on the order of 1018 cm−3.
With increasing electron density beyond 1019
cm−3, the difference between the experiment
and the theory became remarkable; the experimental energy loss
was 15% larger than the theoretical value at the peak density.
For 6.0-MeV/u ions, the deviation from the theory appeared
even at densities below 1019 cm−3.
These discrepancies indicated that density effects such as ladderlike
ionization caused the enhancement of the projectile mean charge in the
Activities of research and development on repetitive induction
voltage modulators in the Tokyo Institute of Technology–High
Energy Accelerator Research Organization group are presented
along with a discussion of the magnetic response of ferro-magnetic
materials to fast magnetization and a transient beam loading
in the modulators. The modulator is composed of independently
driven modules switched by field effect transistors. To make
waveform control, the induced voltages are stacked and synthesized
in the induction unit. A proof-of-principle experiment shows
that the module elements are successfully operated up to megahertz
levels with good reproducibility. For the evaluation of magnetic
core response, magnetic characteristics are investigated over
a wide range of parameters, and an empirical core loss scaling
is derived at minor-hysteresis loops. Using the prototype induction
module, we have also investigated the effect of beam loading.
Results indicate that the effect depends not only on the impedance
of the driving circuit but on nonlinearity of the magnetic-core
response. This means that the response of the induction modulator
depends on the time scale of domain motion and operating point
in the B-H plane of magnetic materials. Based on the progress
of the component technology in the induction accelerator and
database of magnetic materials, a system design has been developed.
The charge-state distribution and the energy loss of oxygen
ions in a laser-produced hydrogen plasma have been investigated
experimentally. The plasma target had a maximum electron density
of 5 × 1018 cm−3 and a maximum
electron temperature of 13 eV. The mean charge state of the oxygen
ions in the hydrogen plasma was measured to be 5.1, which was considerably
higher than that in hydrogen gas. The energy loss of oxygen ions in
the plasma of a density less than 1 × 1018
cm−3 in the plasma showed a large enhancement compared
with that in hydrogen gas. However, the energy loss in the plasma of a
density above 1 × 1018 cm−3 showed no
In an effort to develop alternative single buffer layer technology for YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) coated conductors, we have investigated LaMnO3 (LMO) as a potential buffer layer. High-quality LMO films were grown directly on biaxially textured Ni and Ni-W (3%) substrates using rf magnetron sputtering. YBCO films were then grown on LMO buffers using pulsed laser deposition. Detailed X-ray studies have shown that both YBCO and LMO layers were grown with a single epitaxial orientation. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) analyses have indicated the ratio of La to Mn ratio is 1:1. SEM micrographs indicated that 3000-Å-thick LMO films on biaxially textured Ni (100) substrates were dense, continuous and crack-free. A high Jc of over 1 MA/cm2 at 77 K and self-field was obtained on YBCO films grown on LMO-buffered Ni or Ni-W substrates. We have identified LaMnO3 as a good diffusion barrier layer for Ni and it also provides a good template for growing high current density YBCO films.
The newly discovered superconductor, MgB2, has significant potential for a number of electric power applications, even though its critical temperature, TC, is “only” 39 K. In recent months, there has been rapid improvement in its critical state parameters, JC and H*, properties crucial to deployment in power devices, which now rival NbTi at 4.2 K, and equal or surpass many of the high temperature superconducting copper oxide perovskites in the 20 – 25 K range. Moreover, substantial progress has been achieved in realizing wire embodiments that appear economically scalable to commercial production. In this paper, we will review several opportunities to exploit these developments for transformer and electric cable applications, and hint at the possibility of a novel and visionary power delivery system centered on an MgB2-based dc cable cooled by gaseous or liquid hydrogen supplying both electrical and chemical energy to the end user.
High quality single crystals of Hg(Re)1223 were grown by the flux method using BaZrO3 crucible, which is stable against molten Ba-Cu-O. The maximum size of the obtained crystal was 1 × 1.1 × 0.1mm3 in dimension. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that grown crystals are of Hg(Re)1223 single phase with c0 = 15.7 å. In the magnetic hysteresis curves for post-annealed Hg(Re)1223 single crystals under H // c, large second peak effect was found with steep increase of magnetization at approximately 2∼3kOe independent of temperature. The peak field systematically increased with a decrease of temperature, suggesting generation of field-induced pinning. Critical current density and irreversibility field of single crystals were dependent on synthesis batch, possibly due to the difference in resulting concentration of Re, while postannealing under various conditions did not affect largely for critical current properties. Irreversibility lines of the Hg(Re)1223 single crystals locate at higher fields than that of Re-free Hg1223. This suggests that electromagnetic anisotropy is reduced by Re-doping, which is consistent with the recent results on the resistive anisotropy in the normal state.