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Ecological models acknowledge the importance of human-environment interactions in understanding and changing behavior. These models incorporate multiple levels of influence on behavior, including policy, community, organizational, social, and individual. Studies applying ecological models to explore health behavior correlates have tended to identify determinants at the individual level, with fewer exploring correlates at the social, physical, and policy levels. While primarily developed to explain human behavior, some ecological models have been further developed to inform interventions to change human behavior, often paired with theories such as social cognitive theory, organizational theory, and behavioral choice theory. Evidence syntheses indicate that ecological models are seldom used to inform intervention design, with the majority focusing on just one or two levels of the model. Most interventions applying ecological models to target child and adolescent health behaviors have reported small effect sizes, while child obesity prevention initiatives targeting factors at multiple levels of influence have shown larger effects. Future research should focus on developing interventions targeting all levels of ecological models, using interventions based on ecological models to change the behavior of whole communities, using ecological models within a systems framework, and exploring how they can assist with the scaling up of interventions to improve population reach.
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) consist of highly preserved stress proteins that are expressed in response to stress. Two studies were carried out to investigate whether HSP genes in hair follicles from beef calves can be suggested as indicators of heat stress (HS). In study 1, hair follicles were harvested from three male Hanwoo calves (aged 172.2 ± 7.20 days) on six dates over the period of 10 April to 9 August 2017. These days provided varying temperature–humidity indices (THIs). In study 2, 16 Hanwoo male calves (aged 169.6 ± 4.60 days, with a BW of 136.9 ± 6.23 kg) were maintained (4 calves per experiment) in environmentally controlled chambers. A completely randomized design with a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement involving two periods (thermoneutral: TN; HS) and four THI treatment groups (threshold: THI = 68 to 70; mild: THI = 74 to 76; moderate THI = 81 to 83; severe: THI = 88 to 90). The calves in the different group were subjected to ambient temperature (22°C) for 7 days (TN) and subsequently to the temperature and humidity corresponding to the target THI level for 21 days (HS). Every three days (at 1400 h) during both the TN and HS periods, the heart rate (HR) and rectal temperature (RT) of each individual were measured, and hair follicles were subsequently collected from the tails of each individual. In study 1, the high variation (P < 0.0001) in THI indicated that the external environment influenced the HS to different extents. The expression levels of the HSP70 and HSP90 genes at the high-THI level were higher (P = 0.0120, P = 0.0002) than those at the low-THI level. In study 2, no differences in the THI (P = 0.2638), HR (P = 0.2181) or RT (P = 0.3846) were found among the groups during the TN period, whereas differences in these indices (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively) were observed during the HS period. The expression levels of the HSP70 (P = 0.0010, moderate; P = 0.0065, severe) and HSP90 (P = 0.0040, severe) genes were increased after rapid exposure to heat-stress conditions (moderate and severe levels). We conclude that HSP gene expression in hair follicles provides precise and accurate data for evaluating HS and can be considered a novel indicator of HS in Hanwoo calves maintained in both external and climatic chambers.
It is unclear what session frequency is most effective in cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for depression.
Compare the effects of once weekly and twice weekly sessions of CBT and IPT for depression.
We conducted a multicentre randomised trial from November 2014 through December 2017. We recruited 200 adults with depression across nine specialised mental health centres in the Netherlands. This study used a 2 × 2 factorial design, randomising patients to once or twice weekly sessions of CBT or IPT over 16–24 weeks, up to a maximum of 20 sessions. Main outcome measures were depression severity, measured with the Beck Depression Inventory-II at baseline, before session 1, and 2 weeks, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 months after start of the intervention. Intention-to-treat analyses were conducted.
Compared with patients who received weekly sessions, patients who received twice weekly sessions showed a statistically significant decrease in depressive symptoms (estimated mean difference between weekly and twice weekly sessions at month 6: 3.85 points, difference in effect size d = 0.55), lower attrition rates (n = 16 compared with n = 32) and an increased rate of response (hazard ratio 1.48, 95% CI 1.00–2.18).
In clinical practice settings, delivery of twice weekly sessions of CBT and IPT for depression is a way to improve depression treatment outcomes.
The oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata is an important crop pest in eastern Asia. Nocturnal insects, including nocturnal moths, have phototactic behavior to an artificial light source. Phototactic behavior in insects is species-specific in response to different wavelengths of light sources. Our previous study showed that green (520 nm) light emitting diode (LED) light resulted in a significantly higher phototactic behavior in M. separata moths compared to the other wavelength LED lights. The goal of the present study is to investigate the influence of green light illumination on biological characteristics of different developmental stages in M. separata. Our results revealed that when different developmental stages of M. separata were exposed to the green light illumination in a dark period, several biological characteristics in all developmental stages except for egg stage were positively changed, but those of F1 generation M. separata which are next generation of the adults exposed to the green light did not significantly change compared with the control level. These findings suggest that green light illumination at night (or dark period) has a positive effect on the development and longevity of M. separata.
A community-based program is increasingly recognized as promoting health and active social participation in one’s life, yet information is lacking about the use and impact of such programs among immigrant visible minority seniors. This mixed-method research evaluated the impact of a cultural community program for Korean immigrant seniors by examining participants’ health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) benefits and overall well-being. In this study, 79 participants completed the SF-36v2 questionnaire twice to assess the impact of Canada Enoch Senior’s College (CESC) program on their HR-QOL and well-being. Statistically significant improvement in physical and mental health domains was observed: bodily pain and role limitations due to emotional problems. Qualitative data from participants’ interviews supported the survey findings with positive contributions in health and social arenas of seniors’ lives. These results suggest that the CESC program contributes to quality of life and well-being of Korean senior participants and supports similar community-based cultural programs.
The present study aimed to compare the anti-biofilm activities of four commonly available antiseptic eardrops against biofilms from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and quinolone-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro.
The anti-biofilm activities of 50 per cent Burow's solution, vinegar with water (1:1), 2 per cent acetic acid solution, and 4 per cent boric acid solution were evaluated using biofilm assays. Additionally, the anti-biofilm activities of the four antiseptic solutions against tympanostomy tube biofilms were compared using a scanning electron microscope.
The inhibition of biofilm formation from methicillin-resistant S aureus and quinolone-resistant P aeruginosa occurred after treatment with 4 per cent boric acid solution, 2 per cent acetic acid solution, and vinegar with water (1:1). However, 50 per cent Burow's solution did not exhibit effective anti-biofilm activity.
The results indicate that 4 per cent boric acid solution and vinegar with water (1:1) are potent inhibitors of biofilms from methicillin-resistant S aureus and quinolone-resistant P aeruginosa, and provide safe pH levels for avoiding ototoxicity.
Little is known about potential harmful effects as a consequence of self-guided internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (iCBT), such as symptom deterioration rates. Thus, safety concerns remain and hamper the implementation of self-guided iCBT into clinical practice. We aimed to conduct an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis to determine the prevalence of clinically significant deterioration (symptom worsening) in adults with depressive symptoms who received self-guided iCBT compared with control conditions. Several socio-demographic, clinical and study-level variables were tested as potential moderators of deterioration.
Randomised controlled trials that reported results of self-guided iCBT compared with control conditions in adults with symptoms of depression were selected. Mixed effects models with participants nested within studies were used to examine possible clinically significant deterioration rates.
Thirteen out of 16 eligible trials were included in the present IPD meta-analysis. Of the 3805 participants analysed, 7.2% showed clinically significant deterioration (5.8% and 9.1% of participants in the intervention and control groups, respectively). Participants in self-guided iCBT were less likely to deteriorate (OR 0.62, p < 0.001) compared with control conditions. None of the examined participant- and study-level moderators were significantly associated with deterioration rates.
Self-guided iCBT has a lower rate of negative outcomes on symptoms than control conditions and could be a first step treatment approach for adult depression as well as an alternative to watchful waiting in general practice.
Background: High comorbidity rates among emotional disorders have led researchers to examine transdiagnostic factors that may contribute to shared psychopathology. Bifactor models provide a unique method for examining transdiagnostic variables by modelling the common and unique factors within measures. Previous findings suggest that the bifactor model of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) may provide a method for examining transdiagnostic factors within emotional disorders. Aims: This study aimed to replicate the bifactor model of the DASS, a multidimensional measure of psychological distress, within a US adult sample and provide initial estimates of the reliability of the general and domain-specific factors. Furthermore, this study hypothesized that Worry, a theorized transdiagnostic variable, would show stronger relations to general emotional distress than domain-specific subscales. Method: Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the bifactor model structure of the DASS in 456 US adult participants (279 females and 177 males, mean age 35.9 years) recruited online. Results: The DASS bifactor model fitted well (CFI = 0.98; RMSEA = 0.05). The General Emotional Distress factor accounted for most of the reliable variance in item scores. Domain-specific subscales accounted for modest portions of reliable variance in items after accounting for the general scale. Finally, structural equation modelling indicated that Worry was strongly predicted by the General Emotional Distress factor. Conclusions: The DASS bifactor model is generalizable to a US community sample and General Emotional Distress, but not domain-specific factors, strongly predict the transdiagnostic variable Worry.
Walking ability recently emerged as a sub-clinical marker of cognitive decline. Hence, the relationship between baseline gait and future cognitive decline was examined in geriatric patients. Because a “loss of complexity” (LOC) is a key phenomenon of the aging process that exhibits in multiple systems, we propose the idea that age- and cognition-related LOC may also become manifested in gait function. The LOC theory suggests that even healthy aging is associated with a (neuro)physiological breakdown of system elements that causes a decline in variability and an overall LOC. We used coordination dynamics as a conceptual framework and hypothesized that a LOC is reflected in dynamic gait outcomes (e.g. gait regularity, complexity, stability) and that such outcomes could increase the specificity of the gait-cognition link.
19 geriatric patients (age 80.0±5.8) were followed for 14.4±6.6 months. An iPod collected three-dimensional (3D) trunk accelerations while patients walked for 3 minutes. Cognition was evaluated with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Seven-Minute screen (7MS) test. The Reliable Change Index (RCI) quantified the magnitude of cognitive change. Spearman's Rho coefficients (ρ) indexed correlations between baseline gait and future cognitive change.
Seven patients showed reliable cognitive decline (“Cognitive Decline” group), and 12 patients remained cognitively stable (“Cognitive Stable” group) over time. Future cognitive decline was correlated with a more regular (ρ = 0.579*) and predictable (ρ = 0.486*) gait pattern, but not with gait speed.
The increase in gait regularity and predictability possibly reflects a LOC due to age- and cognition-related (neuro)physiological decline. Because dynamic versus traditional gait outcomes (i.e. gait speed and (variability of) stride time) were more strongly correlated with future cognitive decline, the use of wearable sensors in predicting and monitoring cognitive and physical health in vulnerable geriatric patients can be considered promising. However, our results are preliminary and do require replication in larger cohorts.
Randomised studies examining the effect on patients of training
professionals in adherence to suicide guidelines are scarce.
To assess whether patients benefited from the training of professionals
in adherence to suicide guidelines.
In total 45 psychiatric departments were randomised (Dutch trial
register: NTR3092). In the intervention condition, all staff in the
departments were trained with an e-learning supported train-the-trainer
programme. After the intervention, patients were assessed at admission
and at 3-month follow-up. Primary outcome was change in suicide ideation,
assessed with the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation.
For the total group of 566 patients with a positive score on the Beck
Scale for Suicide Ideation at baseline, intention-to-treat analysis
showed no effects of the intervention on patient outcomes at 3-month
follow-up. Patients who were suicidal with a DSM-IV diagnosis of
depression (n = 154) showed a significant decrease in
suicide ideation when treated in the intervention group. Patients in the
intervention group more often reported that suicidality was discussed
Overall, no effect of our intervention on patients was found. However, we
did find a beneficial effect of the training of professionals on patients
The 2013 Infection Prevention and Control (IP&C) Guideline for Cystic Fibrosis (CF) was commissioned by the CF Foundation as an update of the 2003 Infection Control Guideline for CF. During the past decade, new knowledge and new challenges provided the following rationale to develop updated IP&C strategies for this unique population:
1. The need to integrate relevant recommendations from evidence-based guidelines published since 2003 into IP&C practices for CF. These included guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC), the World Health Organization (WHO), and key professional societies, including the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA). During the past decade, new evidence has led to a renewed emphasis on source containment of potential pathogens and the role played by the contaminated healthcare environment in the transmission of infectious agents. Furthermore, an increased understanding of the importance of the application of implementation science, monitoring adherence, and feedback principles has been shown to increase the effectiveness of IP&C guideline recommendations.
2. Experience with emerging pathogens in the non-CF population has expanded our understanding of droplet transmission of respiratory pathogens and can inform IP&C strategies for CF. These pathogens include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and the 2009 influenza A H1N1. Lessons learned about preventing transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and multidrug-resistant gram-negative pathogens in non-CF patient populations also can inform IP&C strategies for CF.
In this chapter we describe the regulatory structure and the monitoring of quality of long-term care in The Netherlands. Firstly an introduction to long-term care for older people is provided, together with some basic information on the position of the long-term care sector within the overall healthcare system, including its capacity, some basic service user characteristics, the services offered and the way the long-term care sector is financed and regulated. In addition, we highlight selected policy and political issues that have emerged over the last decade which have challenged the traditional approach to judging the quality of services. Secondly, we outline the most relevant legislation and regulations related to the rights of long-term care clients as well as those related to the long-term care sector itself, finishing with the most relevant regulatory measures on the quality of care. This is followed by a section on integral quality systems fulfilling ISO 9001 criteria (an internationally accepted standard for quality management systems and certification). Special attention is given to the Dutch Healthcare Inspectorate and its role in the external monitoring of quality of care and to the use of nationally established quality indicators for long-term care. Finally, we focus on the issue of transparency and how the performance of long-term care organizations is communicated to society in general (including service users themselves and insurance companies) through public reporting. In this context, the increasing strength of the role of service users will be addressed. Although this chapter focuses on long-term care for older people, the information provided generally holds for long-term care for young people and for people with chronic somatic, mental or psychiatric diseases as well as for people with mental health disabilities who need chronic care.
We studied capacitance-voltage characteristics of ZnO thin-film transistors
(TFT's), grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We
compared two ZnO TFT's: one grown at 450 °C and the other at 350 °C.
ZnO grown at 450 °C showed smooth capacitance profile with electron
density of 1.5×1020 cm-3. In contrast, ZnO grown at 350 °C
showed a capacitance jump when gate voltage was changed to negative
voltages. Current-voltage characteristics measured in the two samples did
not show much difference. We explain that the capacitance jump is related to
p-type ZnO layer formed at the SiO2 interface. Current-voltage and
capacitance-voltage data support that our ZnO films have anisotropic
We demonstrate a very stable silver-coated mirror exploiting novel
MgO/SiO2 double layers. It was found that the MgO/SiO2 protective
layer provides a good adhesion and protection to the silver surface. Using
epoxy-Ti(40 nm)-Ag(60 nm)-MgO(5~10 nm)-SiO2(25 nm) mirror structures,
we achieved over 95% reflectivity and observed a minimal degradation in
reflectance even after severe environmental tests.