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Potential planting area for tuber mustard was simulated using the Maxent model under current and future conditions based on 591 coordinates and 22 environmental layers. Model accuracy was excellent, with area under the receiving operator curve values of 0.967 and 0.958 for model training and testing, respectively. Dominant factors were mean diurnal range, mean temperature of the coldest quarter, annual mean temperature and minimum temperature of the coldest month, with thresholds of 6.5–7.5, 5.5–9, 16–19 and 2.0–6.5 °C, respectively. Under current conditions, suitable habitat areas (2.16% of total land in China) were concentrated mainly in Central, Southwest and East China, which can be defined as three occurrence and diffusion centres. In the 2050s and 2070s, suitable habitat areas are predicted to change to 3.72 and 3.92%, and 3.60 and 3.73% under scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP6.0, respectively, indicating that suitable habitat areas will increase slightly. However, future distribution of tuber mustard was predicted to differ among provinces or cities, i.e. predicted suitable habitat areas in Sichuan Province increased up to the 2050s but remained relatively unchanged between the 2050s and 2070s; in Chongqing city they first increased and then decreased; in Hunan, Anhui, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Fujian Provinces they increased continuously; and in Guizhou, Hubei, Jiangxi Provinces and Shanghai city they first decreased, and then increased. The results from the current study provide useful information for management decisions of tuber mustard.
To investigate the morphology and dimensions of the vestibular aqueduct on axial, single-oblique and double-oblique computed tomography images.
The computed tomography temporal bone scans of 112 patients were retrospectively evaluated. Midpoint and opercular measurements were performed using axial, single-oblique and double-oblique images. Morphometric analyses were also conducted. The vestibular aqueduct sizes on axial, single-oblique and double-oblique images were compared.
At the midpoint, the mean (± standard deviation) vestibular aqueduct measured 0.61 ± 0.23 mm, 0.74 ± 0.27 mm and 0.82 ± 0.38 mm on axial, single-oblique and double-oblique images, respectively; at the operculum, the vestibular aqueduct measured 0.91 ± 0.30 mm, 1.11 ± 0.45 mm and 1.66 ± 1.07 mm on the respective images. The co-efficients of variation of the vestibular aqueduct measured at the midpoint were 37.4 per cent, 36.5 per cent and 47.5 per cent on axial, single-oblique and double-oblique images, respectively; at the operculum, the measurements were 33.0 per cent, 40.5 per cent and 64.5 per cent. Regarding morphology, the vestibular aqueduct was fissured (33.5 per cent), tubular (64.3 per cent) or invisible (2.2 per cent).
The morphology and dimensions of the vestibular aqueduct were highly variable among axial, single-oblique and double-oblique images.
Cucumber powdery mildew is a destructive foliar disease caused by Podosphaera xanthii (formerly known as Sphaerotheca fuliginea) that substantially damages the yield and quality of crops. The control of this disease primarily involves the use of chemical pesticides that cause serious environmental problems. Currently, numerous studies have indicated that some plant extracts or products potentially have the ability to act as natural pesticides to control plant diseases. It has been reported that turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and its extract can be used in agriculture due to their insecticidal and fungicidal properties. However, the most effective fungicidal component of this plant is still unknown. In the current study, the crude extract of C. longa L. was found to have a fungicidal effect against P. xanthii. Afterwards, eight fractions (Fr.1–Fr.8) were gradually separated from the crude extract by column chromatography. Fraction 1 had the highest fungicidal effect against this pathogen among the eight fractions. The active compound, (+)-(S)-ar-turmerone, was separated from Fr 1 by semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography and identified based on its 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 13C NMR spectrum data. The EC50 value of (+)-(S)-ar-turmerone was found to be 28.7 µg/ml. The compound also proved to have a curative effect. This is the first study to report that the compound (+)-(S)-ar-turmerone has an effect on controlling this disease. These results provide a basis for developing a new phytochemical fungicide from C. longa L. extract.
The musk deer (Moschus berezovskii) is an economically important species from which musk is extracted and used in perfumes and medicines. Cestodes (parasitic flatworms) of the genus Moniezia are important parasites that infect this endangered species and can cause high mortality in young deer. In 1982, Moniezia (S.) sichuanensis sp. nov. was described from a specimen obtained from wild musk deer. The new species was distinct from the other described species of Moniezia by the sawtooth-shaped interproglottidal glands, the thick vagina and the absence of a cirrus spine. In the present study, 12 cestodes collected from musk deer were examined morphologically and confirmed to be M. sichuanensis. Molecular characterization was performed by amplifying and comparing the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and 5.8S rRNA gene (ITS1–5.8S) of ribosomal DNA with available sequences from other Moniezia species. The amplified sequences ranged from 761 to 764 bp and similarity ranged from 98.7–100%, compared to 67.8–92.4% with other Moniezia spp. Construction of a phylogenetic tree using the neighbour-joining method indicated that all 12 ITS1–5.8S sequences formed a single clade, confirming M. sichuanensis as a separate species. This study provides novel molecular insight into M. sichuanensis that could prove useful for future diagnosis and control of monieziasis in musk deer.
In this paper, we perform an absolute equation of state (EOS) measurement on the principal Hugoniot of aluminum using a near-symmetric impact method. The flyer plates are accelerated to high velocities using the laser-ramp-driven method. An aluminum flyer plate of ~25 µm is accelerated to the velocity range from 4 to 12 km/s. Then the aluminum flyer plate propagates across a vacuum gap and impacts with an aluminum step target. A line-imaging optical recording velocity interferometer for any reflector (ORVIS) is used to measure the aluminum flyer plate and the shock velocity simultaneously. Aluminum EOS data were measured with pressures range from 50 to 200 GPa. This absolute EOS measurement method may be used for studying a variety of materials.
A new approach is proposed to analyze Bremsstrahlung X-rays that are emitted from laser-produced plasmas (LPP) and are measured by a stack type spectrometer. This new method is based on a spectral tomographic reconstruction concept with the variational principle for optimization, without referring to the electron energy distribution of a plasma. This approach is applied to the analysis of some experimental data obtained at a few major laser facilities to demonstrate the applicability of the method. Slope temperatures of X-rays from LPP are determined with a two-temperature model, showing different spectral characteristics of X-rays depending on laser properties used in the experiments.
Ectropis grisescens Warren and Ectropis obliqua (Prout) are two morphologically similar sibling species with overlapping ranges. In this study, manipulative laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the possibility of reproductive interference in sympatric populations of E. grisescens and E. obliqua and the potential consequences of the mating interaction. Our results showed that the presence of males or females of different species could incur mating interference and significant reduction of F1 offspring. The reduction was not significant relevant to the initial relative abundance of E. grisescens and E. obliqua. Detailed observations of mating opportunity showed that female mating frequencies of both species were not significantly affected by the absolute species density, but the mating success of E. obliqua females with conspecific males depended on species ratio. In addition, adding males to the other species resulted in lower number of offspring suggesting that the males’ behaviour might be linked with mating interference. Males of both E. grisescens and E. obliqua could interfere the intraspecific mating of the other species, but the impact of the mating interference differed. These combined data indicated that asymmetric reproductive interference existed in E. grisescens and E. obliqua under laboratory conditions, and the offspring of the mixed species were significantly reduced. The long term outcome of this effect is yet to be determined since additional reproductive factors such as oviposition rate and progeny survival to adulthood may reduce the probability of demographic displacement of one species by the other in overlapping niches.
At the end of 2013, China reported a countrywide outbreak of measles. From January to May 2014, we investigated the clinical and immunological features of the cases of the outbreak admitted to our hospital. In this study, all 112 inpatients with clinically diagnosed measles were recruited from the 302 Military Hospital of China. The virus was isolated from throat swabs from these patients, and cytokine profiles were examined. By detecting the measles virus of 30 of the 112 patients, we found that this measles outbreak was of the H1 genotype, which is the major strain in China. The rates of complications, specifically pneumonia and liver injury, differed significantly in patients aged <8 months, 8 months to 18 years, and >18 years: pneumonia was more common in children, while liver injury was more common in adults. Pneumonia was a significant independent risk factor affecting measles duration. Compared to healthy subjects, measles patients had fewer CD4+IL-17+, CD4+IFN-γ+, and CD8+IFN-γ+ cells in both the acute and recovery phases. In contrast, measles patients in the acute phase had more CD8+IL-22+ cells than those in recovery or healthy subjects. We recommend that future studies focus on the age-related distribution of pneumonia and liver injury as measles-related complications as well as the association between immunological markers and measles prognosis.
Observational data increasingly indicate that the mergers of galaxies, even minor mergers, can trigger the formation of a set of SSCs within galaxies. the follow-up, dynamical evolution of SSCs in a configuration of dark matter (DM) dominated systems would be basically similar to what we simulated in this work. the scenario that we propose yields a series of results comparable to the relevant observations. Most notable are two points. One is that the low bulge detection rate in very late-type galaxies is in favour of soft-core DM profiles in galaxies of this kind. On the other hand, the observed young ages of nuclear clusters provide evidence supporting cuspy-core profiles. in conclusion, both the soft- and cuspy-core DM density profiles are suitable to relevant dwarf galaxies based on comparisons with observations.
Cavitation bubbles, which always exist in the diesel jet leaving the nozzle and in diesel droplets breaking up from the jet as a result of supercavitation of the diesel within the injection nozzle, increase the instability of jet and droplets in part due to the two-phase mixture, while the mechanism of this effect is still unclear. Cavitation bubble expansion within the diesel droplet has been simulated numerically based on the volume of fluid (VOF) method, and the control mechanism of bubble growth process is analyzed by Rayleigh-Plesset equation. The process of bubble growth is divided into three parts, including surface tension controlled domain, comprehensive competition controlled domain and inertial force controlled domain. During the first stage, cavitation bubble growth is controlled by the surface tension, and the decrease of the surface tension leads to the increase of the bubble growth rate. During the second stage, the bubble growth rate is controlled by the comprehensive competition of the surface tension, the inertial force and the viscous force. During the third stage, the process of bubble growth is majorly controlled by the inertial force.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism contributes to the development of depression (major depressive disorder, MDD), but it is unclear whether neural effects observed in healthy individuals are sustained in MDD.
To investigate BDNF Val66Met effects on key regions in MDD neurocircuitry: amygdala, anterior cingulate, middle frontal and orbitofrontal regions.
Magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired in 79 persons with MDD (mean age 49 years) and 74 healthy volunteers (mean age 50 years). Effects on surface area and cortical thickness were examined with multiple comparison correction.
People who were Met allele carriers showed reduced caudal middle frontal thickness in both study groups. Significant interaction effects were found in the anterior cingulate and rostral middle frontal regions, in which participants in the MDD group who were Met carriers showed the greatest reduction in surface area.
Modulatory effects of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on distinct subregions in the prefrontal cortex in MDD support the neurotrophin model of depression.
The brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens is a serious phloem-feeding pest of rice in China. The current study focuses on a saccharopine dehydrogenase (SDH) that catalyzes the penultimate reaction in biosynthesis of the amino acid lysine (Lys), which plays a role in insect growth and carnitine production (as a substrate). The protein, provisionally designated as NlylsSDH [a SDH derived from yeast-like symbiont (YLS) in N. lugens], had a higher transcript level in abdomens, compared with heads, wings, legs and thoraces, which agrees with YLS distribution in N. lugens. Ingestion of Nlylssdh targeted double-stranded RNA (dsNlylssdh) for 5, 10 and 15 days decreased the mRNA abundance in the hoppers by 47, 70 and 31%, respectively, comparing with those ingesting normal or dsegfp diets. Nlylssdh knockdown slightly decreased the body weights, significantly delayed the development of females, and killed approximately 30% of the nymphs. Moreover, some surviving adults showed two apparent phenotypic defects: wing deformation and nymphal cuticles remained on tips of the legs and abdomens. The brachypterours/macropterours and sex ratios (female/male) of the adults on the dsRNA diet were lowered compared with the adults on diets without dsRNA. These results suggest that Nlylssdh encodes a functional SDH protein. The adverse effect of Nlylssdh knockdown on N. lugens implies the importance of Lys in hopper development. This study provides a proof of concept example that Nlylssdh could serve as a possible dsRNA-based pesticide for planthopper control.
Following the introduction of vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), cases of invasive encapsulated Hib disease have decreased markedly. This study aimed to examine subsequent epidemiological trends in invasive H. influenzae disease in Queensland, Australia and in particular, assess the clinical impact and public health implications of invasive non-typable H. influenzae (NTHi) strains. A multicentre retrospective study was conducted from July 2000 to June 2013. Databases of major laboratories in Queensland including Queensland Forensic and Scientific Services (jurisdictional referral laboratory for isolate typing) were examined to identify cases. Demographic, infection site, Indigenous status, serotype, and mortality data were collected. In total, 737 invasive isolates were identified, of which 586 (79·5%) were serotyped. Hib, NTHi and encapsulated non-b strains, respectively, constituted 12·1%, 69·1% and 18·8% of isolates. The predominant encapsulated non-b strains were f (45·5%) and a (27·3%) serotypes. Of isolates causing meningitis, 48·9% were NTHi, 14·9% Hib, 14·9% Hie, 10·6% Hif, 6·4% Hia and 4·3% were untyped. During the study period, there was an increase in the incidence of invasive NTHi disease (P = 0·007) with seasonal peaks in winter and spring (P < 0·001). The incidence of Hib disease (P = 0·295) and of encapsulated non-b disease (P = 0·122) did not change significantly. Highest overall incidence was in infants, Indigenous, and elderly patients. Australian Indigenous patients were more likely to have Hia (P > 0·001) and Hib (P = 0·039) than non-Indigenous patients. In Queensland, invasive H. influenzae disease is now predominantly encountered in adults and most commonly caused by NTHi strains with demonstrated pathogenicity extending to otherwise young or immunocompetent individuals. Routine public health notification of these strains is recommended and recent available immunization options should be considered.
The enteric pathogens causing diarrhoea impair children's health severely. This study retrospectively analysed 1577 pathogens isolated from inpatients and outpatients in six hospitals located in Northern (Inner Mongolia), Northeastern (Hebei), Eastern (Shanghai and Jiangsu), Southern (Hainan) and Central (Hubei) China between 2008 and 2013. Of the 1577 enteric pathogens, Salmonella presented with the highest frequency (36·0%), followed by diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (23·7%), Staphylococcus aureus (15·0%), Shigella (13·1%), and Aeromonas (4·6%). The predominant pathogens varied in different regions of China, with Salmonella most prevalent in Shanghai and Hainan, diarrhoeagenic E. coli most prevalent in Inner Mongolia, Jiangsu and Hubei, and Shigella most prevalent in Hebei. Enteric pathogens were more frequently isolated in males (56·9%) than in females (43·1%). The highest proportion of all enteric pathogens was found in infants (67·6%) with a peak in summer and autumn (68·5%). Antimicrobial susceptibility assay demonstrated that Shigella was more resistant to ampicillin, ceftriaxone and sulfamethoxazole than Salmonella. Of the top two serotypes in Salmonella, Typhimurium was more resistant to ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol than Enteritidis (P < 0·001). Meanwhile, the resistance rates of Shigella flexneri against ampicillin/sulbactam, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol were significantly higher than those of Shigella sonnei (P < 0·001). Multidrug resistance was apparent in 58·2% of Shigella and 45·9% of Salmonella, and this phenomenon was more pronounced in S. flexneri.
Hippocampal abnormalities have been demonstrated in schizophrenia. It is
unclear whether these abnormalities worsen with age, and whether they
affect cognition and function.
To determine whether hippocampal abnormalities in chronic schizophrenia
are associated with age, cognition and socio-occupational function.
Using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging we scanned 100 persons aged 19–82
years: 51 were out-patients with stable schizophrenia at least 2 years
after diagnosis and 49 were healthy volunteers matched for age and
gender. Automated analysis was used to determine hippocampal volume and
There were differential effects of age in the schizophrenia and control
samples on total hippocampal volume (group×age interaction:
F(1,95) = 6.57, P = 0.012), with steeper
age-related reduction in the schizophrenia group. Three-dimensional shape
analysis located the age-related deformations predominantly in the
mid-body of the hippocampus. In the schizophrenia group similar patterns
of morphometric abnormalities were correlated with impaired cognition and
poorer socio-occupational function.
Hippocampal abnormalities are associated with age in people with chronic
schizophrenia, with a steeper decline than in healthy individuals. These
abnormalities are associated with cognitive and functional deficits,
suggesting that hippocampal morphometry may be a biomarker for cognitive
decline in older patients with schizophrenia.
Dysfunctional attitudes are a feature of depression that has been correlated with receptor binding abnormalities in limbic and cortical regions. We sought to investigate the functional neuroanatomy of dysfunctional attitudes in major depressive disorder (MDD) and the effects of treatment with cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT).
Participants were 16 patients with unipolar depression in an acute depressive episode (mean age 40.0 years) and 16 matched healthy controls (mean age 39.9 years). Patients were medication free and received a course of treatment with CBT. All participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans at baseline and at week 16, prior to the initiation of therapy and following the course of CBT for patients. During each fMRI scan, participants indicated their attributions to statements from a modified Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (mDAS-48).
MDD patients in an acute depressive episode endorsed a greater number of extreme responses to DAS statements, which normalized following CBT treatment. Extreme attributions were associated with greater activation in the left hippocampal region, inferior parietal lobe and precuneus in MDD patients as compared with healthy controls as a main effect of group. An interaction effect was found in the left parahippocampal region, which showed less attenuation in MDD patients at the follow-up scan relative to healthy controls.
Attenuation of activity in the parahippocampal region may be indicative of an improvement in dysfunctional thinking following CBT treatment in depression, while persistent engagement of regions involved in attentional processing and memory retrieval with extreme attributions reflects a trait feature of depression.
To provide a counter electrode with lower-cost and simple production method for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), we developed polyaniline/graphene nanoplatelet/multi-walled carbon nanotube (PANi/GNP/MWCNT) composite films growing on glass substrates by using chemical/electrochemical deposition method and on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/glass substrates by using electrochemical deposition method respectively. A proper weight ratio of PANi/GNP/MWCNT (1/0.0030/0.0045) composite film depositing on FTO substrate as counter electrode with sheet resistance of 8.25±0.13 Ω/sq for DSSCs yielded power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 7.45±0.08%, which has potential to replace the conventional Pt cell (7.62±0.07%). In addition, we also fabricated the DSSCs composed of a proper weight ratio of PANi/GNP/MWCNTs (1/0.0045/0.0060) composite film depositing on glass substrate as counter electrode. The sheet resistance of resulting composite film was 59.34±12.34 Ω/sq. These solar cells with FTO-free counter electrode exhibited a PCE of 2.90±0.09%.
Exfoliated montmorillonite (exMMT) nanoplatelets are a two-dimensional electrolyte carrying ∼1.78 dissociable monovalent cations per nanometer square. They were fabricated through soap-free emulsion polymerization of poly(methyl methacrylate) in the presence of MMT. Because the dissociated exMMTs are anionic, they were not only capable of gelatinizing 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide (MPII) ionic liquid-based electrolyte, but also increased the power conversion efficiency of resulting dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) from 6 to 7.77%. Recently, we investigated the ionic conductive mechanism of exMMT-gelled MPII ionic liquid-based electrolyte and found that the exMMTs acted like an oxidizing agent for iodide ions (I-). As exMMTs were mixed with MPII, I- ions readily oxidized to I3- and even to I5- ions by losing the electrons. Consequently, the ionic conductivity was significantly increased due to the fact that I-, I3-, and I5- tended to form redox couples that transported faster by way of the Grothus/exchange reaction process.