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This paper presents radiocarbon results from a single Diploastrea heliopora coral from Vanuatu that lived during the Younger Dryas climatic episode, between ca. 11,700 and 12,400 calendar yr bp. The specimen has been independently dated with multiple 230Th measurements to permit calibration of the 14C time scale. Growth bands in the coral were used to identify individual years of growth. 14C measurements were made on each year. These values were averaged to achieve decadal resolution for the 14C calibration. The relative uncertainty of the decadal 14C data was below 1% (2σ). The data are in good agreement with the existing dendrochronology and allow for high-resolution calibration for most years. Variations in the fine structure of the 14C time series preserved in this specimen demonstrate sporadic rapid increases in the Δ14C content of the surface ocean and atmosphere. Certain sharp rises in Δ14C are coincident with gaps in coral growth evidenced by several hiatuses. These may be related to rapid climatic changes that occurred during the Younger Dryas. This is the first coral calibration with decadal resolution and the only such data set to extend beyond the dendrochronology-based 14C calibration.
Increased recognition of the business case for managing corporate impacts on the environment has helped drive increasingly detailed and quantified corporate environmental goals. Foremost among these are goals of no net loss (NNL) and net positive impact (NPI). We assess the scale and growth of such corporate goals. Since the first public, company-wide NNL/NPI goal in 2001, 32 companies have set similar goals, of which 18 specifically include biodiversity. Mining companies have set the most NNL/NPI goals, and the majority of those that include biodiversity, despite the generally lower total global impact of the mining industry on biodiversity compared to the agriculture or forestry industries. This could be linked to the mining industry's greater participation in best practice bodies, high-profile impacts, and higher profit margins per area of impact. The detail and quality of present goals vary widely. We examined specific NNL/NPI goals and assessed the extent to which their key components were likely to increase the effectiveness of these goals in benefiting biodiversity and managing business risk. Nonetheless, outcomes are more important than goals, and we urge conservationists to work with companies to both support and monitor their efforts to achieve increasingly ambitious environmental goals.
Biomechanical investigation into locomotor pathology in commercial pigs is lacking despite this being a major concern for the industry. Different floor types are used in modern, intensive pig production systems at different stages of the pigs’ production cycle. The general perception holds that slatted and/or hard solid concrete surfaces are inferior to soft straw-covered floors regarding healthy musculoskeletal development. Previous studies have compared pigs housed on different floor types using clinical, subjective assessment of leg weakness and lameness. However, reliability studies generally report a low repeatability of clinical lameness scoring. The objective of this study was to quantitatively assess the long-term effect of pen floors, reflected in the biomechanical gait characteristics and associated welfare of the pigs. A cohort of 24 pigs housed on one of three different floor types was followed from 37 to 90 kg average liveweight, with gait analysis (motion capture) starting at 63 kg. The three floor types were fully slatted concrete, partly slatted concrete and deep straw-bedded surfaces, all located within the same building. Pigs underwent five repeated camera-based motion captures, 7 to 10 days apart, during which 3D coordinate data of reflective skin markers attached to leg anatomical landmarks were collected. Pigs walked on the same solid concrete walkway during captures. One-way ANOVA and repeated measures ANOVA were used to analyse the gait data. Results revealed changes over time in the spatiotemporal gait pattern which were similar in magnitude and direction for the pigs from different floor types. Significant increases in elbow joint flexion with age were observed in all pigs (P⩽0.050; +6°). There were few differences between floor groups, except for the step-to-stride ratio in the hind legs being more irregular in pigs housed on partly slatted floors (P=0.012; 3.6 times higher s.d.) compared with those on 5 to 10 cm straw-bedding in all pen areas. As the level of clinical problems was generally low in this cohort, it may be that floors elicit problems only when there is a primary predisposing factor increasing weakness in susceptible tissues.
Annealing at 150 °C induces phase separation in amorphous (Ge2Se7)88Bi5Sb7 bulk samples. Spectrally resolved steady-state photoconductivity measurements indicate the presence of crystalline Bi2Se3 clusters in the annealed material, but also the subsequent gradual disappearance of this microstructure at room temperature. Similar annealing-induced metastable changes are observed in other elements of a (Ge2Se7)88BixSb12-x sample series.
This paper discusses the modeling of phase change, chalcogenide alloy, electrical memory devices. Optical disk modeling, which uses the same alloys has yielded a good understanding of how the material's structural change is related to temperature, time, nucleation of crystallites, and crystal growth. From this base, models of electrical memory behavior have been developed. Modeling the complex electronic nature of the amorphous phase is discussed and suggestions for improving device performance using these models are made.
The meeting was opened by Ted Bowell, president, at 11 am. The 2006 Division III meetings were reviewed by Guy Consolmagno, secretary; as the minutes of those meetings have already been published, they were assumed to be approved.
Formulating the inventory of relevant commodities to assess the life cycle of goods or services (LCI) is highly demanding on time and resources (Suh et al., 2004). Collected information is not always satisfactory to take account of all possible sources of environmental burdens (E-burdens) produced in the commodity supply chain. Several pre-assessment methods have been proposed to serve this function, although these have identified limitations; lack of previous experience and use of subjective cut off criteria are the most frequent weaknesses found (Suh, 2006). An objective pre-assessment method was developed as part of a life cycle analysis (LCA) for different pigmeat supply chain (PSC) scenarios.
The Working Group on Planetary System Nomenclature (WG-PSN) develops, maintains and publishes guidelines for naming natural satellites of planets and surface features on all solar system bodies except Earth. When required the WG approves lists of new nomenclature, with accompanying explanatory notes, based on the established guidelines. Approved names are immediately added into the Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Objections based on significant, substantive problems may be submitted within a 3-months period, and will be ruled on by Division III.
The IAU/IAG Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates & Rotational Elements published its (2006) triennial report containing current recommendations for models for solar system bodies (Seidelmann et al. 2007). P. Kenneth Seidelmann stepped down as chairperson and B. A. Archinal was elected chairperson at the Working Group business meeting that took place at the IAU XXVI General Assembly in Prague in 2006.
Although dietary composition for weaned pigs can be altered to promote a beneficial microflora which resists proliferation of pathogenic bacteria, this concept has yet to be applied to the pre-weaning phase. Commercial creep feeds typically are highly digestible and based on milk products and cooked cereals which, in the presence of lactase enzyme activity in the suckling piglet, promote relatively limited microbial fermentation in the gut. The gut flora therefore remains relatively immature and less able to deal with the challenges of weaning and transition to a non-milk diet. Recent studies in weaned piglets have shown how dietary ingredients such as inulin can enhance the proportion of beneficial bacteria in the gut (Wellock et al., 2006), and thus may provide a more stable gut pH and microflora over the weaning transition. Similarly, addition of sodium butyrate to the diet can enhance gut architecture (Miller and Slade, 2006), which could promote development of a more mature gut at weaning if fed prior to this time. The aim of this experiment was to test whether manipulations which have had beneficial effects on enteric conditions in weaned pigs can be used prior to weaning, to promote more favourable gut conditions and thereby reduce the feed intake deficit and growth check associated with the weaning process.
Oilseed rape is a protein crop that can be readily grown under UK conditions and has a good amino acid profile relative to other plant protein sources. Its use in diets for young pigs has been limited by concerns about its content of anti-nutritive factors, especially glucosinolate compounds, although these have been progressively reduced by plant breeders (Gill and Taylor, 1989). The whole seed contains a high level of digestible oil, making it an excellent energy source for piglets provided that the oil is made available by milling or heat treatment to rupture the seed coat. The forthcoming ban on use of in-feed anti-microbial growth promoters has renewed interest in rapeseed use because glucosinolate compounds can have antimicrobial effects (Fenwick and Heany, 1983), and because weaning age may be increased in future to reduce risk of health problems. In this circumstance, where regular intake of solid feed is established during lactation, the sensitivity to dietary rapeseed in the post weaning stage may be less critical. This experiment therefore evaluated the response in performance and health indicators of piglets weaned at different ages to diets with different rapeseed inclusion levels.
The Working Group was formed at the request of the Board of DivisionIII and approved by the IAU Executive committee in March 2004. This was in recognition of the fact that discoveries in the Trans Neptunian region were repeatedly raising the question of “what is a planet”. The task of the WG was to investigate the options available and give indications of the level of support and opposition for each if more than one option was emerging.
Of the many interactions with psychotropic drugs, a minority are potentially hazardous. Most interactions are pharmacodynamic, resulting from augmented or antagonistic actions at a receptor or from different mechanisms in the same tissue. Most important pharmacokinetic interactions are due to effects on metabolism or renal excretion. The major enzymes involved in metabolism belong to the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system. Genetic variation in the CYP system produces people who are ‘poor’, ‘extensive’ or ‘ultra-rapid’ drug metabolisers. Hazardous interactions more often result from enzyme inhibition, but the probability of interaction depends on the initial level of enzyme activity and the availability of alternative metabolic routes for elimination of the drug. There is currently interest in interactions involving uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases and the P-glycoprotein cell transport system, but their importance for psychotropics has yet to be defined. The most serious interactions with psychotropics result in profound sedation, central nervous system toxicity, large changes in blood pressure, ventricular arrhythmias, an increased risk of dangerous side-effects or a decreased therapeutic effect of one of the interacting drugs.
There is much evidence from clinical trials that antidepressants help prevent relapse and recurrence of major depression. However, this is unlikely to hold true for all patients with depression, particularly those treated in primary care. Individual antidepressants are equally efficacious, so choice (as first-line treatment in general or for individual patients) is largely determined by differences in side-effects, even though many of these disappear during long-term treatment, owing to adaptation. Specific effects that are considered in choosing a drug include those on cognition, psychomotor performance and sexual function; drug interactions, lethality in overdose and the potential for teratogenicity are also considered. There are insufficient entirely objective and generally accepted data on pharmaco-economics to allow for confident recommendations on drug choice for long-term treatment. Drug acquisition costs must be considered by those with restricted budgets, and especially patients in developing countries where difference in cost between newer and older drugs can be translated into more food for a hungry family.