To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Enteric illness outbreaks are complex events, therefore, outbreak investigators use many different hypothesis generation methods depending on the situation. This scoping review was conducted to describe methods used to generate a hypothesis during enteric illness outbreak investigations. The search included five databases and grey literature for articles published between 1 January 2000 and 2 May 2015. Relevance screening and article characterisation were conducted by two independent reviewers using pretested forms. There were 903 outbreaks that described hypothesis generation methods and 33 papers which focused on the evaluation of hypothesis generation methods. Common hypothesis generation methods described are analytic studies (64.8%), descriptive epidemiology (33.7%), food or environmental sampling (32.8%) and facility inspections (27.9%). The least common methods included the use of a single interviewer (0.4%) and investigation of outliers (0.4%). Most studies reported using two or more methods to generate hypotheses (81.2%), with 29.2% of studies reporting using four or more. The use of multiple different hypothesis generation methods both within and between outbreaks highlights the complexity of enteric illness outbreak investigations. Future research should examine the effectiveness of each method and the contexts for which each is most effective in efficiently leading to source identification.
The establishment of a peace agreement in November 2016 between the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) was a landmark achievement for a conflict that has persisted since 1964 in a country that has experienced civil war dating as far back as the 1940s. This peace agreement to end a more than fifty-year-old insurgency is all the more remarkable given the past history of failed peace attempts between the two sides. Over the decades, the two sides have vacillated between violent efforts aimed at winning the conflict outright and imposing their own settlement terms on one another and efforts at dialogue aimed at settling the conflict through negotiation. While these two processes – violence and negotiation – seem distinct, they are inextricably linked to one another. Violence between the FARC and the Colombian government shaped the occurrence and outcomes of peace efforts between them. At the same time, negotiations between the two sides conditioned future violence between them.
Urbanisation and climate change are altering the pattern of California serogroup viruses in North America. As La Crosse virus (LACV) is the most pathogenic of the California serogroup, it is important to identify changes in distribution, transmission and pathogenesis. A scoping review (ScR) was prioritised to summarise the global evidence on LACV. A comprehensive search strategy was used, identified references were screened for relevance and relevant articles were characterised. Each step was conducted by two independent reviewers using pre-tested forms. Analysis identified areas of research saturation and gaps. The ScR included 481 research articles that were mostly journal articles (78.2%) conducted in North America (90.9%) from 1969 to 2016. Most evidence focused on epidemiology (44.9%), virus characteristics (25.8%), transmission conditions (18.7%) and pathogenesis of LACV in hosts (18.3%). Fewer studies evaluated the accuracy of diagnostic tests (8.7%), the efficacy of treatments (3.5%), prevention and control strategies (3.1%), the economic burden of infection (0.6%) and social impact (0.2%) of LACV. None of the literature predicted the impact of climate change on LACV, nor were any cases reported in Canada. These findings are intended to guide research to close knowledge gaps and inform evidence-based decisions surrounding activities for the prevention and control of LACV.
In grazing systems livestock contact with faeces and the faecal-oral route is a common mode of parasite transmission (Hutchings et al. 2003). Quantifying the faecal-oral route of transmission is thus central to predicting the force of infection of numerous diseases experienced by grazing livestock. Here our overall aim is to quantify the rate of faeces ingestion and thus disease risk by grazing herbivores using the example of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and the risk of paratuberculosis (Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis) they pose to ruminants. The study had the secondary aims of determining the effects of level of contamination and sward height on the rate of faeces ingestion.
Paratuberculosis (Johne’s disease) is a chronic invariably fatal enteritis of cattle caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and has recently been isolated from wild rabbits. One potential route of transmission of M.a.paratuberculosis from rabbits to cattle is the ingestion of rabbit excreta contaminating pasture. Here we (1) determine the prevalence and level of infection in rabbits and their excreta (2) quantify the level of rabbit faeces contaminating cattle pastures and (3) determine the impact of rabbit faeces on cattle grazing behaviour.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the presence and severity of potential cultural and language bias in widely used cognitive and other assessment instruments, using structural MRI measures of neurodegeneration as biomarkers of disease stage and severity. Methods: Hispanic (n=75) and White non-Hispanic (WNH) (n=90) subjects were classified as cognitively normal (CN), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and mild dementia. Performance on the culture-fair and educationally fair Fuld Object Memory Evaluation (FOME) and Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR) between Hispanics and WNHs was equivalent, in each diagnostic group. Volumetric and visually rated measures of the hippocampus entorhinal cortex, and inferior lateral ventricles (ILV) were measured on structural MRI scans for all subjects. A series of analyses of covariance, controlling for age, depression, and education, were conducted to compare the level of neurodegeneration on these MRI measures between Hispanics and WNHs in each diagnostic group. Results: Among both Hispanics and WNH groups there was a progressive decrease in volume of the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, and an increase in volume of the ILV (indicating increasing atrophy in the regions surrounding the ILV) from CN to aMCI to mild dementia. For equivalent levels of performance on the FOME and CDR, WNHs had greater levels of neurodegeneration than did Hispanic subjects. Conclusions: Atrophy in medial temporal regions was found to be greater among WNH than Hispanic diagnostic groups, despite the lack of statistical differences in cognitive performance between these two ethnic groups. Presumably, unmeasured factors result in better cognitive performance among WNH than Hispanics for a given level of neurodegeneration. (JINS, 2018, 24, 176–187)
The MSS. here calendared were presented to the Royal Society of Edinburgh by David Hume the Younger, nephew of the philosopher and Baron of the Scottish Exchequer.
The editors desire gratefully to acknowledge a grant made by the Research Committee of Armstrong College, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, in the University of Durham, to assist them in the work of compiling the Calendar.
Depression is a common and important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is commonly treated with antidepressants and/or psychological therapy, but some people prefer alternative approaches such as exercise. There are a number of theoretical reasons why exercise may improve depression. This is an update of a review first published in 2009.
It is known that Fe deficiency has a negative impact on cognitive function in children by altering brain energy metabolism and neurotransmitter function. It is unclear whether Fe deficiency has detrimental effects on cognition, mental health and fatigue in women of childbearing age. Our aim was to systematically review the literature to determine whether Fe deficiency in women of childbearing age affects cognition, mental health and fatigue, and whether a change in Fe status results in improvements in cognition, mental health and fatigue. Studies using Fe supplement interventions were reviewed to examine the effect of Fe deficiency in women of childbearing age (13–45 years) on their cognition, mental health and fatigue. English-language articles ranging from the earliest record to the year 2011 were sourced. The quality of retrieved articles was assessed and the Fe pathology, cognitive, mental health and fatigue data were extracted. Means and standard deviations from cognitive test data were included in meta-analyses of combined effects. Of the 1348 studies identified, ten were included in the review. Three studies showed poorer cognition and mental health scores and increased fatigue with Fe deficiency at baseline. Seven studies reported an improvement in cognitive test scores after Fe treatment. Results of three of these studies were included in meta-analyses of the effect of Fe supplement intervention on cognition. The results of the meta-analyses showed a significant improvement in Arithmetic scores after treatment (P < 0·01), but no effect on Digit Symbol, Digit Span or Block Design. While an improvement in cognition after Fe treatment was seen in seven out of ten studies, the evidence base is limited by poor study quality and heterogeneity across studies. Additional high-quality studies using consistent measures are warranted.
The recording and analysis of a burnt mound and adjacent palaeochannel deposits on the floodplain of the River Soar in Leicestershire revealed that the burnt mound was in use, possibly for a number of different purposes, at the transition from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age. An extensive radiocarbon dating programme indicated that the site was revisited. Human remains from the palaeochannel comprised the remains of three individuals, two of whom pre-dated the burnt mound by several centuries while the partial remains of a third, dating from the Late Bronze Age, provided evidence that this individual had met a violent death. These finds, along with animal bones dating to the Iron Age, and the remains of a bridge from the early medieval period, suggest that people were drawn to this location over a long period of time.
We have observed oscillations with non-Magnetic spacer layer thickness in the saturation fields and characteristic exchange fields of CO/Cu Multilayers grown by MBE. The Specimens consisted of a set of samples in which the thickness of copper layers took a series of values between 5Å and 20Å, while the cobalt layer thickness was set at 15Å throughout. The Multilayers were grown epitaxially on GaAs (110) with Ge, Co (110) and Au in the buffer region, resulting in CO/Cu bilayers in the (111) orientation. Although oscillations were observed in these magnetic measurements, no oscillations were observed in the magnetoresistance itself. These observations are somewhat at odds with similar measurements made on samples prepared by sputtering. We conclude with a discussion involving exchange coupling, in-plane anisotropy and defects in the magnetic structure in an attempt to account for these conflicting results.
I am privileged to-day in having been invited to give this address, but I feel that I am particularly privileged also in that, so far as I can discover, this is the first occasion in the annals of the Royal Society of Edinburgh on which a veterinarian has been asked to address the Society on matters concerning the diseases of animals.
The Veterinary profession has long been recognised as a handmaid of Agriculture but, like her sister profession Medicine, her services, until comparatively recently, have been based on knowledge acquired by long experience derived from trial and error, as distinct from planned experiment based on scientific principles.
Because brain structure and function are affected in neurological and psychiatric disorders, it is important to disentangle the sources of variation in these phenotypes. Over the past 15 years, twin studies have found evidence for both genetic and environmental influences on neuroimaging phenotypes, but considerable variation across studies makes it difficult to draw clear conclusions about the relative magnitude of these influences. Here we performed the first meta-analysis of structural MRI data from 48 studies on >1,250 twin pairs, and diffusion tensor imaging data from 10 studies on 444 twin pairs. The proportion of total variance accounted for by genes (A), shared environment (C), and unshared environment (E), was calculated by averaging A, C, and E estimates across studies from independent twin cohorts and weighting by sample size. The results indicated that additive genetic estimates were significantly different from zero for all meta-analyzed phenotypes, with the exception of fractional anisotropy (FA) of the callosal splenium, and cortical thickness (CT) of the uncus, left parahippocampal gyrus, and insula. For many phenotypes there was also a significant influence of C. We now have good estimates of heritability for many regional and lobar CT measures, in addition to the global volumes. Confidence intervals are wide and number of individuals small for many of the other phenotypes. In conclusion, while our meta-analysis shows that imaging measures are strongly influenced by genes, and that novel phenotypes such as CT measures, FA measures, and brain activation measures look especially promising, replication across independent samples and demographic groups is necessary.
This issue on the genetics of brain imaging phenotypes is a celebration of the happy marriage between two of science's highly interesting fields: neuroscience and genetics. The articles collected here are ample evidence that a good deal of synergy exists in this marriage. A wide selection of papers is presented that provide many different perspectives on how genes cause variation in brain structure and function, which in turn influence behavioral phenotypes (including psychopathology). They are examples of the many different methodologies in contemporary genetics and neuroscience research. Genetic methodology includes genome-wide association (GWA), candidate-gene association, and twin studies. Sources of data on brain phenotypes include cortical gray matter (GM) structural/volumetric measures from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); white matter (WM) measures from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), such as fractional anisotropy; functional- (activity-) based measures from electroencephalography (EEG), and functional MRI (fMRI). Together, they reflect a combination of scientific fields that have seen great technological advances, whether it is the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array in genetics, the increasingly high-resolution MRI imaging, or high angular resolution diffusion imaging technique for measuring WM connective properties.
The development of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) is under strong genetic control and there is great interest in the genetic variants that confer increased risk. The Alzheimer's disease risk gene, growth factor receptor bound protein 2-associated protein (GAB2), has been shown to provide a 1.27–1.51 increased odds of developing LOAD for rs7101429 major allele carriers, in case-control analysis. GAB2 is expressed across the brain throughout life, and its role in LOAD pathology is well understood. Recent studies have begun to examine the effect of genetic variation in the GAB2 gene on differences in the brain. However, the effect of GAB2 on the young adult brain has yet to be considered. Here we found a significant association between the GAB2 gene and morphological brain differences in 755 young adult twins (469 females) (M = 23.1, SD = 3.1 years), using a gene-based test with principal components regression (PCReg). Detectable differences in brain morphology are therefore associated with variation in the GAB2 gene, even in young adults, long before the typical age of onset of Alzheimer's disease.
The purpose of this study was to review documented outbreaks of enteric illness associated with nosocomial norovirus infections and to identify modes of transmission, morbidity and mortality patterns, and recommendations for control. Searches of electronic databases, public health publications, and federal, state/provincial public health websites were completed for 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2010. Computer-aided searches of literature databases and systematic searches of government websites identified 54 relevant outbreak reports. Transmission routes included person-to-person (18·5%), foodborne (3·7%) and in the majority (77·8%) the route was unknown. Actions taken during the outbreak to control infection included restricting the movements of patients and staff (22·5%), enhanced environmental cleaning (13·6%) and hand hygiene (10·3%). Rapid identification of norovirus outbreaks in hospitals is vital for the immediate implementation of infection control measures and isolation of infected individuals in this mainly immunocompromised population. Studies that statistically evaluate infection control measures are needed.
The objectives of our study were to identify and categorize primary research investigating swine/pork as a source of zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) using the relatively new technique of scoping study, and to investigate the potential association between human exposure to swine/pork and HEV infection quantitatively using systematic review/meta-analysis methodology. From 1890 initially identified abstracts, 327 were considered for the review. Five study design types (cross-sectional, prevalence, genotyping, case-report and experimental transmission studies) were identified. A significant association between occupational exposure to swine and human HEV IgG seropositivity was reported in 10/13 cross-sectional studies. The association reported between pork consumption and HEV IgG seropositivity was inconsistent. The quantification of viral load in swine and retail pork, viral load required for infection in primates, cohort and case-control studies in humans, and formal risk assessment are recommended before specific public-health policy actions are taken.
Amorphous alloys of the binary system CaAl are known to have highly unusual electron transport properties with resistivities up to 450μΣcm and a Hall coefficient that deviates from free electron values at Ca concentrations higher than 45 atomic percent. For amorphous CaMg alloys, on the other hand, the resistivity is very much less and this great difference between the two sets of alloys is not fully understood.
We report on the correlation of photoemission and transport measurements made on two sets of amorphous CaAl and CaMg alloys prepared by magnetron sputtering in such a way that we could carry out both sets of measurements within the same UHV system. A special feature of the measurements was that the electrical resistivity was also measured in-situ using a specially designed 4-point probe to check for amorphicity and to compare with transport experiments carried out elsewhere.
Photoemission studies were carried out in the energy range 15–50 eV with tuneable synchrotron radiation enabling us to examine the Ca 3p-3d photoemission resonance in detail. The main result from the present series of experiments was that whereas in the CaAl alloys the Fermi edge developed a shoulder at high concentrations of Al, this feature was completely absent in CaMg. At the same time the intensity of the Ca 3p-3d photoemission resonance revealed the presence of d-states in both sets of alloys, indicating that the presence of these dstates cannot, by itself, explain the high resistivity of CaAl.