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The Oxford English Dictionary defines psychopharmacology as ‘the scientific study of the effect of drugs on the mind and behaviour’ (Oxford English Dictionary Online, 2018). The earliest reference to the term was in 1548 when Reinhard Lorichius published the prayer book Psychopharmakon, hoc est Medicina Animae (Lehmann, 1993; Wolman, 1977). Lorichius coined the term ‘psychopharmakon’ to refer to spiritual medicine that could reduce human suffering. The word psychopharmacology was first used in a scientific paper in 1920 by a pharmacologist working at Johns Hopkins University who wrote a short paper entitled Contributions to psychopharmacology (Macht, 1920).
To evaluate the impact of a pharmacist-driven Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) safety bundle supported by leadership and to compare compliance before and after implementation.
Retrospective cohort study with descriptive and before-and-after analyses.
Tertiary-care academic medical center.
All patients with documented SAB, regardless of the source of infection, were included. Patients transitioned to palliative care were excluded from before-and-after analysis.
A pharmacist-driven safety bundle including documented clearance of bacteremia, echocardiography, removal of central venous catheters, and targeted intravenous therapy of at least 2 weeks duration was implemented in November 2015 and was supported by leadership with stepwise escalation for nonresponse. A descriptive analysis of all patients with SAB during the study period included pharmacy interventions, acceptance rates, and escalation rates. A pre–post implementation analysis of 100 sequential patients compared bundle compliance and descriptive parameters.
Overall, 391 interventions were made in the 20-month period following implementation, including 20 “good saves” avoiding potentially major adverse events. No statistically significant differences in complete bundle compliance were detected between the periods (74% vs 84%; P = .08). However, we detected a significant increase in echocardiography after the bundle was implemented (83% vs 94%; P = .02) and fewer patients received suboptimal definitive therapy after the bundle was implemented (10% vs 3%; P = .045).
This pharmacist-driven SAB safety bundle with leadership support showed improvement in process measures, which may have prevented major adverse events, even with available infectious diseases (ID) consultation. It provides a critical safety net for institutions without mandatory ID consultation or with limited antimicrobial stewardship resources.
Infant feeding guidelines worldwide recommend first foods to be Fe rich with no added sugars and that nutrient-poor discretionary foods are to be avoided. Feeding guidelines also recommend exposing infants to a variety of foods and flavours with increasingly complex textures. Here, we compare nutritional and textural properties of commercial infant and toddler foods available in Australia with established infant feeding guidelines. Nutrition information and ingredient lists were obtained from food labels, manufacturer and/or retailer websites. In total, 414 foods were identified, comprising mostly mixed main dishes, fruit and vegetable first foods and snacks. Most products were poor sources of Fe, and 80 % of first foods were fruit-based. Half of all products were purées in squeeze pouches, and one-third of all products were discretionary foods. The nutritional content of many products was inconsistent with guidelines, being low in Fe, sweet, smooth in consistency or classified as discretionary. Reformulation of products is warranted to improve Fe content, particularly in mixed main dishes, expand the range of vegetable-only foods and textural variety. Greater regulatory oversight may be needed to better inform parents and caregivers. Frequent consumption of commercial baby foods low in Fe may increase the risk of Fe deficiency. Excessive consumption of purées via squeeze pouches may also have implications for overweight and obesity risk.
Levamisole is an increasingly common cutting agent used with cocaine. Both cocaine and levamisole can have local and systemic effects on patients.
A retrospective case series was conducted of patients with a cocaine-induced midline destructive lesion or levamisole-induced vasculitis, who presented to a Dundee hospital or the practice of a single surgeon in Paisley, from April 2016 to April 2019. A literature review on the topic was also carried out.
Nine patients from the two centres were identified. One patient appeared to have levamisole-induced vasculitis, with raised proteinase 3, perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies positivity and arthralgia which improved on systemic steroids. The other eight patients had features of a cocaine-induced midline destructive lesion.
As the use of cocaine increases, ENT surgeons will see more of the complications associated with it. This paper highlights some of the diagnostic issues and proposes a management strategy as a guide to this complex patient group. Often, multidisciplinary management is needed.
Introduction: Paramedics commonly administer intravenous dextrose to severely hypoglycemic patients. Typically, the treatment provided is a 25g ampule of 50% dextrose (D50). This dose of D50 is meant to ensure a return to consciousness. However, this dose may be unnecessary and lead to harm or difficulties regulating blood glucose post treatment. We hypothesize that a lower dose such as dextrose 10% (D10) or titrating the D50 to desired level of consciousness may be optimal and avoid adverse events. Methods: We systematically searched Medline, Embase, CINAHL and Cochrane Central on June 5th 2019. PRISMA guidelines were followed. The GRADE methods and risk of bias assessments were applied to determine the certainty of the evidence. We included primary literature investigating the use of intravenous dextrose in hypoglycemic diabetic patients presenting to paramedics or the emergency department. Outcomes of interest were related to the safe and effective reversal of symptoms and blood glucose levels (BGL). Results: 660 abstracts were screened, 40 full text articles, with eight studies included. Data from three randomized controlled trials and five observational studies were analyzed. A single RCT comparing D10 to D50 was identified. The primary significant finding of the study was an increased post-treatment glycemic profile by 3.2 mmol/L in the D50 group; no other outcomes had significant differences between groups. When comparing pooled data from all the included studies we find higher symptom resolution in the D10 group compared to the D50 group; at 99.8% and 94.9% respectively. However, the mean time to resolution was approximately 4 minutes longer in the D10 group (4.1 minutes (D50) and 8 minutes (D10)). There was more need for subsequent doses in the D10 group at 23.0% versus 16.5% in the D50 group. The post treatment glycemic profile was lower in the D10 group at 5.9 mmol/L versus 8.5 mmol/L in the D50 group. Both treatments had nearly complete resolution of hypoglycemia; 98.7% (D50) and 99.2% (D10). No adverse events were observed in the D10 group (0/871) compared to 12/133 adverse events in the D50 group. Conclusion: D10 may be as effective as D50 at resolving symptoms and correcting hypoglycemia. Although the desired effect can take several minutes longer there appear to be fewer adverse events. The post treatment glycemic profile may facilitate less challenging ongoing glucose management by the patients.
Introduction: Medicine demands a sacrifice of physicians’ personal life, but culture has slowly changed towards valuing a balanced work life. Parental leave is linked to better physical and mental health, but policies and culture surrounding parental leave are largely unstudied in the Canadian Emergency Medicine landscape. Anecdotally, experiences vary widely. This study was designed to determine what proportion of Canadian Emergency Departments have formal parental leave policies (maternity, paternity, and other ex. adoption) and what proportion of Canadian EM physicians are satisfied with their department's parental leave policies. Methods: Two surveys were generated; one to assess attitudes and experiences of emergency physicians, and a second survey for department chiefs assessed the policies and their features. These were approved by the UBC REB and distributed through the CAEP Research Committee. Primary outcomes were physician satisfaction with their department's parental leave policy (4-5/5 Likert Scale), and departments with a formal parental leave policy (Y/N). Results: 38% (8/21) of department chiefs reported having a formal policy for maternity leave, 29% (6/21) for paternity leave, and 24% (5/21) other. The survey of Emergency Physicians revealed similar rates at 48% (90/187) maternity, 40% (70/184) paternity, 29% (53/181) other. Among physicians who were aware of them, 69% (62/90) were somewhat or very satisfied with the maternity leave policies, 58% (51/88) with paternity leave policies, and 48% (39/81) with other parental leave. Less than 10% were somewhat or very dissatisfied with any of these. Several department chiefs commented that they had never refused anyone parental leave, but have no formal policy. However, 87% (147/187) of physicians reported a formal maternity leave policy was somewhat or very important to them; similarly 80% (134/187) paternity leave. Less than 15% felt each was somewhat or extremely unimportant. Conclusion: Presence and type of parental leave policy varies across the country. Most physicians were satisfied with the support they had available, but the vast majority felt that a formal maternity and paternity leave policy itself was important. This study would suggest that, without actually changing practice, the introduction of a formal parental leave policy is of value. Our research group will use this data to collaborate on a template parental leave policy to be made available for this purpose.
Introduction: The Prehospital Evidence-based Practice (PEP) program is an online, freely accessible, continuously updated repository of appraised EMS research evidence. This report is an analysis of published evidence for EMS interventions used to assess and treat patients suffering from hypoglycemia. Methods: PubMed was systematically searched in June 2019. One author screened titles, abstracts and full-texts for relevance. Trained appraisers reviewed full text articles, scored each on a three-point Level of Evidence (LOE) scale (based on study design and quality) and three-point Direction of Evidence (DOE) scale (supportive, neutral, or opposing findings for each intervention's primary outcome), abstracted the primary outcome, setting and assigned an outcome category (patient or process). Second party appraisal was conducted for all included studies. The level and direction of each intervention was plotted in an evidence matrix, based on appraisals. Results: Twenty-nine studies were included and appraised for seven interventions: 5 drugs (Dextrose 50% (D50), Dextrose 10% (D10), glucagon, oral glucose and thiamine), one assessment tool (point-of-care (POC) glucose testing) and one call disposition (treat-and-release). The most frequently reported study primary outcomes were related to: clinical improvement (n = 15, 51.7%), feasibility/safety (n = 8, 27.6%), and diagnostics (n = 6, 20.7%). The majority of outcomes were patient focused (n = 18, 62.0%). Conclusion: EMS interventions for treating hypoglycemia are informed by high-quality supportive evidence. Both D50 and D10 are supported by high-quality evidence; suggesting D10 may be an effective alternative to the standard D50. “Treat-and-release” practices for hypoglycemia are supported by moderate-quality evidence for the patient related outcomes of relapse, patient preference and complications. This body of evidence is high-quality, patient-focused and conducted in the prehospital setting thus generalizable paramedic practice.
The international classifications in psychiatry, i.e. ICD-10 and DSM4R, allowed a fast increase of factual information. The improvement of reliability account for most of it. But it did not came with an increase in validity. We will argue that these classification are not “validable” unless questioning some of the postulates that guided their elaboration.
We will state the epistemological principle underlying scientific and medical classifications and compare the ones at work in psychiatric classifications. Examples from the field of psychoses will be given.
Validity is a notion that can only apply to scientific classification, i.e. that aim at providing a model for an external reality. The validable part of a classification is the model on which it relies, not the definition that ensue the model. In medicine, the term “disease” apply to natural morbid entities defined by an hypothesis, i.e. a model, on their aetiology or pathophysiology. Only this hypothesis can be validated.
ICD and DSM utility is oriented toward a practical objective. This constrains choices in their elaboration not adapted to pursue a scientific goal. The most challenging is the atheoretical orientation which take away from the classification their only validable part, i.e. a model.
There is urgent need to clarify the utility of ICD and DSM in psychiatry, i.e. epidemiology and clinical practice. Requiring their use in scientific inquiry could only slow down any progress toward the discovery of real disease in psychiatry.
It is now well established that CBT for chronic insomnia is as efficacious as hypnotic medication and is also likely to be better at maintaining improved sleep. Most studies have looked at the use of individual CBT; there have been only a few studies looking at CBT for insomnia given in a group format.
For nearly ten years the Bristol Insomnia Group has offered cognitive behavioural management and support for people with chronic insomnia.
The seven group sessions are led by up to three members of a team consisting of a doctor (sleep specialist), an occupational therapist and a research sleep scientist. Components of the group intervention include education about sleep science, information on insomnia medication, sleep hygiene, relaxation, and cognitive therapy. To assess efficacy participants complete sleep diaries, a quality of life scale (SF36) and the dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes scale (DBAS) pre and post group.
Sleep diaries (n=68) showed significant differences in Total Sleep Time (TST), Sleep Onset Latency (SOL) and Sleep Quality (SQ). Approximately half of the participants had clinically significant improvements in their TST (increased by 30 minutes) and about a third had a clinically significant decrease (by 30 minutes) in their SOL. SF36 scores showed statistically improved scores in all nine domains, DBAS scores showed statistically significant decreased scores post group.
These results demonstrate promising sleep parameter and quality of life improvements after attendance at the group. CBT for insomnia is a clinically and cost effective approach for the treatment of chronic insomnia.
In the winter of 1928, Herbert Hensley Henson, Lord Bishop, delivered his second quadrennial charge to the diocese of Durham. This was no ordinary visitation document. Its 83-page ‘Introduction’ outlined a compelling argument in favour of the disestablishment of the Church of England. That so senior a bishop of the realm should have publicly advocated so subversive a measure was strange in itself. To be sure, many disgruntled clergymen had conceived of suitably drastic solutions in the wake of the parliamentary defeat of the proposed revision of The book of common prayer the previous year. But no comparably significant figure had openly declared the necessity of such a fundamental dislocation in England's ecclesiastical state. Disestablishment had been the great dissenting cause of the nineteenth century. Suddenly, it was espoused by the most articulate prelate on the bench. Moreover, Disestablishment was a report conceived with a vengeance. It called for immediate separation, it envisaged speedy disendowment, it pointed to the desirability of strengthening the ecclesiastical courts, and it insisted upon a thorough reworking of the Church’s administrative machinery. It was cast as a polemic; but it meant business.
No small part of Disestablishment's intellectual force lay in the fact that it did not represent Henson's first statement of his highly unorthodox case. That had been rehearsed in a dramatic sermon, delivered before the bishop of London and the editor of The Tablet, at St Mary's Church in the University of Cambridge, on 29 January 1928. Instead, it described what had by then become Henson's definitive word on the matter. The still greater extent of the political shock waves that this book provoked can be explained only in terms of its author’s personal history. For Henson was not merely a curious convert to this heterodox plan. He was a notorious ‘turncoat’ too. From 1886, Henson had fought with every available weapon at his disposal, whether institutional position, personal connection, crusading pen or even waspish tongue for the continued establishment of the Church of England. After the House of Commons rejected the revised prayer book, first in 1927 and then again in 1928, he devoted all those same endowments to a pursuit of the opposite end.
We know from neurological diseases that there is not only one way to hallucinate. This might also be the case in the psychiatric field. During a trial on refractory verbal hallucinations, we rediscovered a subgroup described under several names in France (Délire chronique d’évolution systématique 1882, Psychose Hallucinatoire Chronique 1911-1953), England (Late Paraphrenia, 1954) and Germany (Affective Paraphrenia - AP, 1968). Roughly, AP can be viewed as the core of paranoid schizophrenia.
We compared 10 AP patients with refractory hallucinations to 35 healthy controls with structural and functional MRI (fMRI). We looked for regions that presented with both grey matter deficit relative to controls and with hallucination-related activity. The lateral orbito-frontal cortex (LOF) was bilaterally involved both anatomically and functionally.
Using fMRI, we studied whole brain functional connectivity, both as a trait factor, i.e. hallucinators vs controls, and as a state factor, i.e. ON vs OFF hallucinations in the same patient. As a trait, functional connectivity was significantly increased between left and right LOF in patients relative to controls; however as a state, functional connectivity dropped to zero between left LOF, left and right superior temporal sulcus (STS) when ON relative to OFF hallucination.
In a larger group of AP patients without ongoing hallucinations, the LOF was still disconnected from the cingulate and temporal regions, in comparison not only to controls, but also relative to non AP type schizophrenias, most of whom also hallucinate during episodes.
We will discuss the “LOF-story hypothesis” for AP patients and their hallucinations.
Authors recently have suggested that family enrneshment is not synonymous with high levels of closeness or cohesion. A model proposed by Green and Werner clarifies the cohesion-enmeshment domain by distinguishing between closeness-caregiving and intrusiveness as separate relationship processes. This paper examines the cross-cultural applicability of this perspective through a study of 61 married couples in France. The French version of the California Inventory for Family Assessment (CIFA), a self-report measure designed to assess clinically relevant marital dimensions, was employed. In general, spouses' reports of their marital process demonstrated high internal consistency reliabilities. Factor analysis showed meaningful factor structures distinguishing closeness-caregiving and intrusiveness, as predicted, as well as openness of communication. Significant correlations were obtained between CIFA scales and scores on the Marital Adjustment Test. These results are similar for French and American couples. Research implications for studying relationships among French-speaking couples are underlined.
Evidence from previous small trials has suggested the effectiveness of early social communication interventions for autism.
The Preschool Autism Communication Trial (PACT) investigated the efficacy of such an intervention in the largest psychosocial autism trial to date.
To provide a stringent test of a pre-school communication intervention for autism.
152 children with core autism aged 2 years - 4 years 11 months in a 3 site 2 arm single (assessor) blinded randomised controlled trial of the parent-mediated communication-focused intervention added to treatment as usual (TAU) against TAU alone. Primary outcome; severity of autism symptoms (modified social communication algorithm from Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic, ADOS-G). Secondary outcomes; blinded measures of parent-child interaction, child language, and adaptation in school.
At 13 month endpoint the treatment resulted in strong improvement in parental synchronous response to child (adjusted between-group effect size 1.22 (95% CI 0.85, 1.59) and child initiations with parent (ES 0.41 (0.08, 0.74) but small effect on autism symptomatology (ADOS-G, ES -0.24 (95% CI -0.59, 0.11) ns). Parents (not blind to allocation) reported strong treatment effects on child language and social adaptation but effects on blinded research assessed language and school adaptation were small.
Addition of the PACT intervention showed clear benefit in improving parent-child dyadic social communication but no substantive benefit over TAU in modifying objectively rated autism symptoms. This attenuation on generalisation from ‘proximal’ intervention effects to wider symptom change in other contexts remains a significant challenge for autism treatment and measurement methodology.
One influential view is that vulnerability to major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with a proneness to experience negative emotions in general. In contrast, blame attribution theories emphasise the importance of blaming oneself rather than others for negative events. Our previous exploratory study provided support for the attributional hypothesis that patients with remitted MDD show no overall bias towards negative emotions, but a selective bias towards emotions entailing self-blame relative to emotions that entail blaming others. More specifically, we found a decreased proneness for contempt/disgust towards others relative to oneself (i.e. self-contempt bias). Here, we report a definitive test of the competing general negative versus specific attributional bias theories of MDD.
We compared a medication-free remitted MDD (n = 101) and a control group (n = 70) with no family or personal history of MDD on a previously validated experimental test of moral emotions. The task measures proneness to specific emotions associated with different types of self-blame (guilt, shame, self-contempt/disgust, self-indignation/anger) and blame of others (other-indignation/anger, other-contempt/disgust) whilst controlling for the intensity of unpleasantness.
We confirmed the hypothesis that patients with MDD exhibit an increased self-contempt bias with a reduction in contempt/disgust towards others. Furthermore, they also showed a decreased proneness for indignation/anger towards others.
This corroborates the prediction that vulnerability to MDD is associated with an imbalance of specific self- and other-blaming emotions rather than a general increase in negative emotions. This has important implications for neurocognitive models and calls for novel focussed interventions to rebalance blame in MDD.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
Narrow-windrow burning has been a successful form of harvest weed seed control in Australian cropping systems, but little is known about the efficacy of narrow-windrow burning on weed seeds infesting U.S. cropping systems. An experiment was conducted using a high-fire kiln that exposed various grass and broadleaf weed seeds to temperatures of 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 C for 20, 40, 60, and 80 s to determine the temperature and time needed to kill weed seeds. Weeds evaluated included Italian ryegrass, barnyardgrass, johnsongrass, sicklepod, Palmer amaranth, prickly sida, velvetleaf, pitted morningglory, and hemp sesbania. Two field experiments were also conducted over consecutive growing seasons, with the first experiment aimed at determining the amount of heat produced during burning of narrow windrows of soybean harvest residues (chaff and straw) and the effect of this heat on weed seed mortality. The second field experiment aimed to determine the effect of wind speed on the duration and intensity of burning narrow windrows of soybean harvest residues. Following exposure to the highest temperature and longest duration in the kiln, only sicklepod showed any survival (<1% average); however, in most cases, the seeds were completely destroyed (ash). A heat index of only 22,600 was needed to kill all seeds of Palmer amaranth, barnyardgrass, and Italian ryegrass. In the field, all seeds of the evaluated weed species were completely destroyed by narrow-windrow burning of 1.08 to 1.95 kg m−2 of soybean residues. The burn duration of the soybean harvest residues declined as wind speed increased. Findings from the kiln and field experiments show that complete kill is likely for weed seeds concentrated into narrow windrows of burned soybean residues. Given the low cost of implementation of narrow-windrow burning and the seed kill efficacy on various weed species, this strategy may be an attractive option for destroying weed seed.
This study examines the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and overweight/obesity in a large-scale longitudinal study of children, while controlling for a range of psychosocial factors.
Data were obtained from Growing Up in Ireland, a nationally representative and longitudinal study of approximately 6500 children who were assessed at 9 and 13 years of age. Body mass index (BMI) was determined using measured height and weight, ADHD status was determined by parent reports of professional diagnoses and ADHD symptoms were measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ).
The associations between ADHD status, ADHD symptoms (SDQ) and BMI category at age 9 and 13 years were evaluated using logistic regression. Adjustments were made for child factors (sex, developmental coordination disorder, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, birth weight and exercise) and parental factors (socio-economic status, parental BMI, parental depression, and maternal smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy). Logistic regression indicated that ADHD status was not associated with BMI category at 9 or at 13 years of age, but children with ADHD at 9 years were significantly more likely to be overweight/obese at 13 years than those without ADHD. However, when other child and parental factors were adjusted for, ADHD status was no longer significantly associated with weight status. Female sex, low levels of exercise, overweight/obese parents and prenatal smoking during pregnancy consistently increased the odds of childhood overweight/obesity.
While ADHD and overweight/obesity co-occur in general populations, this relationship is largely explained by a variety of psychosocial factors.
In Leviathan, Hobbes uses his new theory of authorization to explain the nature of corporate persons. While On the Citizen lacks the theory of authorization, it includes several accounts of corporate persons. In On the Citizen, Hobbes suggests that a group forms a corporate person when its members accept obligations to support a sovereign, when the members are all compelled to act in concert, or when the members of the group adopt voting rules for making decisions. Hobbes also uses his analysis of the commonwealth as a corporate person to argue for the sovereign’s immunity in On the Citizen much as he does in Leviathan. Generally speaking, the Leviathan account of corporate persons is superior to the ones in On the Citizen. However, Hobbes needs the voting rules account from On the Citizen in order to explain how democratic and aristocratic assemblies can serve as sovereigns. Since he tries to replace the voting rules account with the authorization account in Leviathan, this raises a problem for him that he does not appreciate.
Horseweed is one of Kentucky’s most common and problematic weeds in no-till soybean production systems. Emergence in the fall and spring necessitates control at these times because horseweed is best managed when small. Control is typically achieved through herbicides or cover crops (CCs); integrating these practices can lead to more sustainable weed management. Two years of field experiments were conducted over 2016 to 2017 and 2017 to 2018 in Versailles, KY, to examine the use of fall herbicide (FH; namely, saflufenacil or none), spring herbicide (SH; namely, 2,4-D; dicamba; or none), and CC (namely, cereal rye or none) for horseweed management prior to soybean. Treatments were examined with a fully factorial design to assess potential interactions. The CC biomass in 2016 to 2017 was higher relative to 2017 to 2018 and both herbicide programs reduced winter weed biomass in that year. The CC reduced horseweed density while growing and after termination in 1 yr. The FH reduced horseweed density through mid-spring. The FH also killed winter weeds that may have suppressed horseweed emergence; higher horseweed density resulted by soybean planting unless the CC was present to suppress the additional spring emergence. If either FH or CC was used, SH typically did not result in additional horseweed control. The SH killed emerged plants but did not provide residual control of a late horseweed flush in 2017 to 2018. These results suggest CCs can help manage spring flushes of horseweed emergence when nonresidual herbicide products are used, though this effect was short-lived when less CC biomass was present.
Antimicrobial stewardship improves patient care and reduces antimicrobial resistance, inappropriate use, and adverse outcomes. Despite high-profile mandates for antimicrobial stewardship programs across the healthcare continuum, descriptive data, and recommendations for dedicated resources, including appropriate physician, pharmacist, data analytics, and administrative staffing support, are not robust. This review summarizes the current literature on antimicrobial stewardship staffing and calls for the development of minimum staffing recommendations.