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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer globally. CRC risk is increased by obesity, and by its lifestyle determinants notably physical inactivity and poor nutrition. Obesity results in increased inflammation and oxidative stress which cause genomic damage and contribute to mitochondrial dysregulation and CRC risk. The mitochondrial dysfunction associated with obesity includes abnormal mitochondrial size, morphology and reduced autophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis and expression of key mitochondrial regulators. Although there is strong evidence that increased adiposity increases CRC risk, evidence for the effects of intentional weight loss on CRC risk is much more limited. In model systems, energy depletion leads to enhanced mitochondrial integrity, capacity, function and biogenesis but the effects of obesity and weight loss on mitochondria in the human colon are not known. We are using weight loss following bariatric surgery to investigate the effects of altered adiposity on mitochondrial structure and function in human colonocytes. In summary, there is strong and consistent evidence in model systems and more limited evidence in human subjects that over-feeding and/or obesity result in mitochondrial dysfunction and that weight loss might mitigate or reverse some of these effects.
Saturn's moon Enceladus has vents emerging from a sub-surface ocean, offering unique probes into the liquid environment. These vents drain into the larger neutral torus in orbit around Saturn. We present a methanol (CH3OH) detection observed with IRAM 30-m from 2008 along the line-of-sight through Saturn's E-ring. Additionally, we also present supporting observations from the Herschel public archive of water (ortho-H2O; 1669.9 GHz) from 2012 at a similar elongation and line-of-sight. The CH3OH 5(1,1)-4(1,1) transition was detected at 5.9σ confidence. The line has 0.43 km s−1 width and is offset by +8.1 km s−1 in the moon's reference frame. Radiative transfer models allow for gas cloud dimensions from 1750 km up to the telescope beam diameter ~73 000 km. Taking into account the CH3OH lifetime against solar photodissociation and the redshifted line velocity, there are two possible explanations for the CH3OH emission: methanol is primarily a secondary product of chemical interactions within the neutral torus that: (1) spreads outward throughout the E-ring or (2) originates from a compact, confined gas cloud lagging Enceladus by several km s−1. We find either scenario to be consistent with significant redshifted H2O emission (4σ) measured from the Herschel public archive. The measured CH3OH:H2O abundance (>0.5%) significantly exceeds the observed abundance in the direct vicinity of the vents (~0.01%), suggesting CH3OH is likely chemically processed within the gas cloud with methane (CH4) as its parent species.
A floating air bag, ballasted in water, expands and contracts as it heaves under wave action. Connecting the bag to a secondary volume via a turbine transforms the bag into a device capable of generating useful energy from the waves. Small-scale measurements of the device reveal some interesting properties, which are successfully predicted numerically. Owing to its compressibility, the device can have a heave resonance period longer than that of a rigid device of the same shape and size, without any phase control. Furthermore, varying the amount of air in the bag is found to change its shape and hence its dynamic response, while varying the turbine damping or the air volume ratio changes the dynamic response without changing the shape.
Recent progress in telescope development has brought us different ways to observe protoplanetary disks: interferometers, space missions, adaptive optics, polarimetry, and time- and spectrally-resolved data. While the new facilities have changed the way we can tackle open problems in disk structure and evolution, there is a substantial lack of interconnection between different observing communities. Here, we explore the complementarity of some of the state-of-the-art observing techniques, and how they can be brought together to understand disk dispersal and planet formation.
This paper was born at the ‘Protoplanetary Discussions’ meeting in Edinburgh, 2016. Its goal is to clarify where multi-wavelength observations converge in unveiling disk structure and evolution, and where they challenge our current understanding. We discuss caveats that should be considered when linking results from different observations, or when drawing conclusions from limited datasets (in terms of wavelength or sample). We focus on disk properties that are currently being revolutionized, specifically: the inner disk radius, holes and gaps and their link to large-scale disk structures, the disk mass, and the accretion rate. We discuss how their connections and apparent contradictions can help us to disentangle the disk physics and to learn about disk evolution.
The field of Security Studies traditionally focused on military threats to states' survival, however, since the end of the Cold War the concept of security has widened and individuals and communities have gradually become viewed as appropriate referent objects of security: Multifaceted challenges facing communities at the sub-state level are increasingly regarded as security threats, including their potential to cause instability for the larger society, thus affecting states’ security. In the Arctic region, a central challenge is that inhabitants are exposed to multiple non-traditional and non-military threats resulting from environmental, economic, and societal changes, which can be understood as threats to human security. We argue that a comprehensive approach to human security overlaps with the concept of societal security, and must therefore consider threats to collective identity and the essential conditions necessary for the maintenance and preservation of a distinct society. We see the human security framework as a suitable analytical tool to study the specific challenges that threaten the Arctic population, and in turn the well-being of Arctic societies. Therefore, we argue that utilising the concept of human security can promote societal security in the context of the Arctic, and in particular, its sub-regions, for example, the Barents region.
In the Weichselian, the Lower Rhine in the Dutch-German border region has used three courses, dissecting ice-marginal topography inherited from the Saalian. In the Late Weichselian, the three courses functioned simultaneously, with the central one gaining importance and the outer ones abandoning. This study aims to reconstruct the fluvial development and forcings that culminated in abandonment of the northern branch ‘Oude IJssel-Rhine’, at the time of the Lateglacial to Holocene transition. The fluvial architecture is studied using a cored transect over the full width of the valley, detailed cross-sections over palaeochannels and geomorphological analysis using digital elevation and borehole data. Biostratigraphy, radiocarbon dating and OSL dating provide a timeframe to reconstruct the temporal fluvial development. In its phase of abandonment, the fluvial evolution of the Oude IJssel-Rhine course is controlled by the ameliorating climate and related vegetation and discharge changes, besides by intrinsic (autogenic) fluvial behaviour such as the competition for discharge with the winning central branch and the vicinity of the Lippe tributary confluence. The rapid climate warming at the start of the Late Glacial resulted in flow contraction as the initial response. Other fluvial geomorphic adjustments followed, with some delay. An aggrading braided or transitional system persisted until the start of the Allerød, when channel patterns finally changed to meandering. Floodplain incision occurred at the Allerød - Younger Dryas transition and a multi-channel system developed fed by Rhine discharge. At the start of the Holocene, this system transformed into a small-scale, local meandering system, which was abandoned shortly after the start of the Holocene.
The final abandonment of the Oude IJssel-Rhine and Niers-Rhine courses can be attributed to deep incision of the Central Rhine course in the earliest Holocene and is considered to be controlled by flow contraction induced by climate and related vegetation and discharge changes.
The MIAMI* facility at the University of Huddersfield is one of a number of facilities worldwide that permit the ion irradiation of thin foils in-situ in a transmission electron microscope. MIAMI has been developed with a particular focus on enabling the in-situ implantation of helium and hydrogen into thin electron transparent foils, necessitating ion energies in the range 1 – 10 keV. In addition, however, ions of a variety of species can be provided at energies of up to 100 keV (for singly charged ions), enabling studies to focus on the build up of radiation damage in the absence or presence of implanted gas.
This paper reports on a number of ongoing studies being carried out at MIAMI, and also at JANNuS (Orsay, France) and the IVEM / Ion Accelerator Facility (Argonne National Lab, US). This includes recent work on He bubbles in SiC and Cu; the former work concerned with modification to bubble populations by ion and electron beams and the latter project concerned with the formation of bubble super-lattices in metals.
A study is also presented consisting of experiments aimed at shedding light on the origins of the dimensional changes known to occur in nuclear graphite under irradiation with either neutrons or ions. Single crystal graphite foils have been irradiated with 60 keV Xe ions in order to create a non-uniform damage profile throughout the foil thickness. This gives rise to varying basal-plane contraction throughout the foil resulting in almost macroscopic (micron scale) deformation of the graphite. These observations are presented and discussed with a view to reconciling them with current understanding of point defect behavior in graphite.
*Microscope and Ion Accelerator for Materials Investigations
Risky decision making, a hallmark phenotype of substance use disorders (SUD), is thought to be associated with deficient feedback processing. Whether these aberrations are present prior to SUD onset or reflect merely a consequence of chronic substance use on the brain remains unclear. The present study investigated whether blunted feedback processing during risky decision making reflects a biological predisposition to SUD. We assessed event-related potentials elicited by positive and negative feedback during performance of a modified version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) among high-risk adolescents with a parental history of SUD (HR; n = 61) and normal-risk controls (NR; n = 91). HR males made significantly more risky and faster decisions during the BART than did NR controls. Moreover, HR adolescents showed significantly reduced P300 amplitudes in response to both positive and negative feedback as compared to NR controls. These differences were not secondary to prolonged substance use exposure. Results are discussed in terms of feedback-specific processes. Reduced P300 amplitudes in the BART may reflect poor processing of feedback at the level of overall salience, which may keep people from effectively predicting the probability of future gains and losses. Though conclusions are tentative, blunted feedback processing during risky decision making may represent a promising endophenotypic vulnerability marker for SUD.
For over a decade, the structure of the inner “hole” in the transition disk around TW Hydrae has been a subject of debate. To probe the innermost regions of the protoplanetary disk, observations at the highest possible spatial resolution are required. We present new interferometric data of TW Hya from near-infrared to millimeter wavelengths. We confront existing models of the disk structure with the complete data set and develop a new, detailed radiative-transfer model. This model is characterized by: 1) a spatial separation of the largest grains from the small disk grains; and 2) a smooth inner rim structure, rather than a sharp disk edge.
Using photometry at just two wavelengths it is possible to fit a blackbody to the spectrum of infrared excess that is the signature of a debris disc. From this the location of the dust can be inferred. However, it is well known that dust in debris discs is not a perfect blackbody. By resolving debris discs we can find the actual location of the dust and compare this to that inferred from the blackbody fit. Using the Herschel Space Observatory we resolved many systems as part of the DEBRIS survey. Here we discuss a sample of 9 discs surrounding A stars and find that the discs are actually located between 1 and 2.5 times further from their star than predicted by blackbody fits to the spectral energy distribution (SED). The variation in this ratio is due to differences in stellar luminosities, location of the dust, size distribution and composition of the dust.
To assess the effect of food form (FF) on postprandial (PP) plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations, ten older adults (five men and five women, age 72 (sem 2) years, BMI 26·0 (sem 0·9) kg/m2) consumed, on separate days, energy and macronutrient-matched test meal replacement products (MRP) (approximately 25 % of the subject's daily energy need; approximately 54 % carbohydrate, 21 % protein, 25 % fat) in beverage and solid form. Blood samples were taken during fasting and throughout the 4 h PP period; plasma AA concentrations were assessed using HPLC. Consumption of each MRP led to an increase in total AA, branched-chain AA (BCAA), essential AA (EAA), non-essential AA (NEAA) and leucine concentrations (4 h area under the curve, AUC) (time effect; P < 0·05). The beverage MRP resulted in a greater initial (i.e. 30 min) and sustained (4 h AUC) increase in total AA, BCAA, EAA, NEAA and leucine concentrations compared with the solid MRP (each effect of FF; P < 0·05). Although there was no effect of FF on PP insulin response, glucose concentration was greater 1 and 2 h after the solid MRP was consumed (FF × time interaction; P < 0·05). For all PP time points combined, total AA concentration was positively associated with plasma insulin (r 0·25) and glucose (r 0·24) concentrations for the solid MRP but not for the beverage MRP. In conclusion, older adults can achieve higher plasma AA concentrations when a protein-containing MRP is ingested in beverage form. The implications of the higher AA availability on anabolic processes warrant investigation.
Trials of rodenticidal baits containing 50 p.p.m. difenacoum, 50 p.p.m. bromadiolone or 20 p.p.m. brodifacoum were carried out on farmsteads against populations of Rattus norvegicus containing difenacoum-resistant individuals. Six difenacoum treatments failed in 14–42 days of baiting. Two treatments with bromadiolone succeeded in 23 and 33 days, but four further treatments lasting 35–56 days failed to eradicate the populations. Brodifacoum gave virtually complete control of six populations in 21–73 days and of the ten residual populations left behind by the other two compounds, after baiting for a further 11–85 days. The performance of both bromadiolone and brodifacoum was well below that reported by previous investigators, indicating the possibility of low-grade resistance to these compounds in the difenacoum-resistant strain.
The dehydration of pure and waste gypsums has been examined using in situ synchrotron angledispersive X-ray diffraction. Pure gypsum was studied under a number of defined environments; various industrial waste gypsums were also studied under a common standard environment. It is found that the dehydration of gypsum to anhydrite proceeds via the hemihydrate and γ-anhydrite phases and the interplay and behaviour of these phases has been determined by full structural ‘Rietveld’ refinement. In the study of the pure gypsum system, the hemihydrate structure is shown to be preserved as water is lost. A ‘zero-water hemihydrate’ is observed before refinement in the higher symmetry γ-anhydrite cell is possible. The waste gypsum materials studied showed significant differences in the temperatures at which key transformation events occurred; these observations raise implications concerning the re-use of by-product gypsum materials. Finally, high temperature data are re-examined in the search for a variation of the anhydrite structure.
The potentiality of calciferol (alone and combined with warfarin) for the control of commensal rats and mice has been examined in the laboratory. Nearly all animals fed on 0·1% calciferol for 2 days died. Though illness usually reduced food intake after the first 24 hr. there was no sign of aversion to the poison at 0·1 % – which is considered to be the lowest concentration suitable for use against Rattus norvegicus, R. rattus and Mus musculus in the field. There was some indication that resistance to warfarin in R. norvegicus may be correlated with susceptibility to calciferol. Toxicity tests with calciferol combined with warfarin indicated an additive effect between the compounds. No evidence for synergism was found however, although elsewhere there is some evidence for this.
This paper gives some account and results of work conducted on the properties of ethylene oxide, as this compound has been recommended as an insecticide and vermin destroyer, and what is of more importance, as a fumigant for foodstuffs. The concentration recommended is in the nature of 2 lb. per 1000 c. ft. (or 1 part in 60) for 24 hours. It has also been mentioned as a possible agent for use as a lachrymator in war.
Three South-Asian rodent pest species were tested for susceptibility to anticoagulant rodenticides. Wheat flour containing 0·025% warfarin, 0·0375% coumatetralyl or 0·005% difenacoum was fed to 260 Tatera indica, 140 Nesokia indica and 81 Bandicota bengalensis for 1–56 days. Tatera was about as susceptible to anticoagulants as Rattus rattus has been reported to be. Nesokia and Bandicota were extremely variable: though the majority were highly susceptible, the slopes of the dose-mortality curves were close to zero. The difenacoum diet appeared to be more toxic than the warfarin diet to all three species, but less toxic than the coumatetralyl diet to Tatera and Nesokia. All of the anticoagulants were eventually lethal to all of the animals tested.
Laboratory tests were carried out to assess the efficacy of gophacide as a rodenticide against the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) and the house mouse (Mus musculus). Results of feeding tests with wild animals suggest that the compound would be more useful against mice than rats, and that 0.3% would be a near optimal concentration for field trials for both species.
The hazards of using gophacide as a rodenticide are discussed.