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The Endangered proboscis monkey Nasalis larvatus is endemic to the island of Borneo. Habitat loss is a major threat to this species, and an understanding of long-term demographic trends is crucial for its conservation. We assessed the population trends and group sizes of proboscis monkeys over 10 years in the Lower Kinabatangan floodplain in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Comparisons of observed populations between 2004 and 2014 revealed significantly reduced group sizes, which is probably a result of forest fragmentation. Three long-term studies over 34–73 months in specific areas showed fluctuating estimated densities in each area, but no overall population increase or decrease. Riparian forests are the most important habitat for these monkeys, and one reason for the relatively stable population could be that there were only minor losses of forest along rivers during 2004–2014 because protected areas have been established in the region in 2005. However, proboscis monkey habitat remains under threat in areas allocated for oil palm, and protection of these areas is paramount to maintaining this population.
Depression has been associated with abnormalities in neural underpinnings of Reward Learning (RL). However, inconsistencies have emerged, possibly owing to medication effects. Additionally, it remains unclear how neural RL signals relate to real-life behaviour. The current study, therefore, examined neural RL signals in young, mildly to moderately depressed – but non-help-seeking and unmedicated – individuals and how these signals are associated with depressive symptoms and real-life motivated behaviour.
Individuals with symptoms along the depression continuum (n = 87) were recruited from the community. They performed an RL task during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and were assessed with the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), completing short questionnaires on emotions and behaviours up to 10 times/day for 15 days. Q-learning model-derived Reward Prediction Errors (RPEs) were examined in striatal areas, and subsequently associated with depressive symptoms and an ESM measure capturing (non-linearly) how anticipation of reward experience corresponds to actual reward experience later on.
Significant RPE signals were found in the striatum, insula, amygdala, hippocampus, frontal and occipital cortices. Region-of-interest analyses revealed a significant association between RPE signals and (a) self-reported depressive symptoms in the right nucleus accumbens (b = −0.017, p = 0.006) and putamen (b = −0.013, p = .012); and (b) the quadratic ESM variable in the left (b = 0.010, p = .010) and right (b = 0.026, p = 0.011) nucleus accumbens and right putamen (b = 0.047, p < 0.001).
Striatal RPE signals are disrupted along the depression continuum. Moreover, they are associated with reward-related behaviour in real-life, suggesting that real-life coupling of reward anticipation and engagement in rewarding activities might be a relevant target of psychological therapies for depression.
Childhood obesity treatment programs only result in moderate outcomes in the short term and do not reduce risk for future weight gain. Therefore, in the current study, Approach Avoidance Training (AAT) with motivational game elements will be added to an inpatient childhood obesity program with the aim of improving outcomes. Forty-one children (10–15 years) in the final months of an inpatient treatment program were randomised to either the AAT plus care-as-usual condition group or to a care-as-usual-only control group. During the 10 sessions, the children were trained to approach healthy food stimuli and to avoid unhealthy food stimuli. Treatment outcomes were child performances on tasks of AAT, implicit attitudes and attentional bias, self-report ratings on craving symptoms, and weight loss maintenance after leaving the clinic (12-week follow-up). Changes over time were not significantly different between conditions for the measures of automatic processes, craving, and weight loss maintenance. Possible accounts for the null findings, including sample size, influence of game elements, point of time in therapeutic process, limitations of the setting, and the control group are discussed. More research is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn about the clinical usefulness of CBM for weight control in childhood obesity.
Extensive areas of tropical forests have been, and continue to be, disturbed as a result of selective timber extraction. Although such anthropogenic disturbance typically results in the loss of biodiversity, many species persist, and their conservation in production landscapes could be enhanced by a greater understanding of how biodiversity responds to forest management practices. We conducted intensive camera-trap surveys of eight protected forest areas in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, and developed estimates of Sunda clouded leopard Neofelis diardi population density from spatially explicit capture–recapture analyses of detection data to investigate how the species’ abundance varies across the landscape and in response to anthropogenic disturbance. Estimates of population density from six forest areas were 1.39–3.10 individuals per 100 km2. Our study provides the first evidence that the population density of the Sunda clouded leopard is negatively affected by hunting pressure and forest fragmentation, and that among selectively logged forests, time since logging is positively associated with abundance. We argue that these negative anthropogenic impacts could be mitigated with improved logging practices, such as reducing the access of poachers by effective gating and destruction of road access points, and by the deployment of anti-poaching patrols. By calculating a weighted mean population density estimate from estimates developed here and from the literature, and by extrapolating this value to an estimate of current available habitat, we estimate there are 754 (95% posterior interval 325–1,337) Sunda clouded leopards in Sabah.
Creep tests provide invaluable data to better understand the physical properties of ice under various conditions. We describe here a simple, updated pneumatic apparatus for experimental studies of ice rheological properties. The apparatus is designed to perform two simultaneous compression creep tests either in a cold room or in atmospheric conditions when coupled to an external cooling circulator. We present results from calibration tests of the apparatus and provide new data from creep tests performed on temperate glacier ice samples. These calibration and creep results show that the apparatus is able to provide fast and reliable mechanical ice characterization. The secondary creep rates measured in this study range between 1.59 × 10−8 s−1 (at 0.21 MPa) and 4.38 × 10−7 s−1 (at 0.71 MPa) at −10°C for quasi-isotropic ice, which is consistent with former standard published data. The corresponding mean parameter, A, is 5.20 × 10−16 s−1 kPa−3, which also compares well with the range of reported other studies.
We examine time series of the transition region spectral line O v 629 Å, observed with the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) onboard the SoHO spacecraft. Primarily we were looking for intensity and velocity oscillations in polar plumes, however by chance we detected a giant macro-spicule at the limb and were able to follow its dynamical structure. We have reported the dynamics of the giant macro-spicule in Banerjee et al. (2000a) and have also reported the existence of long period oscillations in the polar plumes as observed in the O v 629 Å line in Banerjee et al. (2000a,b). In this short contribution we revisit one of these dataset, namely s16834r01 to test the reliability of the observed periods. The statistical significance of the oscillations is estimated by using a randomisation method. Our analysis re-confirms the presence of compressional waves with periods of 20-25 minutes.
The influence of a constant coronal magnetic field on solar global oscillations is investigated for a simple planar equilibrium model. The model consists of an atmosphere with a constant horizontal magnetic field on top of a unmagnetized solar interior. The focus is on the possible resonant coupling of global solar oscillation modes to local slow continuum modes of the atmosphere and the consequent damping of the global oscillations.
A substantial number of people with bipolar disorder show a suboptimal response to treatment.
To study the effectiveness of a collaborative care programme on symptoms and medication adherence in patients with bipolar disorder, compared with care as usual.
A two-armed, cluster randomised clinical trial was carried out in 16 out-patient mental health clinics in The Netherlands, in which 138 patients were randomised. Patient outcomes included duration and severity of symptoms and medication adherence, and were measured at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Collaborative care comprised contracting, psychoeducation, problem-solving treatment, systematic relapse prevention and monitoring of outcomes. Mental health nurses functioned as care managers in this programme. The trial was registered with The Netherlands Trial Registry (NTR2600).
Collaborative care had a significant and clinically relevant effect on number of months with depressive symptoms, both at 6 months (z =–2.6, P = 0.01, d = 0.5) and at 12 months (z =–3.1, P = 0.002, d = 0.7), as well as on severity of depressive symptoms at 12 months (z =–2.9, P = 0.004, d = 0.4). There was no effect on symptoms of mania or on treatment adherence.
When compared with treatment as usual, collaborative care substantially reduced the time participants with bipolar disorder experienced depressive symptoms. Also, depressive symptom severity decreased significantly. As persistent depressive symptoms are difficult to treat and contribute to both disability and impaired quality of life in bipolar disorder, collaborative care may be an important form of treatment for people with this disorder.
We show how different aspects of a model of the complex disordered structure of wüstite, Fe1−xO, affect the pair distribution function (PDF) and powder diffraction pattern. The aim is to assess the efficacy of using these techniques to determine details of local structure. The different aspects include the nature of the individual defect clusters, the nature of the paracrystalline superlattice on which they are distributed and the ‘size-effect’ relaxation of the basic rocksalt FeO matrix around the defects. The results show that PDF data are sensitive to those aspects of the models that have a significant effect on the populations of interatomic spacings but are less able to determine correlation structures in the samples if these do not have a substantial interaction with interatomic separations.
The Sumatran rhinoceros Dicerorhinus sumatrensis is on the brink of extinction. Although habitat loss and poaching were the reasons of the decline, today's reproductive isolation is the main threat to the survival of the species. Genetic studies have played an important role in identifying conservation priorities, including for rhinoceroses. However, for a species such as the Sumatran rhinoceros, where time is of the essence in preventing extinction, to what extent should genetic and geographical distances be taken into account in deciding the most urgently needed conservation interventions? We propose that the populations of Sumatra and Borneo be considered as a single management unit.
Thin films of anatase TiO2 have been deposited on tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) and Sb-doped tin oxide using electron beam evaporation. Subsequently these samples have been mounted into an electrochemical cell. Assuming a composition of LixTiO2 with x being 0.5 or 1, voltammetric measurements show that all lithium is present within the first 15 or 7.5 nm of the TiO2 film, respectively. Stepped potential experiments in combination with optical transmission measurements show that de-intercalation is much faster than intercalation. Differential absorption spectra as a function of intercalation potential suggest that the observed dark coloring of intercalated anatase can be attributed to electron traps at Li+ sites. This contradicts assumptions made in literature that the coloring mechanism of anatase is based on intervalence charge transfer from Ti4+ to Ti3+.
Bullying victimization may be linked to psychosis but only self-report measures of victimization have been used so far. This study aimed (a) to investigate the differential associations of peer-nominated versus self-reported victim status with non-clinical psychotic experiences in a sample of young adolescents, and (b) to examine whether different types of self-reported victimization predict non-clinical psychotic experiences in these adolescents.
A combination of standard self-report and peer nomination procedures was used to assess victimization. The sample (n = 724) was divided into four groups (exclusively self-reported victims, self- and peer-reported victims, exclusively peer-reported victims, and non-victims) to test for a group effect on non-clinical psychotic experiences. The relationship between types of victimization and non-clinical psychotic experiences was examined by a regression analysis.
Self-reported victims, along with self- and peer-reported victims, scored higher than peer-reported victims and non-victims on non-clinical psychotic experiences. Self-reports of direct relational, indirect relational and physical victimization significantly improved the prediction of non-clinical psychotic experiences whereas verbal and possession-directed victimization had no significant predictive value.
The relationship between victimization and non-clinical psychotic experiences is only present for self-reported victimization, possibly indicative of an interpretation bias. The observed discrepancy between self-report and peer-report highlights the importance of implementing a combination of both measures for future research.
The Belgian data (2003–2010) for the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net) showed a significant decreasing trend in the proportion of penicillin non-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae (9·4% to <1%) from blood and CSF isolates. We found that 75% of this decrease was explained by a change in Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints as the trend disappeared if only the new breakpoints were applied. Applying only European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints also resulted in a relatively stable proportion of penicillin non-susceptibility (average 5%), but this proportion was 7–13 times higher than with the new CLSI breakpoints. When the new CLSI breakpoints alone are used, fewer than 1% of bacteraemia isolates were penicillin non-susceptible during the entire period, but the proportion of non-susceptible meningitis isolates rose from 6·3% in 2003 to 15·9% between 2003 and 2010. Changing breakpoints should lead to retrospective analysis of historical data to minimize wrongly interpreting resistance trends.
The objective of this research was to assess current patterns of hospital antibiotic prescribing in Northern Ireland and to determine targets for improving the quality of antibiotic prescribing. A point prevalence survey was conducted in four acute teaching hospitals. The most commonly used antibiotics were combinations of penicillins including β-lactamase inhibitors (33·6%), metronidazole (9·1%), and macrolides (8·1%). The indication for treatment was recorded in 84·3% of the prescribing episodes. A small fraction (3·9%) of the surgical prophylactic antibiotic prescriptions was for >24 h. The results showed that overall 52·4% of the prescribed antibiotics were in compliance with the hospital antibiotic guidelines. The findings identified the following indicators as targets for quality improvement: indication recorded in patient notes, the duration of surgical prophylaxis and compliance with hospital antibiotic guidelines. The results strongly suggest that antibiotic use could be improved by taking steps to address the identified targets for quality improvement.
Electrochemical lithium intercalation in nanostructured anatase TiO2 is investigated with in-situ X-ray diffraction. A complete and reversible phase transformation from tetragonal anatase TiO2 to orthorhombic anatase Li0.5TiO2 is observed. The difference of the XRD spectra before and after insertion can be fitted with the lattice parameters of the two phases as fit parameters. The maximum amount of lithium that can be dissolved in anatase TiO2 before the phase transformation occurs is found to be very small.
A high resolution spatially resolved photocurrent system to study bulk non homogeneities in semiinsulating GaAs and InP is described. [Fe+3] distribution is studied in InP. In undoped LEC semiinsulating GaAs a study of the relation of Photoquenching (PQ) and Enhanced Photocurrent (EPC) to the dislocation atmosphere is done.
Single Be and Si δ-doped layers in GaAs have been investigated by Raman spectroscopy. GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterointerfaces, placed 30nm from the dopant spike on either side, facilitate optical measurements by the confinement of photogenerated minority carriers. Self-consistent subband calculations have been performed to compute the subband structure of the two-dimensional electron or hole gas which is confined by the space-charge induced potential well at the δ-doping layer. Upon increasing photoexcitation, the increase in density of photocreated electrons in the Be structure is clearly seen in the polarised Raman scattering spectrum by the appearance, and subsequent increase in frequency, of the electron plasmon modes. The electric field at the top GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs interface is monitored by measuring the strength of electric field induced LO phonon scattering.
The electrical and optical properties of the heterostructure interface between high resistivity ZnSe and the semi-insulating GaAs substrate have been investigated using Transverse Acoustoelectric Voltage (TAV) spectroscopy. From the TAV spectra and the relative change of the TAV amplitude (ΔTAV/TAV), we have found the carrier type and concentration of ZnSe as well as the energy levels of various trap states at the heterostructure interface. The spectral behavior of the ΔTAV/TAV curves varied for samples of different ZnSe epilayer thickness. From the measurements, the surface recombination velocities (SRV's) were calculated. For the pseudomorphic ZnSe films on GaAs, a reduction in the SRV's was measured. As the thickness of the ZnSe film was increased, the various ΔTAV/TAV indicated presence of a large number of interface states due to the introduction of misfit dislocations.
The present work confirms thee possibility of chaotic behavior in intrinsic photoconductors with one type of traps under high radiation intensity. The system shows two attractors and a strong sensitivity to the initial conditions.