To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Starburst galaxies at z ∼ 2 – 4 are among the most intensely star-forming galaxies in the universe. The way they accrete their gas to form stars at such high rates is still a controversial issue. ALMA has detected the CH+ (J = 1-0) line in emission and/or absorption in all the gravitationally lensed starburst galaxies targeted so far at z ∼ 3. Its unique spectroscopic and chemical properties enable CH+ to highlight the sites of most intense dissipation of mechanical energy. The absorption lines reveal highly turbulent, massive reservoirs of low-density molecular gas. The broad emission lines, arising in myriad UV-irradiated molecular shocks, reveal powerful galactic winds. The CH+ lines therefore probe the fate of prodigious energy releases, due to infall and/or outflows, and primarily stored in turbulence before being radiated by cool molecular gas. The turbulent reservoirs act as mass and energy buffers over the duration of the starburst phase.
This technical article discusses design and integration associated with distributed propulsion as a means of providing motive power with significantly reduced emissions and external noise for future aircraft concepts. The technical work reflects activities performed within a European Commission funded Framework 7 project entitled Distributed Propulsion and Ultra-high By-Pass Rotor Study at Aircraft Level, or, DisPURSAL. In this instance, the approach of distributed propulsion includes a Distributed Multiple-Fans Concept driven by a limited number of engine cores as well as one unique solution that integrates the fuselage with a single propulsor (dubbed Propulsive-Fuselage Concept) – both targeting entry-in-service year 2035+. Compared to a state-of-the-art, year 2000 reference aircraft, designs with tighter coupling between airframe aerodynamics and motive power system performance for medium-to-long-range operations indicated potentially a 40-45% reduction in CO2-emissions. An evolutionary, year 2035, conventional morphology gas-turbine aircraft was predicted to be –33% in CO2-emissions.
We present the general physical conditions thought to be present in diffuse interstellar clouds. The radiation field is driving the atomic to molecular transition and the resulting physical conditions. We focus on the recent observational signatures of significant values of the cosmic ionization rate (10−16 - 10−15 s−1) which should also impact the clues to Diffuse interstellar Bands.
Hydrogenated amorphous carbons, an important component of the interstellar carbonaceous
dust, possess infrared spectral signatures (at 3.4, 6.9 and 7.3 μm) that
are ubiquitous in the diffuse interstellar medium of galaxies, but not observed in dense
clouds. To better understand the role played by cosmic rays in the disappearance of these
absorption bands, irradiation experiments of hydrocarbon dust analogues have been
performed with different swift ions. The results obtained through the in situ
infrared monitoring of the samples during the irradiations allow to infer the
dehydrogenation effect of the cosmic ray distribution on the interstellar hydrogenated
amorphous carbons. The importance of this interstellar dust destruction by cosmic rays is
discussed in comparison to other energetic processes in different interstellar
In Belgium, non-typhoidal salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis are the two most frequently reported foodborne illnesses. During 2005, a 71% decrease of Salmonella Enteritidis infections compared with the average annual number cases in the period 2000–2004 was recorded by the Belgian National Reference Centre for Salmonella and Shigella. After the peak of 1999, the total number of salmonellosis cases decreased gradually, with the exception of 2003 when an increase was again recorded due to the rise of isolates belonging to the serotype Enteritidis. PT4, the predominant phage type of serotype Enteriditis over recent years (except in 2003), became the second most prevalent phage type in 2005 after PT21. We present in this paper the epidemiology (incidence and trends) of human salmonellosis in Belgium and assess the role of the vaccination programme in layer flocks on the decline of the incidence of human salmonellosis and foodborne outbreaks due to S. Enteritidis.
In 1997, a community-wide outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium
(S. typhimurium) infection occurred in France. The investigation included case searching and a
case-control study. A case was defined as a resident of the Jura district with fever or diarrhoea
between 12 May and 8 July 1997, from whom S. typhimurium was isolated in stool or blood.
One hundred and thirteen cases were identified. Thirty-three (83%) of 40 cases but only 23
(55%) of 42 community controls, matched for age and area of residence, reported eating
Morbier cheese (Odds ratio: 6·5; 95% Confidence Interval: 1·4–28·8). Morbier cheese samples
taken from the refrigerators of two case-patients and one symptom-free neighbour cultured
positive for S. typhimurium of the same phage type as the human isolates. The analysis of
distribution channels incriminated one batch from a single processing plant. These findings
show that an unpasteurized soft cheese is an effective vehicle of S. typhimurium transmission.
PECVD amorphous silicon films deposited at different temperatures on low cost glass substrates have been treated by a Single Shot Excimer Laser Annealing (SSELA) at various energy densities. The influence of a thermal treatment at medium temperature (400°C) prior to the SSELA treatment was also investigated. Spectroscopie ellipsometry and Raman characterizations show that hydrogen contamination produces an important roughness increase with very little polycrystalline grains (650nm) after laser treatment. The thermal treatment prior laser annealing improves drastically the structural quality of the films. Structural results are correlated with the electrical performances of the TFT produced on these films.
To determine the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infections in hemodialysis patients.
S aureus isolates from surveillance cultures and from sites of infection were evaluated by both bacteriophage typing and restriction endonuclease digestion of plasmid DNA.
A hemodialysis unit in Brugge, Belgium.
S aureus isolates from 11 chronic hemodialysis patients who had participated in the placebo arm of a previously reported placebo-mupirocin comparative study.
Of 75 S aureus isolates evaluated, 63 were from cultures of nares and 12 from infections (three arteriovenous fistula infections, four wound infections, and five bacteremias). All isolates were typed by bacteriophages and 56 (75%) had plasmids. Three patients developed 12 infections. Eleven infections were caused by isolates previously identified in surveillance cultures. Only one infection was caused by a strain not identified previously in surveillance cultures.
These results support the hypothesis that S aureus isolates causing infections in hemodialysis patients are of endogenous origin.