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Buffalo milk production has become of significant importance on the world scale, however, there are few studies involving biotechnological tools specifically for buffalo. To verify the effects caused by subclinical mastitis on the components of milk and to study the innate immune system in the udder of dairy buffaloes with subclinical mastitis, we evaluated the levels of expression of the lactoferrin (LTF), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and toll-like receptors 2 (TLR-2) and 4 (TLR-4) genes in buffaloes with and without subclinical mastitis. Milk samples were collected for the determination of milk components: somatic cell score (SCS), fat, protein, lactose, total solids and solids-not-fat (SNF), as well as for RNA extraction of milk cells, complementary DNA synthesis, and expression profile quantification by quantitative real-time PCR. For gene expression, the ΔΔCt was estimated using contrasts of the target genes expression adjusted for the expression of the housekeeping genes between both groups. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the genes studied and the milk components. Subclinical mastitis induced changes in the fat, lactose and SNF in milk of buffaloes, and the messenger RNA abundance was upregulated for TLR-2, TLR-4, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-8 genes in milk cells of buffaloes with subclinical mastitis, whereas the LTF gene was not differentially expressed. Results of linear regression analysis showed that TLR-2 gene expression most explains the variation in SCS, and the change in a unit of ΔCt of the TNF-α gene would result in a higher increase in SCS. The study of these immune function genes that are active in the mammary gland is important to characterize the action mechanism of the innate immunity that occurs in subclinical mastitis in dairy buffaloes and may aid the development of strategies to preserve the health of the udder.
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) remains an important pathogen of livestock more than 120 years after it was identified, with annual costs from production losses and vaccination estimated at €5.3–€17 billion (US$6.5–US$21 billion) in FMDV-endemic areas. Control and eradication are difficult because FMDV is highly contagious, genetically and antigenically diverse, infectious for a wide variety of species, able to establish subclinical carriers in ruminants, and widely geographically distributed. For early detection, sustained control, or eradication, sensitive and specific FMDV surveillance procedures compatible with high through-put testing platforms are required. At present, surveillance relies on the detection of FMDV-specific antibody or virus, most commonly in individual animal serum, vesicular fluid, or epithelial specimens. However, FMDV or antibody are also detectable in other body secretions and specimens, e.g., buccal and nasal secretions, respiratory exhalations (aerosols), mammary secretions, urine, feces, and environmental samples. These alternative specimens offer non-invasive diagnostic alternatives to individual animal sampling and the potential for more efficient, responsive, and cost-effective surveillance. Herein we review FMDV testing methods for contemporary and alternative diagnostic specimens and their application to FMDV surveillance in livestock (cattle, swine, sheep, and goats).
Absolute dimensions of the close binary RX Her are derived based on a new set of photometric elements obtained with a modified version of EBOP code. The observed properties of both components are in good agreement with theoretical evolutionary models. However the predicted apsidal motion rate is not concordant with the observational evidences.
Data on a selected sample of semidetached Algol-type eclipsing binaries with well-known absolute dimensions have been collected. The strict criteria of selection adopted are given together with the provisional form of the catalogue. This includes besides the absolute dimensions other relevant parameters that may be of interest.
A method for estimating representative values of the parameters that characterize the loss of mass and angular momentum occurred during the evolution of a close binary star is considered. Absolute dimensions previous to mass-transfer stage have been obtained for a select group of 43 semidetached systems adopting a grid of values of mass loss, angular momentum loss and initial mass ratio. Our study reveals a highly non-conservative scenario for the evolution towards an Algol-type system.
Given any two vertices u, v of a random geometric graph G(n, r), denote by dE(u, v) their Euclidean distance and by dE(u, v) their graph distance. The problem of finding upper bounds on dG(u, v) conditional on dE(u, v) that hold asymptotically almost surely has received quite a bit of attention in the literature. In this paper we improve the known upper bounds for values of r=ω(√logn) (that is, for r above the connectivity threshold). Our result also improves the best known estimates on the diameter of random geometric graphs. We also provide a lower bound on dE(u, v) conditional on dE(u, v).
Eddington is a space mission for extrasolar planet finding and for asteroseismic observations. It has been selected by ESA as an F2/F3 reserve mission with a potential implementation in 2008-13. Here we describe Eddington's capabilities to detect extrasolar planets, with an emphasis on the detection of habitable planets. Simulations covering the instrumental capabilities of Eddington and the stellar distributions in potential target fields lead to predictions of about 10,000 planets of all sizes and temperatures, and a few tens of terrestrial planets that are potentially habitable. Implications of Eddington for future larger scale missions are briefly discussed.
Our collaboration involves groups in Denmark, the U.S.A. Spain and of course New Zealand. Combining ground-based and satellite (IUE and HST) observations we aim to determine accurate and precise stellar fundamental parameters for the components of Magellanic Cloud Eclipsing Binaries as well as the distances to these systems and hence the parent galaxies themselves. This poster presents our latest progress.
First 405 GHz and 212 GHz solar flare observations were obtained during short campaigns while the new solar submillimeter-wave telescope (SST) was still undergoing adjustments at the CASLEO El Leoncito observatory in the Argentina Andes. We show here preliminary results for a large X1.1 class X-ray event occurred on 2000 March 22, which exhibited a small submm-w continuum response to the slow (minutes) bulk flare emission, and numerous subsecond spikes (100-300 ms), the brightest spikes reaching about 180 and 50 s.f.u. at 405 and 212 GHz, respectively.
In this paper we provide preliminary results of multifrequency observations of BF Cyg carried out in July 1986. The ultraviolet spectra were obtained on July 26, 1986 using the IUE satellite. The optical observations were made at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma, Canary Islands) in July 1986 during the night 13/14 using the Isaac Newton 2.5m telescope with the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph (IDS, 500 mm camera) and the Image Photon Counting System (IPCS). The infrared observations were made during the night 13/14 of July, 1986, at the Observatorio del Teide (Tenerife, Canary Islands) using the Carlos Sanchez 1.5m telescope and an infrared single-channel photometer with an InSb detector.
The most important ingredient of a stellar model is its initial mass. Hence, real stars with known masses are important test objects for stellar models. Initial chemical composition is the other important starting parameter and should therefore also be known (Clausen, 1992). Finally, the most direct indicator of the evolution of a star is its radius. Together, these parameters determine the effective temperature and luminosity of the model, to be tested against a real star.
The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) diffuse background is the most poorly known of any of the diffuse astronomical backgrounds. Only upper limits to this flux exist, obtained with spectrometers with very crude (from ≈ 15 to 30 Å) resolution; these limits are generally one to two orders of magnitude larger than the expected sources of cosmic flux. A variety of source mechanisms have been postulated to radiate in this bandpass; the most discussed is the hot phase of the interstellar medium. A speculative possibility is that hot dark matter in the form of massive, radiatively unstable neutrinos in our Galaxy will produce a unique line in this bandpass. We describe an instrument employing a new type of spectrometer which will provide ~5 Å resolution and unprecedented sensitivity for diffuse EUV radiation. The instrument will be carried aboard the newly developed Spanish Minisat satellite.
We have developed a “Relative Rates Method” to make bounding calculations regarding radionuclide migration due to uplift/erosion (“exhumation”) of a HLW repository. Results show that this method can apply to a wide range of different uplift rates and erosion rates. In addition, for the long time period, it was shown that the relative difference of uplift rate / erosion rate and potential hydraulic change arising from extreme uplift/erosion could affect radionuclide release and migration, thus uplift/erosion concerns should be fed back to site selection. Our method provides a credible and defensible basis for analysis and interpretation of possible uplift/erosion impacts for future volunteer sites.
A simulated Magnox glass which is Mg- and Al- rich was subjected to aqueous corrosion in static mode with deionised water at 90 °C for 7-28 days and assessed using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with Energy X-Ray Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma – Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). XRD revealed both amorphous phase and crystals in the glass structure. The crystals were Ni and Cr rich spinels and ruthenium oxide. After two weeks of incubation in deionised water, the glass surface was covered by a ∼11 μm thick Si-rich layer whilst mobile elements and transition metals like Na, B, and Fe were strongly depleted. The likely corrosion mechanism and in particular the role of Mg and Al in the glass structure are discussed.
In the autumn of 2012, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) launched a new research project named F-TRACE (Long-Term Assessment of Transport of Radioactive Contaminant in the Environment of Fukushima). The aims of this project are to develop a system for prediction of radiation exposure, taking into consideration the transport, deposition, and remobilization behavior of radiocaesium (RCs) from the highest contaminated mountain forests, down through the biosphere, before deposition in a number of different aquatic systems. Especially, it is important to understand balances of suspended and deposited particles and RCs inventory in inflow water, discharge water and bottom sediments of an upland reservoir. In this paper, we describe current research activities performed by JAEA at the Ogi Reservoir, Fukushima prefecture, Japan.
According to our analyses the specific sediment yield and the average rate of storage capacity loss at the Ogi Reservoir are 210 m3 km-2 year-1 and 0.15 % year-1, respectively. The vertical distribution of RCs exhibits clear peaks at several sites in the reservoir formed by deposition of eroded soil particles from the catchment that were contaminated by accident fallout. Above the depth of each of the RCs peaks, the distribution of RCs was found to be variable with depth, with concentrations ranging over five orders of magnitude for a single core. The peaks in the sedimentation profiles are probably formed from eroded soil particles entering the reservoir from the surrounding contaminated watershed (most probably during storm events). Results from grain size analyses suggest that contaminated fine sediment tends to be deposited thickly within deeper parts of the reservoir. In addition, above the depth of RCs peaks at these deeper sites, the concentration of RCs approximately increased or decreased as the proportion of fine sediments increased or decreased. However, some fine particles are possibly discharged downstream during operational releases from the dam.
The rapid release of fission products segregated either to the gap between the fuel and the cladding or to the UO2 grain boundaries from spent nuclear fuel in contact with water (often referred to as the instant release fraction - IRF) is of interest for the safety assessment of geological repositories for spent fuel due to the potential dose contribution. In September 2012 a study was initiated with the aim of comparing the instant release behavior of fuels with and without additives/dopants. Preliminary results from this (ongoing) study indicate that the release of uranium during the first contact periods was higher than during the tests with fuel segments, even though the fuel was cut open recently . This could be due to the sample preparation method which included axial cutting of the cladding in order to remove the fuel fragments used in the study. In the present work, leaching data from both studies are presented and the releases are discussed comparing the two sample preparation methods and considering the effect of matrix composition. The leaching studies have been performed in air using 10 mM NaCl + 2 mM NaHCO3 as leaching solution.