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Several research teams have previously traced patterns of emerging conduct problems (CP) from early or middle childhood. The current study expands on this previous literature by using a genetically-informed, experimental, and long-term longitudinal design to examine trajectories of early-emerging conduct problems and early childhood discriminators of such patterns from the toddler period to adolescence. The sample represents a cohort of 731 toddlers and diverse families recruited based on socioeconomic, child, and family risk, varying in urbanicity and assessed on nine occasions between ages 2 and 14. In addition to examining child, family, and community level discriminators of patterns of emerging conduct problems, we were able to account for genetic susceptibility using polygenic scores and the study's experimental design to determine whether random assignment to the Family Check-Up (FCU) discriminated trajectory groups. In addition, in accord with differential susceptibility theory, we tested whether the effects of the FCU were stronger for those children with higher genetic susceptibility. Results augmented previous findings documenting the influence of child (inhibitory control [IC], gender) and family (harsh parenting, parental depression, and educational attainment) risk. In addition, children in the FCU were overrepresented in the persistent low versus persistent high CP group, but such direct effects were qualified by an interaction between the intervention and genetic susceptibility that was consistent with differential susceptibility. Implications are discussed for early identification and specifically, prevention efforts addressing early child and family risk.
Agriculture as a social-ecological system embraces many disciplines. This book breaks through the silos of individual disciplines to bring ecologists and economists together to consider agriculture through the lens of resilience. It explores the economic, environmental and social uncertainties that influence the behaviour of agricultural producers and their subsequent farming approach, highlighting the importance of adaptability, innovation and capital reserves in enabling agriculture to persist under climate change and market volatility. The resilience concept and its relation to complexity theory is explained and the characteristics that foster resilience in agricultural systems, including the role of biodiversity and ecosystem services, are explored. The book discusses modelling tools, metrics and approaches for assessing agricultural resilience, highlighting areas where interdisciplinary thinking can enhance the development of resilience. It is suitable for those researching sustainable agriculture or those engaged in agricultural policy decisions and analysis, as well as students of ecology, agriculture and socioeconomics.
The Monte Carlo simulation method that has been previously developed and demonstrated for EDXRF analysis with annular radioisotope excitation sources is extended to systems using secondary fluorescer X-ray machines for excitation. Comparisons of the Monte Carlo predictions with experimental results indicate that the modification is valid.
The error introduced by sample scattering in EDXRF analysis is evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation. This is accomplished by deriving a Monte Carlo model capable of simulating single Compton and Rayleigh scatters from the exciting photon source and from fluorescent X rays in homogeneous samples. The model also includes primary, secondary, and tertiary fluorescence events. (1) Results are given for Ni-Fe-Cr ternary samples for various exciting energies with and without scattering and indicate that errors as large as 2% can be attributed to this effect.
Composition imaging of industrial samples has been reported using dual energy and multiple energy transmission computed tomography [1,2]. The simplest approach utilizes monoenergetic sources to obtain tomographs of a sample at two different energies. Each tomograph represents the linear attenuation coefficient distribution of the sample at the given source energy.
Inherent in the use of radioisotope sources with secondary fluorescers is the background produced by scattering of the source photons from the exciter system. A Monte Carlo program has been developed that is capable of simulating the backscattered photon spectrum as a function of the system geometry, including shielding and collimation variations. This computer program generates the scattered photon spectrum incident on both the sample and detector. The program is applied to a commercially available exciter system to study the effect of specific geometric design changes on the scattered spectrum.
A review of the application of the Monte Carlo, fundamental parameters method to XRF fluorescence analysis for the reduction of matrix effects is made. The analytical solutions arising from theoretical equations are given along with the restrictive assumptions that are necessary to this approach. The extensions of the fundamental parameters method by the Monte Carlo simulation to practical situations that require much less restrictive assumptions are outlined. The average angle approach to the use of the analytical solutions is investigated by comparison with the Monte Carlo method. Future extensions of the fundamental parameters method by the Monte Carlo approach are discussed.
Despite children’s unique vulnerability, clinical guidance and resources are lacking around the use of radiation medical countermeasures (MCMs) available commercially and in the Strategic National Stockpile to support immediate dispensing to pediatric populations. To better understand the current capabilities and shortfalls, a literature review and gap analysis were performed.
A comprehensive review of the medical literature, Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved labeling, FDA summary reviews, medical references, and educational resources related to pediatric radiation MCMs was performed from May 2016 to February 2017.
Fifteen gaps related to the use of radiation MCMs in children were identified. The need to address these gaps was prioritized based upon the potential to decrease morbidity and mortality, improve clinical management, strengthen caregiver education, and increase the relevant evidence base.
Key gaps exist in information to support the safe and successful use of MCMs in children during radiation emergencies; failure to address these gaps could have negative consequences for families and communities. There is a clear need for pediatric-specific guidance to ensure clinicians can appropriately identify, triage, and treat children who have been exposed to radiation, and for resources to ensure accurate communication about the safety and utility of radiation MCMs for children. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:639-646)
Drawing from and extending rejection sensitivity (RS) theory, we tested a serial mediation pathway model, whereby perceived parenting practices were expected to be indirectly related to participants’ depressive and trait-anxious symptoms through RS, as well as emotional and behavioural responses to rejection. Participants were 628 adolescents and young adults (M = 19.8 years, SD = 2.6, 65.3% female) completing self-report measures assessing current perceived parenting practices, RS, emotion dysregulation, emotion suppression, social withdrawal, and depressive and trait-anxious symptoms. In latent-variable structural equation modelling, a latent construct of more positive (and fewer negative) perceived parenting practices was directly associated with offsprings’ lower level of depression and trait-anxiety symptoms. Also, there were indirect associations of parenting via RS, emotion dysregulation, suppression, and social withdrawal, regardless of whether the model focused on depressive or trait-anxious symptoms. The findings provide further support of the importance for adolescents and young adults to perceive that they experience warm and autonomy-supportive relationships with their parents (instead of rejecting, coercive, or psychologically controlling relationships); along with providing an extended model whereby anxious expectations of rejection associates with greater emotional difficulties through negative responses to difficult emotions and the tendency to withdraw from such experiences. Together, perceived parenting practices and rejection-related beliefs and responses seem to activate a pathway to elevated depressive and trait-anxiety symptoms.
The Meat Standards Australia (MSA) grading scheme has the ability to predict beef eating quality for each ‘cut×cooking method combination’ from animal and carcass traits such as sex, age, breed, marbling, hot carcass weight and fatness, ageing time, etc. Following MSA testing protocols, a total of 22 different muscles, cooked by four different cooking methods and to three different degrees of doneness, were tasted by over 19 000 consumers from Northern Ireland, Poland, Ireland, France and Australia. Consumers scored the sensory characteristics (tenderness, flavor liking, juiciness and overall liking) and then allocated samples to one of four quality grades: unsatisfactory, good-every-day, better-than-every-day and premium. We observed that 26% of the beef was unsatisfactory. As previously reported, 68% of samples were allocated to the correct quality grades using the MSA grading scheme. Furthermore, only 7% of the beef unsatisfactory to consumers was misclassified as acceptable. Overall, we concluded that an MSA-like grading scheme could be used to predict beef eating quality and hence underpin commercial brands or labels in a number of European countries, and possibly the whole of Europe. In addition, such an eating quality guarantee system may allow the implementation of an MSA genetic index to improve eating quality through genetics as well as through management. Finally, such an eating quality guarantee system is likely to generate economic benefits to be shared along the beef supply chain from farmers to retailors, as consumers are willing to pay more for a better quality product.