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This chapter reviews the systematics of partial melting of mantle lithologies – like peridotite and eclogite – in the presence of carbon dioxide. It discusses the composition of mantle-derived magmas generated in the presence of carbon dioxide and whether magmas erupted on Earth’s surface resemble carbonated magmas from the mantle. It reviews how the production of carbon dioxide-rich magma in the mantle varies as a function of tectonic settings – beneath continents and oceans and in subduction zones – and time.
A new fossil site in a previously unexplored part of western Madagascar (the Beanka Protected Area) has yielded remains of many recently extinct vertebrates, including giant lemurs (Babakotia radofilai, Palaeopropithecus kelyus, Pachylemur sp., and Archaeolemur edwardsi), carnivores (Cryptoprocta spelea), the aardvark-like Plesiorycteropus sp., and giant ground cuckoos (Coua). Many of these represent considerable range extensions. Extant species that were extirpated from the region (e.g., Prolemur simus) are also present. Calibrated radiocarbon ages for 10 bones from extinct primates span the last three millennia. The largely undisturbed taphonomy of bone deposits supports the interpretation that many specimens fell in from a rock ledge above the entrance. Some primates and other mammals may have been prey items of avian predators, but human predation is also evident. Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) suggest that fossils were local to the area. Pottery sherds and bones of extinct and extant vertebrates with cut and chop marks indicate human activity in previous centuries. Scarcity of charcoal and human artifacts suggests only occasional visitation to the site by humans. The fossil assemblage from this site is unusual in that, while it contains many sloth lemurs, it lacks ratites, hippopotami, and crocodiles typical of nearly all other Holocene subfossil sites on Madagascar.
Scientific endeavors are increasingly carried out by teams of scientists. While there is growing literature on factors associated with effective science teams, little is known about processes that facilitate the success of dissemination and implementation (D&I) teams studying the uptake of healthcare innovations. This study aimed to identify strategies used by D&I scientists to promote team science.
Using a nominal group technique, a sample of 27 D&I scholars responded to the question, “What strategies have you or others used to promote team science?” Participants were asked to individually respond and then discuss within a small group to determine the group’s top three strategies. Through a facilitated consensus discussion with the full sample, a rank-ordered list of three strategies was determined.
A total of 126 individual responses (M=9; SD=4.88) were submitted. Through small group discussion, six groups ranked their top three strategies to promote team science. The final ranked list of strategies determined by the full sample included: (1) developing and maintaining clear expectations, (2) promoting and modeling effective communication and (3) establishing shared goals and a mission of the work to be accomplished.
Because of its goal of translating knowledge to practice, D&I research necessitates the use of team science. The top strategies are in line with those found to be effective for teams in other fields and hold promise for improving D&I team cohesion and innovation, which may ultimately accelerate the translation of health innovations and the improvement of care quality and outcomes.
Analysis of human remains and a copper band found in the center of a Late Archaic (ca. 5000–3000 cal BP) shell ring demonstrate an exchange network between the Great Lakes and the coastal southeast United States. Similarities in mortuary practices suggest that the movement of objects between these two regions was more direct and unmediated than archaeologists previously assumed based on “down-the-line” models of exchange. These findings challenge prevalent notions that view preagricultural Native American communities as relatively isolated from one another and suggest instead that wide social networks spanned much of North America thousands of years before the advent of domestication.
This study revisits the premature autonomy model by examining parents’ use of positive behavior support (PBS) practices on a daily timescale to better understand underlying processes in developmental changes in family disengagement and the implications for adolescent problem behavior and substance use. This study included 151 9th and 10th grade adolescents (61.5% female) and their caregivers, who participated in a baseline assessment, a 21-day daily diary burst, and a 1-year follow-up assessment. Four key findings emerged: (a) on days when parents used more PBS, adolescents felt more close and connected to their caregivers; (b) adolescents who exhibited a larger-magnitude of change in connectedness with caregivers in relation to variation in positive parenting (termed fragile connectedness) were at higher risk for antisocial behavior, deviant peer involvement, and substance use one year later; (c) individual differences in initial levels of antisocial behavior and effortful control accounted for between-person variation in fragile connectedness; and (d) day-level adolescent anger and parent–adolescent conflict predicted within-family variation in parents’ use of PBS. Implications for the premature autonomy model and intervention science are discussed.
The Cambrian–Ordovician metasedimentary rocks of the Meguma terrane (Canadian Appalachians) were extensively intruded by silicic plutons during Middle Devonian to Early Carboniferous times. Syn-plutonic but volumetrically minor mafic-ultramafic intrusions were also emplaced. In most localities, the silicic plutons and mafic-ultramafic intrusions do not appear to be petrogenetically related and are likely derived from different sources. The Attwoods Brook gabbronorite of SW Nova Scotia yielded an in situ zircon weighted-mean 206Pb–238U age of 357.9 ± 3.3 Ma that is within the uncertainty of the age of the neighbouring Wedgeport pluton (357 ± 1 Ma). The Wedgeport pluton is a rare example of a mantle-derived, peraluminous A-type granite within the Meguma terrane. The similar ages and Nd isotopes of the Attwoods Brook gabbronorite (εNd(t) = +1.1 to +4.0) and Wedgeport pluton (εNd(t) = +2.1 to +3.3) suggest the two intrusions are petrogenetically related. Fractional crystallization modelling demonstrates that a parental magma similar to the Attwoods Brook gabbronorite can produce residual silicic liquids that resemble the granites of the Wedgeport pluton, indicating that they could be members of the same intrusive complex. The emplacement of the gabbronorite and Wedgeport pluton occurred during a period of tensional plate stress that was contemporaneous with rifting of the Maritimes Basin that produced the Fountain Lake continental flood basalts and A-type granites of the Cobequid Highlands within the Avalon terrane. It is possible that the Early Carboniferous rocks of SW Nova Scotia are related to the rifted-related magmatism within the Maritimes Basin.
The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
Despite the global significance of the Leach’s Storm-petrel Hydrobates leucorhous colony on Baccalieu Island, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, the estimate of 3.36 million breeding pairs reported for 1984 by Sklepkovych and Montevecchi stands as the single published population estimate for the world’s largest colony. This study increases knowledge of this population by analysing data from additional independent surveys conducted in 1984 and 1985, and by updating the population status with a survey conducted in 2013. Population estimates were derived by extrapolating occupied burrow densities to the estimated occupied area of four main habitat types (heath, forest, grass and fern), which in turn were based on proportions of habitats observed in plots (1984 and 1985) or by using a Geographic Information System approach (2013). Based on these surveys, the Leach’s Storm-petrel breeding population size on Baccalieu Island was estimated at 5.12 ± 0.73 (SE) and 4.60 ± 0.42 (SE) million pairs in 1984 and 1985 respectively, representing estimates 37–51% greater than the original 1984 survey. While discrepancies among these estimates were largely driven by the way occupied areas were estimated, our study confirms that Baccalieu Island hosts the largest Leach’s Storm-petrel colony in the world. Results from the 2013 survey estimate the current breeding Leach’s Storm-petrel population at 1.95 ± 0.14 (SE) million pairs, representing a 42% decline over 29 years (-1.4% per year), relative to the original published estimate of 3.36 ± 0.12 (SE) million pairs. The most prominent change has occurred in the density of storm-petrel burrows found in forest habitat which dropped by 70% despite forest remaining the second most abundant habitat available to nesting storm-petrels on Baccalieu Island. The cause of this decline remains unknown and is likely multi-faceted. Future research focusing on demographic studies is required to understand what is driving the population decline of this internationally important colony.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
The field of nanomedicine is quickly evolving in response to achievements in genomics, proteomics, molecular biology, bioengineering, and the imaging sciences. New approaches to entrenched medical problems are being studied using a cadre of “nanotools”, one example of which is perfluorocarbon nanoparticles.Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles represent a platform technology with nominal sizes around 250nm, which can be modified to home to thrombi and the neovasculature in vivo after intravenous injection. They can be noninvasively imaged with ultrasound, magnetic resonance (MR, 1H and 19F), or SPECT/CT. In rabbit models, perfluorocarbon nanoparticles have been demonstrated to deliver drug payloads targeted to vascular tissues for anti-angiogenic and anti-restenotic applications and to noninvasively confirm and quantify delivery as well as to follow response to treatment. In canine studies these agents have been demonstrated to target and enhance the MR and ultrasound contrast of intravascular thrombi, and using ex vivo human carotid endarterectomy sections, these results have been extrapolated to human disease where the potential for sensitive detection of microthrombi in the fissures of ruptured plaques is clearly demonstrated. The development of emerging nanotechnology platforms, such as the perfluorocarbon nanoparticles, permits translation of immunohistology techniques from fixed tissue on a slide to live tissue in an animal. These new agents allow biochemical and physiological changes to be studied dynamically in vivo and permit the quest for site-directed therapy to be realized.
Topographic complexity on continental shelves is the catalyst that transforms the barotropic tide into the secondary and residual circulations that dominate vertical and cross-shelf mixing processes. Island wakes are one such example that are observed to significantly influence the transport and distribution of biological and physical scalars. Despite the importance of island wakes, to date, no sufficient, mechanistic description of the physical processes governing their development exists for the general case of unsteady tidal forcing. Controlled laboratory experiments are necessary for the understanding of this complex flow phenomenon. Here, three-dimensional velocity field measurements of cylinder wakes in shallow-water oscillatory flow are conducted across a parameter space that is typical of tidal flow around shallow islands. The wake form in steady flows is typically described in terms of the stability parameter
is the island diameter,
is the water depth and
is the bottom boundary friction coefficient); in tidal flows, there is an additional dependence on the Keulegan–Carpenter number
is the tidal velocity amplitude and
is the tidal period). In this study we demonstrate that when the influence of bottom friction is confined to a Stokes boundary layer the stability parameter is given by
is the ratio of the wavelength of the Stokes bottom boundary layer to the depth. Three classes of wake form are observed with decreasing wake stability: (i) steady bubble for
; (ii) unsteady bubble for
$0.06\lesssim S\lesssim 0.1$
; and (iii) vortex shedding for
. Transitions in wake form and wake stability are shown to depend on the magnitude and temporal evolution of the wake return flow. Scaling laws are developed to allow upscaling of the laboratory results to island wakes. Vertical and lateral transport depend on three parameters: (i) the flow aspect ratio
; (ii) the amplitude of tidal motion relative to the island size, given by
; and (iii) the relative influence of bottom friction to the flow depth, given by
. A model of wake upwelling based on Ekman pumping from the bottom boundary layer demonstrates that upwelling in the near-wake region of an island scales with
and is independent of the wake form. Finally, we demonstrate an intrinsic link between the dynamical eddy scales, predicted by the Ekman pumping model, and the island wake form and stability.
How does single-party dominance influence interpersonal trust? We draw on evidence from trust games played by more than 2,000 subjects in South Africa, where, since Apartheid, race-based social enmity has persisted under democratic competition characterized by single-party dominance. We find that partisan-based trust discrimination is most pronounced for those who identify with the main opposition party and is driven by strong distrust of rival partisans. These findings underscore how electoral competition, in general, shapes trust across party lines and suggests one-sided competition, in particular, has asymmetrical effects between parties in dominant party systems. Moreover, this study provides additional evidence regarding the relative weights of trustworthiness stereotypes tied to partisanship and race.
Zoysia germplasm exhibit different levels of sensitivity to fluazifop-P-butyl, but the genetic factors responsible for such differences are unknown. Segregation patterns of the fluazifop-P-butyl tolerance trait were studied under greenhouse conditions. In total, 244 F1 lines were generated from multiple crosses between the tolerant line 5337-2 (non–target site tolerance) and three more-sensitive lines (123, 252, and 5330-23). Progeny segregation showed that fluazifop-P-butyl tolerance within zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.) is expressed as a quantitative trait with a wide range of intermediate phenotypes between parental phenotypes. Transgressive segregation was extensive and largely favored susceptibility in most families, but was especially evident for 5337-2 × 123 and 5337-2 × 5330-23. The segregation patterns for biomass reduction and percent injury were different within reciprocal crosses and among three different family crosses. Reciprocal effects were observed in growth reduction for 5337-2 × 5330-23, in percent injury at 3 wk after the treatment (WAT), and for 5337-2 × 252 at 6 WAT. This indicated that fluazifop-P-butyl tolerance was not completely controlled by nuclear genetic factors in 5337-2 and maternal/cytoplasmic inheritance was also partially responsible. These results suggested that fluazifop-P-butyl tolerance may be attributed to multiple genetic mechanisms, which could present a challenge for future breeding efforts because of the difficulty of fixing multiple traits within a breeding population.
Breeding herbicide tolerance into new cultivars can improve safety and weed control in turfgrass systems. The sensitivity to fluazifop-P-butyl of 27 zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.) lines was screened under greenhouse conditions to identify potential tolerant germplasm for breeding programs. The herbicide rate that caused 50% biomass reduction (GR50) and the rate that caused 50% injury (ID50) were calculated to select the three most-tolerant and the five most-susceptible lines for studying the physiological mechanisms responsible for fluazifop-P-butyl tolerance. The differences in GR50 and ID50 between susceptible and tolerant lines ranged from 4-fold to more than 10-fold. Cytochrome P450–mediated metabolism was not detected in fluazifop-P-butyl–tolerant lines. Sequencing of the ACCase gene confirmed that none of the seven previously reported mutations conferring resistance to acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicides in other species were present in any of the tolerant or susceptible zoysiagrass lines studied. An Ala-2073-Thr substitution was identified in two tolerant lines, but this mutation did not completely explain the tolerant phenotype. No clear differences in absorption and translocation rates of 14C-radiolabeled fluazifop-P-butyl were observed among most lines, with the exception of a susceptible line that exhibited greater translocation than two of the tolerant lines. Metabolite profiles did not differ between tolerant and susceptible lines. Our results suggest that the diversity in tolerance to fluazifop-P-butyl in zoysiagrass germplasm is most likely the result of a combination of different, minor, additive non–target site mechanisms such as translocation rate and compartmentation after absorption.