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As a result of the selection for genotypes with greater sow prolificacy, litter size increased and, concomitantly, average litter birth weight and early postnatal survival rates of low birth weight (L-BtW) offspring decreased. This study compared the impact of l-carnitine (CAR) and l-arginine (ARG) supplemented with a milk replacer and fed to L-BtW piglets born from large litters from days 7 to 28 of age on growth performance, carcass composition, organ and Semitendinosus muscle (STM) development. A total of 30 female and castrated Swiss Large White piglets weaned at 7 days of age were assigned to three milk replacer diets containing either no supplement (CON), CAR (0.40 g/piglet per day) or ARG (1.08 g/kg BW per day). Piglets were kept in pairs in rescue decks (0.54 m2). They were weighed daily and daily allowance of both, feed and ARG, was adjusted accordingly. Thus, feed allowance depended on growth. Each day, the milk replacer was prepared with water (1:4). Feed (allowance: 60 g dry matter/kg BW per day) was offered daily in six equal rations. Feed intake and feed efficiency was assessed for the pairs and apparent total tract-energy and -protein digestibility was determined from days 21 to 28 of age. On day 28, piglets were euthanized, blood samples were collected and the whole STM and organs were weighed. In STM, the size and metabolic properties of myofibers were determined. No difference in growth performance was found between dietary treatments, but piglets from the CAR group tended (P<0.10) to grow faster during the 1st experimental week and consume more feed from days 14 to 21 as compared with piglets of the CON group. A setback in growth in the last week in the CAR group coincided with the lower (P<0.05) energy and protein digestibility. Dietary treatments had no effect on STM and organ weight and myofiber size. Compared with the other groups, there were trends (P<0.10) for blood serum urea and glucose level to be greater in CAR and for non-esterified fatty acid level to be greater in ARG piglets. The greater (P<0.05) ratio of lactate dehydrogenase to either citrate synthase or β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase indicated that the relative importance of the glycolytic compared with the oxidative pathway was greater in STM of CAR and ARG compared with CON piglets. These results suggest that ARG and CAR supplements were beneficial for muscle maturation whereas findings on phenotypic traits were rather unsystematic.
Adverse psychosocial working environments characterized by job strain (the combination of high demands and low control at work) are associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms among employees, but evidence on clinically diagnosed depression is scarce. We examined job strain as a risk factor for clinical depression.
We identified published cohort studies from a systematic literature search in PubMed and PsycNET and obtained 14 cohort studies with unpublished individual-level data from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium. Summary estimates of the association were obtained using random-effects models. Individual-level data analyses were based on a pre-published study protocol.
We included six published studies with a total of 27 461 individuals and 914 incident cases of clinical depression. From unpublished datasets we included 120 221 individuals and 982 first episodes of hospital-treated clinical depression. Job strain was associated with an increased risk of clinical depression in both published [relative risk (RR) = 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47–2.13] and unpublished datasets (RR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.04–1.55). Further individual participant analyses showed a similar association across sociodemographic subgroups and after excluding individuals with baseline somatic disease. The association was unchanged when excluding individuals with baseline depressive symptoms (RR = 1.25, 95% CI 0.94–1.65), but attenuated on adjustment for a continuous depressive symptoms score (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.81–1.32).
Job strain may precipitate clinical depression among employees. Future intervention studies should test whether job strain is a modifiable risk factor for depression.
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the compensatory growth feeding strategy could be a suitable solution for overcoming the negative effects on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of low birth weight pigs. Forty-two Swiss Large White barrows from 21 litters were selected at weaning and categorized into either being light (L; >0.8 and <1.3 kg) or heavy (H; >1.7 kg) birth weight pigs. From 27.8 kg BW, pigs were assigned within birth weight group to one of three feeding groups: AA: ad libitum access to the grower and finisher diet, RR: restricted access to the grower and finisher diet or RA: restricted access to the grower diet and ad libitum access to the finisher diet. At slaughter, the longissimus (LM) and semitendinosus (STM) muscles were removed from the right side of the carcass. Weight, girth and length of the STM and the LM area were determined after muscle excision. Carcass characteristics and meat quality traits were assessed. Using mATPase histochemistry, myofibre size and myofibre type distribution were determined in the LM and STM. Because of longer days on feed, total feed intake was greater (P<0.01) and feed efficiency was lower (P<0.01) in L than H barrows. Regardless of the birth weight group, AA and RA barrows grew faster (P<0.05) than RR barrows. During the compensatory growth period, RA barrows grew faster (P<0.05) than AA or RR barrows. Growth efficiency did not differ between RA and RR barrows but was greater (P<0.05) compared with AA barrows. Carcasses of L barrows were fatter as indicated by the lower (P⩽≤0.05) lean meat and greater (P⩽0.02) omental and subcutaneous fat percentage. Lean meat percentage was lower (P⩽0.05) in AA and RA than RR barrows. These differences caused by ad libitum feed access tended to be greater (feeding regime × birth weight group interaction; P<0.08) in L than H barrows. In L barrows, slow oxidative, fast oxidative glycolytic and overall average myofibre size of the LM and the fast glycolytic myofibres and overall average myofibre size of the dark portion of the STM were larger (P⩽0.03) than in H barrows. The study revealed that the compensatory growth feeding strategy was inadequate in overcoming the disadvantages of low birth weight.
We present a new joint analysis of pulsar dispersion measures and diffuse Hα emission in the Milky Way, which we use to derive the density, pressure and filling factor of the thick disk component of the warm ionised medium (WIM) as a function of height above the Galactic disk. By excluding sightlines at low Galactic latitude that are contaminated by Hii regions and spiral arms, we find that the exponential scale-height of free electrons in the diffuse WIM is 1830–250+120 pc, a factor of two larger than has been derived in previous studies. The corresponding inconsistent scale heights for dispersion measure and emission measure imply that the vertical profiles of mass and pressure in the WIM are decoupled, and that the filling factor of WIM clouds is a geometric response to the competing environmental influences of thermal and non-thermal processes. Extrapolating the properties of the thick-disk WIM to mid-plane, we infer a volume-averaged electron density 0.014 ± 0.001 cm−3, produced by clouds of typical electron density 0.34 ± 0.06 cm−3 with a volume filling factor 0.04 ± 0.01. As one moves off the plane, the filling factor increases to a maximum of ∼30% at a height of ≈1–1.5 kpc, before then declining to accommodate the increasing presence of hot, coronal gas. Since models for the WIM with a ≈1 kpc scale-height have been widely used to estimate distances to radio pulsars, our revised parameters suggest that the distances to many high-latitude pulsars have been substantially underestimated.
In industrialized countries enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is mainly diagnosed as a cause of travellers' diarrhoea, but it is also known to cause foodborne outbreaks. We report an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis caused by ETEC serotypes O92:H− and O153:H2 as well as Salmonella Anatum, which affected around 200 students and teachers after a high-school dinner in Greater Copenhagen, Denmark, November 2006. A retrospective cohort study showed that consumption of pasta salad with pesto was associated with an increased risk of illness (attack rate 59·4%; risk ratio 2·6, 95% confidence interval 1·2–5·7). Imported fresh basil used for preparation of the pesto was the most likely source of contamination. Although ETEC is associated with travellers' diarrhoea in Denmark, this outbreak suggests that a proportion of sporadic ETEC infections might be caused by contaminated imported foodstuffs. To improve food safety further, it is important to target this poorly regulated and researched area.
We report a large foodborne outbreak due to group A streptococci (GAS), which caused acute tonsillo-pharyngitis in 200–250 patrons of a company canteen in Copenhagen, Denmark, in June 2006. A retrospective cohort study of canteen users showed that consumption of cold pasta was associated with an increased risk of illness (attack rate 68%, risk ratio 4·1, P<0·0001). Indistinguishable GAS strains (emm89, T-type 3/13/B3264) were cultured from three cases and a cook, who had prepared the pasta. To our knowledge, pasta has previously only twice been incriminated as the source of a GAS outbreak. Only six foodborne GAS outbreaks have been reported in Europe since 1970, four of them in Sweden or Denmark. This geographical clustering suggests that foodborne GAS outbreaks are probably under-recognized elsewhere.
Accurate emission line fluxes from planetary nebulae (PNe) provide important constraints on the nature of the final phases of stellar evolution. Large, evolved PNe may trace the latest stages of PN evolution, where material from the AGB wind is returned to the interstellar medium. However, the low surface brightness and spatially extended emission of large PNe have made accurate measurements of line fluxes difficult with traditional long-slit spectroscopic techniques. Furthermore, distinguishing these nebulae from H II regions, supernova remnants, or interstellar gas ionized by a hot, evolved stellar core can be challenging. Here, we report on an ongoing survey of large Galactic PNe ($r > 5^\prime$) with the Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM), a Fabry-Perot spectrograph designed to detect faint diffuse optical emission lines with high sensitivity and spectral resolution. Our sample includes newly revealed $H\alpha$ enhancements from the AAO/UKST and WHAM $H\alpha$ surveys of Parker et al. and Haffner et al. We present accurate emission line fluxes of $H\alpha$, [N II]$\lambda$6583, and [O III]$\lambda$5007, and compare our data to other measurements. We use the emission line ratios and kinematics of the ionized gas to assess, or in some cases reassess, the identification of some nebulae.
This paper briefly describes the principle of operation and science goals of the AMANDA high energy neutrino telescope located at the South Pole, Antarctica. Results from an earlier phase of the telescope, called AMANDA-BIO, demonstrate both reliable operation and the broad astrophysical reach of this device, which includes searches for a variety of sources of ultrahigh energy neutrinos: generic point sources, Gamma-Ray Bursts and diffuse sources. The predicted sensitivity and angular resolution of the telescope were confirmed by studies of atmospheric muon and neutrino backgrounds. We also report on the status of the analysis from AMANDA-II, a larger version with far greater capabilities. At this stage of analysis, details of the ice properties and other systematic uncertainties of the AMANDA-II telescope are under study, but we have made progress toward critical science objectives. In particular, we present the first preliminary flux limits from AMANDA-II on the search for continuous emission from astrophysical point sources, and report on the search for correlated neutrino emission from Gamma Ray Bursts detected by BATSE before decommissioning in May 2000. During the next two years, we expect to exploit the full potential of AMANDA-II with the installation of a new data acquisition system that records full waveforms from the in-ice optical sensors.
PMOD (Photochemical Metal Organic Deposition)-based DTFI (Direct Thin Film Imaging) methodology is a demonstrated means for patterning organic materials on flexible (plastic) substrates. This process is used to pattern 1-micron features at an aspect ratio of 8:1 using contact lithography. Use of oxygen plasma RIE etch to transfer the hard mask pattern to the organic material allows for good sidewall angle control. High etch selectivity between the novolac polymer and PMOD TiOX hard mask (< 800:1) makes the use of very thin hard masks (∼ 200 angstroms) to pattern thick organic films (<10 microns) possible. Selective removal of the PMOD TiOX (TiO2) hard mask makes this process amenable to patterning of functional organic structures fabricated from materials chosen for their desired properties (e.g., glass transition temperature (Tg), etch resisitance, optical properties, mechanical properties, etc.) not their ability to be photopatterned (e.g., photoresist).
Background and objective The aim of this study was to determine possible age-associated differences in human blood pressure regulation during an immunological challenge in healthy subjects.
Methods Eight healthy young volunteers (median age 24 yr) and nine healthy elderly volunteers (median age 66 yr) received an intravenous bolus injection of Eschericia coli endotoxin (2 ng kg−1). Blood pressure, heart rate and core temperature were monitored during the first 7 h. Plasma catecholamine concentrations were measured at hourly intervals.
Results The elderly showed a significantly more pronounced decrease in mean arterial pressure 4–7 h after endotoxin administration compared with the young controls (anova; age × time; P < 0.0005). This mainly reflected a decrease in the systolic blood pressure in the elderly. The heart rate of both groups increased without difference between groups. Increased plasma epinephrine concentrations were found 2–3 h after endotoxin administration in both groups. Five hours after the endotoxin challenge, the epinephrine concentration had returned to control values in the elderly group only, in spite of decreased blood pressure.
Conclusion In conclusion, healthy elderly subjects fail to maintain a constant mean arterial pressure in response to the immunological challenge of endotoxemia.
The Mesolithic — as the ‘time in between’ — raises issues of definition, the more so as chronology is refined and the abruptness of environmental change at the end of the glaciation becomes clearer. This clarification of an unusual regional sequence is an instance.
A conventional vertical powder diffractometer has been adapted to allow the collection of high-resolution, single-wavelength diffraction data using Co, Cu or Mo radiation. The major modifications are (i) incorporation of an incident beam focusing monochromator attached to the tube shield, (ii) a variable tilt angle of the tube shield to provide a horizontal beam path through the diffractometer (for ease of alignment), (iii) mounting of the entire diffractometer on a single, very stable base-plate, with micrometer-controlled adjustment of the orientation, (iv) inclusion of a knife-edge, micrometer-controlled focusing slit, and (v) use of a range of Soller slits with acceptance angles down to 1.5° 2φ. The performance of the instrument compares favourably with conventional non-monochromated diffractometer data collected from SRM660 LaB6 and monoclinic ZrO2. In particular, the peaks are more symmetric and have narrower widths, and the peak-to-background ratio is much higher, leading to much superior resolution and profile shapes for structure solution and Rietveld refinement.
The properties of amorphous Si1-xPx alloy thin films with 20–44 at.% P were studied. The results showed that these alloys have a wide bandgap Eo ranging from 1.5 to 2.15 eV, where the alloy films with 20 at.% P have the widest bandgap (1.75–1.82 eV) at annealing temperatures ≤600 °C. Conductivity measurements showed that two electron conduction processes mainly exist: hopping conduction in the band tail at low temperatures and extended-state conduction in the conduction band at high temperatures. Crystallization studies showed that the alloys are thermally stable and crystallize at temperatures between 850 and 1100 °C. A new phosphide, Si7P3 was formed by annealing the alloys with 30–44 at.% P at temperatures ≥950 °C depending on the P concentration.
The San Jose scale, Quadraspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock), was killed on harvested apples by fumigation with 32 g/m3 of methyl bromide for 2 hours followed by standard cold storage for about a month. Fumigation, without storage, did not kill all the scale.
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