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Blunted facial affect is a common negative symptom of schizophrenia. Additionally, assessing the trustworthiness of faces is a social cognitive ability that is impaired in schizophrenia. Currently available pharmacological agents are ineffective at improving either of these symptoms, despite their clinical significance. The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin has multiple prosocial effects when administered intranasally to healthy individuals and shows promise in decreasing negative symptoms and enhancing social cognition in schizophrenia. Although two small studies have investigated oxytocin's effects on ratings of facial trustworthiness in schizophrenia, its effects on facial expressivity have not been investigated in any population.
We investigated the effects of oxytocin on facial emotional expressivity while participants performed a facial trustworthiness rating task in 33 individuals with schizophrenia and 35 age-matched healthy controls using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Participants rated the trustworthiness of presented faces interspersed with emotionally evocative photographs while being video-recorded. Participants’ facial expressivity in these videos was quantified by blind raters using a well-validated manualized approach (i.e. the Facial Expression Coding System; FACES).
While oxytocin administration did not affect ratings of facial trustworthiness, it significantly increased facial expressivity in individuals with schizophrenia (Z = −2.33, p = 0.02) and at trend level in healthy controls (Z = −1.87, p = 0.06).
These results demonstrate that oxytocin administration can increase facial expressivity in response to emotional stimuli and suggest that oxytocin may have the potential to serve as a treatment for blunted facial affect in schizophrenia.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) transmission in hospital wards is associated with adverse outcomes for patients and increased costs for hospitals. The transmission process is inherently stochastic and the randomness emphasized by the small population sizes involved. As such, a stochastic model was proposed to describe the MRSA transmission process, taking into account the related contribution and modelling of the associated microbiological environmental contamination. The model was used to evaluate the performance of five common interventions and their combinations on six potential outcome measures of interest under two hypothetical disease burden settings. The model showed that the optimal intervention combination varied depending on the outcome measure and burden setting. In particular, it was found that certain outcomes only required a small subset of targeted interventions to control the outcome measure, while other outcomes still reported reduction in the outcome distribution with up to all five interventions included. This study describes a new stochastic model for MRSA transmission within a ward and highlights the use of the generalized Mann–Whitney statistic to compare the distribution of the outcome measures under different intervention combinations to assist in planning future interventions in hospital wards under different potential outcome measures and disease burden.
Prenatal events can affect neonatal thymus size and adult immune function. The causal insults are unknown, although fetal nutrient restriction is suspected. We used ultrasound at three time points during pregnancy (14, 19 and 30 weeks) to measure the growth of six fetal dimensions in rural Bangladeshi women participating in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions, Matlab study. Postnatal ultrasound was used to calculate thymic index (TI) at birth, 2, 6 and 12 m. Of the 3267 women recruited, 2861 participated by providing data at least at one fetal biometry and one TI time point. Patterns of fetal growth were summarized using principal components calculated from fetal dimension z-scores. Random effects regression, controlling for infant size and season of measurement were used to relate these patterns to TI. We found that smaller leg length relative to head circumference, characteristic of head-sparing growth restriction, was predictive of lower TI. This association was significant at all time points but strongest in earlier pregnancy. Each standard deviation increase in leg–head proportion was associated with an increase in TI of ∼5%. We conclude that growth patterns typical of poor fetal nutrition are associated with poor thymic development. The greater strength of this association in the first trimester is consistent with a period of vulnerability during the early ontogeny of the thymus and suggests that preventative intervention would need to be given in early pregnancy.
The use of hot water immersion to aid in the drying of wafers subsequent to liquid chemical processing has recently been increasing. Both the TREBOR HydrodryTM and the Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA) dry used by CFM Technologies Inc. use water rinses at elevated temperature. These treatments are of particular concern when they follow HF immersions where surface oxides are removed and bare silicon surfaces are exposed to the hot water. Studies by Watanabe et al.1 show that Si(l 11) facets can be produced by hot water immersion. This, in turn, implies that hot water etches silicon with an anisotropic etch rate. In this work, the etching of oxide patterned Si(100) wafers by immersion in hot water is studied. Etching is clearly observed in images produced by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) with a concomitant increase in surface roughness. The rate of etching varies dramatically with the dissolved oxygen concentration of the water used. Possible mechanisms to explain the etching will be discussed.
In this paper, a significant degradation under hot hole injection is observed in P+ -poly PMOSFETs with oxynitride gate dielectrics. In our study, both oxynitrides formed by gate oxide grown on Nitrogen Implanted Si Substrates (NISS) and NO-annealed SiO2 oxynitride gate dielectrics are used and compared to control SiO2 gate dielectrics of identical thicknesses. A physical model responsible for such enhanced degradation in PMOSFETs with oxynitride gate dielectric is proposed. It is shown that the hole injection barrier lowering as a result of the nitrogen-rich layer at the SiO2/Si interface in oxynitride is responsible for such enhanced degradation.
In this paper, we report a novel low thermal budget process (<800°C) for engineered ultra thin oxynitride dielectrics with high nitrogen concentration (>5% a.c.) using vertical high pressure (VHP) process. VHP grown oxynitride films show >1 OX lower leakage current, higher drive current and superior hot-carrier reliability compared to control SiO2 of identical thickness (Tox,eq) grown by RTP in O2.
In this paper, we report performance and reliability of CMOS devices with ultra thin (<20Å) Si3N4gate dielectric fabricated by in-situ rapid thermal CVD (RTCVD) process, and compare with control SiO2devices of identical equivalent oxide thickness (Tox,eq). Ultra thin CVD Si3N4 devices show significantly lower gate leakage current, complete suppression of boron penetration, improved MOSFET performance, and enhanced reliability against electrical stress.
The distinction between normality and psychopathology has long been subject to debate. DSM-III and DSM-IV provided a definition of mental disorder to help clinicians address this distinction. As part of the process of developing DSM-V, researchers have reviewed the concept of mental disorder and emphasized the need for additional work in this area. Here we review the DSM-IV definition of mental disorder and propose some changes. The approach taken here arguably takes a middle course through some of the relevant conceptual debates. We agree with the view that no definition perfectly specifies precise boundaries for the concept of mental/psychiatric disorder, but in line with a view that the nomenclature can improve over time, we aim here for a more scientifically valid and more clinically useful definition.
Mathematical models are potentially useful tools to aid in the design of control programmes for parasitic diseases. In this paper, a fully age structured epidemiological model of human schistosomiasis is developed and parameterized, and used to predict trends in infection prevalence, intensity and prevalence of heavy infections over age and time during several rounds of mass and age targeted treatment. The model is validated against data from a Schistosoma mansoni control programme in Kenya.
The analysis of organic residues from pottery sherds using Gas-Chromatography with mass-spectroscopy (GC-MS) has revealed information about the variety of foods eaten and domestic routine at Silchester between the second and fourth–sixth centuries A.D. Two results are discussed in detail: those of a second-century Gauloise-type amphora and a fourth-century SE Dorset black-burnished ware (BB1) cooking pot, which reveal the use of pine pitch on the inner surface of the amphora and the use of animal fats (ruminant adipose fats) and leafy vegetables in cooking at the Roman town of Silchester, Hants.
Vitamin C (ascorbate) is essential for hydroxylation of prolyl and lysyl residues in nascent collagen, the failure of which leads to connective tissue lesions of scurvy. Of the pyridinium-type cross-links in mature collagen, pyridinoline requires more hydroxylysyl residues than does deoxypyridinoline. Our study tested the hypothesis that pyridinoline:deoxypyridinoline ratios in urinary degradation products may vary with ascorbate status in man. These ratios were compared between British and Gambian prepubertal boys, mean age 8·3 years, and in Gambian boys between two seasons with contrasting ascorbate availability. The mean cross-links ratio in 216 British boys was 4·36 (sd 0·71), significantly greater (P<0·0001) than in sixty-two Gambian boys: 3·83 (sd 0·52). In the Gambians the cross-links ratio was significantly higher in the dry season (with high ascorbate intake and status) than in the rains (with low intake and status). A 7-week controlled intervention was carried out in Gambian boys during the rainy season (the ‘hungry’ season, when vitamin C-containing foods are virtually unavailable): 100 mg ascorbate/d was given to one group of thirty-two Gambian boys and placebo to another group. The intervention did not, however, significantly alter the cross-link ratio, possibly because the response time and/or intervention–response delay is >7 weeks. If confirmed, the putative association between ascorbate and collagen cross-link ratios in man could become the basis for a functional test for adequacy of ascorbate status.
In a fishing community on Lake Albert in Uganda the pattern of
intensity of Schistosoma mansoni infection 6 months after
treatment with praziquantel was found to be very similar to reinfection
patterns seen in previously studied endemic
communities: the profile peaks sharply at around the age of 10 years falling
away rapidly to much lower levels in adults.
This is in stark contrast to the patterns of water contact, which differ
greatly between fishing and non-fishing communities.
On Lake Albert, adults appear to be more heavily exposed than children.
From these observations we conclude that adults
are physiologically (perhaps immunologically) more resistant to infection
after treatment than children.
The relationships between literary discourse and colonial politics have been the subject of much critical investigation since the publication of Edward Said's orientalism. Yet although much has been written about the forms these relationships took in the early modern period and in the nineteenth century, the Romantic period has been comparatively neglected. This volume sets out to redress that imbalance by investigating Romantic writing in its relationship to the peoples and places with which the British were increasingly coming into contact. Topics examined include slavery, race, climate, tropical disease, religion and commodity production; a wide range of writers are discussed from Edmund Burke to Hannah More, William Blake to Phyllis Wheatley, Olaudah Equiano to Mary Shelley, Thomas Clarkson to Lord Byron. Together the essays constitute a broad assessment of Romanticism's engagement with India, Africa, the West Indies, South America and the Middle East.
The publication in 1983 of Jerome J. McGann's The Romantic Ideology precipitated a return to historical and political readings of the Romantic period. Critics began to analyse ideas of ideology, class and gender in an attempt to deconstruct previous notions of ‘Romanticism’ as a mainly aesthetic and literary movement amongst five canonical, male poets. Much effort has been made to return Romantic discourse to the contexts in which it was written and read – the ‘actual literary communities as they functioned within their larger communities of time and space’. As a result, it is now accepted that it is impossible to understand writing in the period without examining political responses to the French Revolution and the numerous texts (many of them by women and many far more popular at the time than the work of Wordsworth, Coleridge, Shelley, Blake or Keats) which were excluded from the canon.
Given these critical developments, it is surprizing that, with some recent exceptions, Romanticism's relationship with colonialism has been relatively little studied, although a wealth of critical writing has been devoted to the connection between both early modern and nineteenth-century literature and the histories of colonialism and imperialism. Significantly, the most sustained critical attention to the issues of colonialism and literature in the period has been afforded to the novels of Jane Austen in Edward Said's noted analysis of Mansfield Park (1814) which considers Sir Thomas Bertram's source of wealth in his plantations in Antigua in relation to the domestic values of home and hearth which the novel endorses.