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A lasting legacy of the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007–2008 was the promotion of the Permafrost Young Researchers Network (PYRN), initially an IPY outreach and education activity by the International Permafrost Association (IPA). With the momentum of IPY, PYRN developed into a thriving network that still connects young permafrost scientists, engineers, and researchers from other disciplines. This research note summarises (1) PYRN’s development since 2005 and the IPY’s role, (2) the first 2015 PYRN census and survey results, and (3) PYRN’s future plans to improve international and interdisciplinary exchange between young researchers. The review concludes that PYRN is an established network within the polar research community that has continually developed since 2005. PYRN’s successful activities were largely fostered by IPY. With >200 of the 1200 registered members active and engaged, PYRN is capitalising on the availability of social media tools and rising to meet environmental challenges while maintaining its role as a successful network honouring the legacy of IPY.
Various paleoclimatic records have been used to reconstruct the hydrologic history of the Altiplano, relating this history to past variability of the South American summer monsoon. Prior studies of the southern Altiplano, the location of the world’s largest salt flat, the Salar de Uyuni, and its neighbor, the Salar de Coipasa, generally agree in their reconstructions of the climate history of the past ∼24 ka. Some studies, however, have highly divergent climatic records and interpretations of earlier periods. In this study, lake-level variation was reconstructed from a ∼14-m-long sediment core from the Salar de Coipasa. These sediments span the last ∼40 ka. Lacustrine sediment accumulation was apparently continuous in the basin from ∼40 to 6 ka, with dry or very shallow conditions afterward. The fossil diatom stratigraphy and geochemical data (δ13C, δ15N, %Ca, C/N) indicate fluctuations in lake level from shallow to moderately deep, with the deepest conditions correlative with the Heinrich-1 and Younger Dryas events. The stratigraphy shows a continuous lake of variable depth and salinity during the last glacial maximum and latter stages of Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 3 and is consistent with environmental inferences and the original chronology of a drill core from Salar de Uyuni.
Permafrost occupies 20 million square kilometres of Earth’s high-latitude and high-altitude landscapes. These regions are sensitive to climate change and human activities; hence, permafrost research is of considerable scientific and societal importance. However, the results of this research are generally not known by the general public. Communicating scientific concepts is an increasingly important task in the research world. Different ways to engage learners and incorporate narratives in teaching materials exist, yet they are generally underused. Here we report on an international scientific outreach project called “Frozen-Ground Cartoons”, which aims at making permafrost science accessible and fun for students, teachers, and parents through the creation of comic strips. We present the context in which the project was initiated, as well as recent education and outreach activities. The future phases of the project primarily involve a series of augmented reality materials, such as maps, photos, videos, and 3D drawings. With this project we aim to foster understanding of permafrost research among broader audiences, inspire future permafrost researchers, and raise public and science community awareness of polar science, education, outreach, and engagement.
Cognitive decline is an important complication of joint replacement surgeries in senior people.
We determined incidence rates of dementia diagnosis following endoprosthetic joint replacement surgery (upper and lower extremities). The observation period covered up to 28 quarters using German claims data comprising 154,604 cases 65 years and older. Effects were controlled for cerebrovascular and vascular risk factors, age, sex, the presence of a diagnosis of delirium, and regular prescription of sedative or analgesic drugs (SAD).
The rate of incident dementia diagnoses in people without joint replacement surgery was 21.34 per 1,000 person years, compared with 80.76 incident cases when joint replacement surgery was conducted during the quarter of the incident dementia diagnosis; rates declined to 21.77 incident cases 7 and more quarters after joint replacement surgery had taken place. This pattern was maintained when controlling for delirium diagnosis and regular prescription of SAD. Among 10,563 patients with at least one joint replacement surgery, patients with a diagnosis of delirium in the quarter of the surgery were at increased risk of a dementia diagnosis compared to patients without such a diagnosis (HR=2.00, p < 0.001).
In people surviving the high-risk phase for dementia immediately after surgery, long-term risk of dementia may reach the level of those without surgery. These findings encourage consequent perioperative management to reduce the risk of dementia as well as prospective studies of potentially beneficial effects of joint replacement surgery on mid- to long-term recovery of mobility and cognition in geriatric patients.
Because the 14C calibration curves IntCal and SHCal are based on data from temperate latitudes, it remains unclear which curve is more suitable for archaeological and paleoenvironmental records from tropical South America. A review of climate dynamics reveals a significant influx of Northern Hemisphere air masses and moisture over a substantial part of the continent during the South American Summer Monsoon (SASM). Areas affected by the SASM receive unknown amounts of input from both hemispheres, where an argument could be made for either curve. Until localized tree-ring data can resolve this, we suggest using a mixed calibration curve, which accounts for inputs from both hemispheres, as a third calibration option. We present a calibration example from a crucial period of environmental and cultural change in the southern Lake Titicaca. Given our current lack of data on past ∆14C variation in South America, our calibrations and chronologies will likely change in the future. We hope this paper spurs new research into this topic and encourages researchers to make an informed and explicit choice of which curve to use, which is particularly relevant in research on past human–environmental relationships.
Accurate weed emergence models are valuable tools for scheduling planting, cultivation, and herbicide applications. Multiple models predicting giant ragweed emergence have been developed, but none have been validated in diverse crop rotation and tillage systems, which have the potential to influence weed emergence patterns. This study evaluated the performance of published giant ragweed emergence models across various crop rotations and spring tillage dates in southern Minnesota. Across experiments, the most robust model was a mixed-effects Weibull (flexible sigmoidal function) model predicting emergence in relation to hydrothermal time accumulation with a base temperature of 4.4 C, a base soil matric potential of −2.5 MPa, and two random effects determined by overwinter growing degree days (GDD) (10 C) and precipitation accumulated during seedling recruitment. The deviations in emergence between individual plots and the fixed-effects model were distinguished by the positive association between the lower horizontal asymptote (Drop) and maximum daily soil temperature during seedling recruitment. This finding indicates that crops and management practices that increase soil temperature will have a shorter lag phase at the start of giant ragweed emergence compared with practices promoting cool soil temperatures. Thus, crops with early-season crop canopies such as perennial crops and crops planted in early spring and in narrow rows will likely have a slower progression of giant ragweed emergence. This research provides a valuable assessment of published giant ragweed emergence models and illustrates that accurate emergence models can be used to time field operations and improve giant ragweed control across diverse cropping systems.
In many hydrodynamical models of elliptical galaxies the absence of information about the detailed evolution of stars and the spectro-photometric output by hot gas and stars leads to a missing link between the data we obtain in observations (photons) and the internal behavior (dynamics) of a galaxy.
We present a unified model for the detailed chemical evolution of individual elements from 12C to 56Fe and the photometric properties of galaxies via spectral evolutionary synthesis. Observations of narrow, heavy - element QSO absorption lines show an increase in the number of MgII systems per redshift interval for redshifts 0 <Zr ≤ 1.5 and a decrease in the number of CIV systems for 1.3 ≤ Zr ≤4.1. Both can be understood in terms of our galaxy evolution model accounting for SNI contributions which at the same time gives information about the structure of the Universe and about the IMF and star formation history in the intervening absorber galaxies. The spectrophotometric aspect of our unified model predicts spectral and photometric properties of these galaxies testable by optical identifications.
Our chemical evolution models describe in detail the enrichment process of a number of individual elements from 12C to 56Fe, including delayed SNI contributions. Variation of the characteristic timescale of star formation (SF) t∗ not only results in differences in the abundance evolution but also changes abundance ratios of elements originating from different nucleosvnthetic sites, as e.g. [C/O], [O/Fe], or [Mg/Fe].
Evolutionary synthesis models have been computed to construct the spectral energy distributions of BCD galaxies in the optical and NIR ranges (0.3 to 3.5μm). Evolutionary tracks for stars having Z = 1/10 Z⊙ have been employed in order to match the observed low metal abundances of BCDs. Gaseous emission from H II regions has been included in the model. A starburst (of duration 5 · 106yr) is superimposed on an underlying component of red stars characterised by continuous star formation. Burst parameters, star formation rates and ionised hydrogen gas masses have been deduced by fitting the models to observed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of BCDs.
Our chemical evolution models describe in detail the enrichment process of a number of individual elements from 12C to 56Fe, including delayed SNI contributions. Variation of the characteristic timescale of star formation (SF) t∗ not only results in differences in the abundance evolution but also changes abundance ratios of elements originating from different nucleosynthetic sites, as e.g. [C/O], [O/Fe], or [Mg/Fe].
Coarse-grained volcaniclastic sediments are a common part of the non-marine geologic record along most continental margins. Many of these volcanic sediment units contain well-preserved assemblages of fossil plants. Because much of the work on depositional environments, dating, correlations and paleoenvironments has been derived from studies of plants, it is important to understand the processes that incorporate the plants into the volcaniclastic sediments. In this paper I plan to concentrate on processes that bury and preserve trees, logs and stumps.
As new work on the proper motions (PMs) of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) has come out, our view of the history of the Magellanic Clouds has evolved. We now believe they are on their first infall into the Milky Way (MW), having been tidally bound at the start of infall (though not necessarily now). Combining these observations with initial PMs of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) suggests a new formation mechanism of the Magellanic Stream through the stripping of material from the SMC. However, large uncertainties remain in the exact mass of the LMC. We present a measurement of the systemic proper motions of the SMC from astrometry with the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), covering a ~3 year baseline of 30 fields with background QSOs. We find these motions to be μW = −0.82 ± 0.06 mas/yr and μN = −1.23 ± 0.07 mas/yr. Combining these measurements with previous efforts in studying the Clouds will help constrain their interactions with each other and the MW, including the mass of the LMC and the MW, as well as provide new insight into the internal dynamics of the SMC.
It appears that the well-known theory describing flow of glaciers and ice sheets over undulations is defective with regard to the precise form of the field equations and boundary conditions to be applied. In particular, when surface-wave phenomena are to be described the formulation of Budd does not seem to be applicable.
In the midwestern United States, biotypes of giant ragweed resistant to multiple herbicide biochemical sites of action have been identified. Weeds with resistance to multiple herbicides reduce the utility of existing herbicides and necessitate the development of alternative weed control strategies. In two experiments in southeastern Minnesota, we determined the effect of six 3 yr crop-rotation systems containing corn, soybean, wheat, and alfalfa on giant ragweed seedbank depletion and emergence patterns. The six crop-rotation systems included continuous corn, soybean–corn–corn, corn–soybean–corn, soybean–wheat–corn, soybean–alfalfa–corn, and alfalfa–alfalfa–corn. The crop-rotation system had no effect on the amount of seedbank depletion when a zero-weed threshold was maintained, with an average of 96% of the giant ragweed seedbank being depleted within 2 yr. Seedbank depletion occurred primarily through seedling emergence in all crop-rotation systems. However, seedling emergence tended to account for more of the seedbank depletion in rotations containing only corn or soybean compared with rotations with wheat or alfalfa. Giant ragweed emerged early across all treatments, with on average 90% emergence occurring by June 4. Duration of emergence was slightly longer in established alfalfa compared with other cropping systems. These results indicate that corn and soybean rotations are more conducive to giant ragweed emergence than rotations including wheat and alfalfa, and that adopting a zero-weed threshold is a viable approach to depleting the weed seedbank in all crop-rotation systems.
ISM abundances in nearby spiral galaxies are well known from HII region studies (Zaritsky et al. 1994). While early type spirals, Sa, Sb, have rather uniform abundances and a narrow range of present star formation rates (SFR) the galaxy-to-galaxy variations both in HII region abundances and in present SFR increase towards late spiral types Sc, Sd (see e.g. Kennicutt & Kent 1983). ISM abundances of spiral galaxies or their progenitors up to the highest redshifts can be studied via the absorption properties imprinted in the spectra of background QSOs. While MgII- and CIV- absorption lines are produced in the low column density gas of the extended haloes around galaxies, the Damped Lyα Absorption (DLA) is believed to originate in (proto-)galactic disks. High resolution spectroscopy of a large number of metal lines associated with DLA systems reveal the redshift evolution of ISM abundances from z ≳ 4 to z ~ 0.6.
Evergreen trees in the tropical rain forest of the Amazonas Basin can produce growth rings which are not necessarily related to annual events. Therefore, estimation of growth rate cannot be done by dendrochronology. This report presents a technique for determining the growth rate of these trees based on radiocarbon measurements of two segments of equal radial distance from the outer part of the tree trunk. The measured 14C activity is compared to local 14C fallout and growth rates are derived from models taking into account bomb 14C effects. Eleven trees from various parts of the Amazon Basin were analyzed. The average growth rates range from ca 5 to > 40 yr per centimeter corresponding to extrapolated ages from ca 60 to > 400 yr.
By consistently connecting the chemical and spectrophotometric evolution of galaxies we are able to include the effect of dust absorption. The time and redshift evolution of the extinction is based on the evolution of the gas content and metallicity. We present our evolutionary synthesis models which include dust absorption to analyze the UV emission in various galaxy types. We are able to predict the extinction E(B-V) for different galaxy types as a function of redshift. We further use these models to explore the range of metallicities in normal and starbursting galaxies and the metallicity distribution of the stellar population. Comparing our model spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with templates from R. C. Kennicutt's (1992, ApJS 79, 255) and A. L. Kinney et al.'s (1996, ApJ, 467, 38) atlas we show the detailed agreement with integrated spectra of galaxies and point out the importance of aperture effects. Combined with a cosmological model we show the differences in the evolutionary and K-corrections by comparing models with and without dust.
NASA’s Space Interferometry Mission (SIM), scheduled for launch in 2009, will determine the positions of thousands of stars as faint as V = 20 to a precision better than 4 microarcseconds (µas). A key part of the mission is the Astrometric Grid, which is a reference frame of several thousand stars with V ≤ 13 against which all relative measurements will be calibrated. To serve as a reliable inertial reference frame, the Grid must be astrometrically stable against photocenter jitter (from planets, binary companions, flaring or spotting) at the ~ 4µas level. Sub–solar metallicity giant stars, by virtue of their intrinsic luminosity, can probe the Galaxy to greater distances than almost any other stellar type at the same apparent magnitude. Thus, distant (> 3 kpc) giants with V < 13 will have proportionately smaller astrometric jitter compared to other potential Astrometric Grid star candidates. The Grid Giant Star Survey is a patchwork all-sky survey to find sub–solar metallicity K giants for the Grid, and to provide a unique database for studies of Galactic stellar populations. We describe here the survey characteristics and give examples of results to date.