Phylogenetic analyses, based upon nuclear small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences, of four ‘chlorosarcinoid’ species referred to Planophila Gerneck show that the genus is polyphyletic. The type species, P. laetevirens Gerneck, is closely related to species in the Ulotrichales, Ulvophyceae. The monotypic sarcinoid genus Pseudendocloniopsis is the closest relative of Planophila; the two genera represent the addition of a new morphological type to the Ulotrichales. Planophila microcystis (Dangeard) Kornmann & Sahling forms a clade at the base of the Ulvophyceae with Oltmannsiellopsis, and thus belongs to the Oltmannsiellopsidales. This result is also supported by the Oltmannsiellopsis-like ultrastructure of P. microcystis zoospores. Planophila sp. B from Antarctica, which has Trebouxia-like pyrenoid structure, is a trebouxiophyte closely related to Chlorella-like unicellular coccoids, Stichococcus bacillaris and Prasiola species. This is the first robustly supported molecular phylogenetic analysis that places Prasiola in the Trebouxiophyceae. As shown previously, P. terrestris Groover & Hofstetter belongs to the Chaetopeltidales, Chlorophyceae. Dangemannia gen. nov. (type species: D. microcystis (Dangeard) comb. nov.), Floydiella gen. nov. (type species: F. terrestris (Groover & Hofstetter) comb. nov.) and Pabia gen. nov. (type: P. signiensis sp. nov.) are proposed.