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Cadaveric and older radiographic studies suggest that concurrent cervical spine fractures are rare in gunshot wounds (GSWs) to the head. Despite this knowledge, patients with craniofacial GSWs often arrive with spinal motion restriction (SMR) in place. This study quantifies the incidence of cervical spine injuries in GSWs to the head, identified using computerized tomography (CT). Fracture frequency is hypothesized to be lower in self-inflicted (SI) injuries.
Isolated craniofacial GSWs were queried from this Level I trauma center registry from 2013-2017 and the US National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) from 2012–2016 (head or face abbreviated injury scale [AIS] >2). Datasets included age, gender, SI versus not, cervical spine injury, spinal surgery, and mortality. For this hospital’s data, prehospital factors, SMR, and CTs performed were assessed. Statistical evaluation was done with Stata software, with P <.05 significant.
Two-hundred forty-one patients from this hospital (mean age 39; 85% male; 66% SI) and 5,849 from the NTDB (mean age 38; 84% male; 53% SI) were included. For both cohorts, SI patients were older (P < .01) and had increased mortality (P < .01). Overall, cervical spine fractures occurred in 3.7%, with 5.4% requiring spinal surgery (0.2% of all patients). The frequency of fracture was five-fold greater in non-SI (P < .05). Locally, SMR was present in 121 (50.2%) prior to arrival with six collars (2.5%) placed in the trauma bay. Frequency of SMR was similar regardless of SI status (49.0% versus 51.0%; P = not significant) but less frequent in hypotensive patients and those receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The presence of SMR was associated with an increased use of CT of the cervical spine (80.0% versus 33.0%; P < .01).
Cervical spine fractures were identified in less than four percent of isolated GSWs to the head and face, more frequently in non-SI cases. Prehospital SMR should be avoided in cases consistent with SI injury, and for all others, SMR should be discontinued once CT imaging is completed with negative results.
Despite recommendations to discontinue prophylactic antibiotics after incision closure or <24 hours after surgery, prophylactic antibiotics are continued after discharge by some clinicians. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with postdischarge prophylactic antibiotic use after spinal fusion.
Multicenter retrospective cohort study.
This study included patients aged ≥18 years undergoing spinal fusion or refusion between July 2011 and June 2015 at 3 sites. Patients with an infection during the surgical admission were excluded.
Prophylactic antibiotics were identified at discharge. Factors associated with postdischarge prophylactic antibiotic use were identified using hierarchical generalized linear models.
In total, 8,652 spinal fusion admissions were included. Antibiotics were prescribed at discharge in 289 admissions (3.3%). The most commonly prescribed antibiotics were trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (22.1%), cephalexin (18.8%), and ciprofloxacin (17.1%). Adjusted for study site, significant factors associated with prophylactic discharge antibiotics included American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class ≥3 (odds ratio [OR], 1.31; 95% CI, 1.00–1.70), lymphoma (OR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.11–5.98), solid tumor (OR, 3.63; 95% CI, 1.62–8.14), morbid obesity (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.09–2.47), paralysis (OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.30–4.37), hematoma/seroma (OR, 2.93; 95% CI, 1.17–7.33), thoracic surgery (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.01–1.93), longer length of stay, and intraoperative antibiotics.
Postdischarge prophylactic antibiotics were uncommon after spinal fusion. Patient and perioperative factors were associated with continuation of prophylactic antibiotics after hospital discharge.
Introduction: Electronic medical records (EMR) have placed increasing demand on emergency physicians and may contribute to physician burnout and stress. The use of scribes to reduce workload and increase productivity in emergency departments (ED) has been reported. This objective of this study was to evaluate the educational and experiential value of scribing among medical and undergraduate students. We asked: “Will undergraduates be willing to scribe in exchange for clinical exposure and experience?”; and, “Should scribing be integrated into the medical school curriculum?” Methods: A mixed-methods model was employed. The study population included 5 undergraduate, and 5 medical students. Scribes received technical training on how to take physician notes. Undergraduate students were provided with optional resources to familiarize themselves with common medical terminology. Scribes were assigned to physicians based on availability. An exit interview and semi-structured interviews were conducted at the conclusion of the study. Interviews were transcribed and coded into thematic coding trees. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to analyze the results. Themes were reviewed and verified by two members of the research team. Results: Undergraduate students preferred volunteering in the ED over other volunteer experiences (5/5); citing direct access to the medical field (5/5), demystification of the medical profession (4/5), resume building (5/5), and perceived value added to the health care team (5/5) as main motivators to continue scribing. Medical students felt scribing should be integrated into their curriculum (4/5) because it complemented their shadowing experience by providing unique value that shadowing did not. Based on survey results, five undergraduate students would be required to cover 40 volunteer hours per week. Conclusion: A student volunteer model of scribing is worthwhile to students and may be feasible; however, scribe availability, potentially high scribe turnover, and limited time to develop a rapport with their physician may impact any efficiency benefit scribes might provide. Importantly, scribing may be an invaluable experience for directing career goals and ensuring that students intrinsically interested in medicine pursue the profession. Medical students suggested that scribing could be added to the year one curriculum to help them develop a framework for how to take histories and manage patients.
Introduction: Buprenorphine/naloxone (buprenorphine) has proven to be a life-saving intervention amidst the ongoing opioid epidemic in Canada. Research has shown benefits to initiating buprenorphine from the emergency department (ED) including improved treatment retention, systemic health care savings and fewer drug-related visits to the ED. Despite this, there has been little to no uptake of this evidence-based practice in our department. This qualitative study aimed to determine the local barriers and potential solutions to initiating buprenorphine in the ED and gain an understanding of physician attitudes and behaviours regarding harm reduction care and opioid use disorder management. Methods: ED physicians at a midsize Atlantic hospital were recruited by convenience sampling to participate in semi-structured privately conducted interviews. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and de-identified transcripts were uploaded to NVivo 12 plus for concept driven and inductive coding and a hierarchy of open, axial and selective coding was employed. Transcripts were independently reviewed by a local qualitative research expert and themes were compared for similarity to limit bias. Interview saturation was reached after 7 interviews. Results: Emergent themes included a narrow scope of harm reduction care that primarily focused on abstinence-based therapies and a multitude of biases including feelings of deception, fear of diversion, feeling buprenorphine induction was too time consuming for the ED and differentiating patients with opioid use disorder from ‘medically ill’ patients. Several barriers and proposed solutions to initiating buprenorphine from the ED were elicited including lack of training and need for formal education, poor familiarity with buprenorphine, the need for an algorithm and community bridge program and formal supports such as an addictions consult team for the ED. Conclusion: This study elicited several opportunities for improved care for patients with addictions presenting to our ED. Future education will focus on harm reduction care, specifically strategies for managing patients desiring to continue to use substances. Education will focus on addressing the multitude of biases elicited and dispelling common myths. A locally informed buprenorphine pathway will be developed. In future, this study may be used to advocate for improved formal supports for our department including an addictions consult team.
Introduction: Vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy is a common emergency department (ED) presentation, with many of these episodes resulting in poor obstetrical outcome. These outcomes have been extensively studied, but there have been few evaluations of what variables are associated predictors. This study aimed to identify predictors of less than optimal obstetrical outcomes for women who present to the ED with early pregnancy bleeding. Methods: A regional centre health records review included pregnant females who presented to the ED with vaginal bleeding at <20 weeks gestation. This study investigated differences in presenting features between groups with subsequent optimal outcomes (OO; defined as a full-term live birth >37 weeks) and less than optimal outcomes (LOO; defined as a miscarriage, stillbirth or pre-term live birth). Predictor variables included: maternal age, gestational age at presentation, number of return ED visits, socioeconomic status (SES), gravida-para-abortus status, Rh status, Hgb level and presence of cramping. Rates and results of point of care ultrasound (PoCUS) and ultrasound (US) by radiology were also considered. Results: Records for 422 patients from Jan 2017 to Nov 2018 were screened and 180 patients were included. Overall, 58.3% of study participants had a LOO. The only strong predictor of outcome was seeing an Intra-Uterine Pregnancy (IUP) with Fetal Heart Beat (FHB) on US; OO rate 74.3% (95% CI 59.8-88.7; p < 0.01). Cramping (with bleeding) trended towards a higher rate of LOO (62.7%, 95% CI 54.2-71.1; p = 0.07). SES was not a reliable predictor of LOO, with similar clinical outcome rates above and below the poverty line (57.5% [95% CI 46.7-68.3] vs 59% [95% CI 49.3-68.6] LOO). For anemic patients, the non-live birth rate was 100%, but the number with this variable was small (n = 5). Return visits (58.3%, 95% CI 42.2-74.4), previous abortion (58.8%, 95% CI 49.7-67.8), no living children (60.2%, 95% CI 50.7-69.6) and past pregnancy (55.9%, 95% CI 46.6-65.1) were not associated with higher rates of LOO. Conclusion: Identification of a live IUP, anemia, and cramping have potential as predictors of obstetrical outcome in early pregnancy bleeding. This information may provide better guidance for clinical practice and investigations in the emergency department and the predictive value of these variables support more appropriate counseling to this patient population.
Introduction: Distal radial fractures (DRF) remain the most commonly encountered fracture in the Emergency Department (ED). The initial management of displaced DRFs by Emergency Physicians (EP) poses considerable resource allocation. We wished to determine the adequacy of reduction, both initially and at follow up. This data updates previously presented high level findings. Methods: We performed a mixed-methods study including patients who underwent procedural sedation and manipulation by an EP for a DRF. Radiological images performed at initial assessment, post-reduction, and clinic follow up were reviewed by a panel of orthopedic surgeons and radiologists blinded to outcomes, and assessed for evidence of displacement. Demographic data were pooled from patient records and included in statistical analysis. Results: Seventy patients were included and had follow-up completed. Initial reduction was deemed to be adequate in 37 patients (53%; 95% CI 41.32 to 64.10%). At clinic follow-up assessment, 26 reductions remained adequate; a slippage rate of 30% (95% CI of 17.37 to 45.90). Overall 7 patients (10%; 95% CI 4.65 to 19.51%) required revision of the initial reduction in the operating room. Agreement on adequacy of reduction on post-reduction radiographs between radiologists and orthopedic surgeons was 38.6% (95% CI -38.3 to -7.4, Kappa -0.229). The statistical strength of this agreement is worse than what would be expected by chance alone. There was no association found between age, sex, or of time of initial presentation and final outcomes. Conclusion: Although blinded review by specialists determined only half of initial EP DRF reductions to be radiographically adequate, only 10 percent actually required further intervention. Agreement between specialists on adequacy was poor. The majority of DRFs reduced by EPs do not require further surgical intervention.
Introduction: Determining fluid status prior to resuscitation provides a more accurate guide for appropriate fluid administration in the setting of undifferentiated hypotension. Emergency Department (ED) point of care ultrasound (PoCUS) has been proposed as a potential non-invasive, rapid, repeatable investigation to ascertain inferior vena cava (IVC) characteristics. Our goal was to determine the feasibility of using PoCUS to measure IVC size and collapsibility. Methods: This was a planned secondary analysis of data from a prospective multicentre international study investigating PoCUS in ED patients with undifferentiated hypotension. We prospectively collected data on IVC size and collapsibility using a standard data collection form in 6 centres. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with a clinically useful (determinate) scan defined as a clearly visible intrahepatic IVC, measurable for size and collapse. Descriptive statistics are provided. Results: A total of 138 scans were attempted on 138 patients; 45.7% were women and the median age was 58 years old. Overall, one hundred twenty-nine scans (93.5%; 95% CI 87.9 to 96.7%) were determinate. 131 (94.9%; 89.7 to 97.7%) were determinate for IVC size, and 131 (94.9%; 89.7 to 97.7%) were determinate for collapsibility. Conclusion: In this analysis of 138 ED patients with undifferentiated hypotension, the vast majority of PoCUS scans to investigate IVC characteristics were determinate. Future work should include analysis of the value of IVC size and collapsibility in determining fluid status in this group.
Introduction: Crowding is associated with poor patient outcomes in emergency departments (ED). Measures of crowding are often complex and resource-intensive to score and use in real-time. We evaluated single easily obtained variables to establish the presence of crowding compared to more complex crowding scores. Methods: Serial observations of patient flow were recorded in a tertiary Canadian ED. Single variables were evaluated including total number of patients in the ED (census), in beds, in the waiting room, in the treatment area waiting to be assessed, and total inpatient admissions. These were compared with Crowding scores (NEDOCS, EDWIN, ICMED, three regional hospital modifications of NEDOCS) as predictors of crowding. Predictive validity was compared to the reference standard of physician perception of crowding, using receiver operator curve analysis. Results: 144 of 169 potential events were recorded over 2 weeks. Crowding was present in 63.9% of the events. ED census (total number of patients in the ED) was strongly correlated with crowding (AUC = 0.82 with 95% CI = 0.76 - 0.89) and its performance was similar to that of NEDOCS (AUC = 0.80 with 95% CI = 0.76 - 0.90) and a more complex local modification of NEDOCS, the S-SAT (AUC = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.74 - 0.89). Conclusion: The single indicator, ED census was as predictive for the presence of crowding as more complex crowding scores. A two-stage approach to crowding intervention is proposed that first identifies crowding with a real-time ED census statistic followed by investigation of precipitating and modifiable factors. Real time signalling may permit more standardized and effective approaches to manage ED flow.
Introduction: Patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with hypotension have a high mortality rate and require careful yet rapid resuscitation. The use of cardiac point of care ultrasound (PoCUS) in the ED has progressed beyond the basic indications of detecting pericardial fluid and activity in cardiac arrest. We examine if finding left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) on emergency physician performed PoCUS reliably predicts the presence of cardiogenic shock in hypotensive ED patients. Methods: We prospectively collected PoCUS findings performed in 135 ED patients with undifferentiated hypotension as part of an international study. Patients with clearly identified etiologies for hypotension were excluded, along with other specific presumptive diagnoses. LVD was defined as identification of a generally hypodynamic LV in the setting of shock. PoCUS findings were collected using a standardized protocol and data collection form. All scans were performed by PoCUS-trained emergency physicians. Final shock type was defined as cardiogenic or non-cardiogenic by independent specialist blinded chart review. Results: All 135 patients had complete follow up. Median age was 56 years, 53% of patients were male. Disease prevalence for cardiogenic shock was 12% and the mortality rate was 24%. The presence of LVD on PoCUS had a sensitivity of 62.50% (95%CI 35.43% to 84.80%), specificity of 94.12% (88.26% to 97.60%), positive-LR 10.62 (4.71 to 23.95), negative-LR 0.40 (0.21 to 0.75) and accuracy of 90.37% (84.10% to 94.77%) for detecting cardiogenic shock. Conclusion: Detecting left ventricular dysfunction on PoCUS in the ED may be useful in confirming the underlying shock type as cardiogenic in otherwise undifferentiated hypotensive patients.
This paper examines the work and lives of black female activist intellectuals in the years before the formation of the National Association of Colored Women's Clubs (NACWC) in 1896. Looking deeper at arguments originally made by Maria Stewart concerning the denial of black women's ambitions and limiting potential in their working lives, the analysis employs the work of the Italian Marxist Antonio Gramsci, in particular his notion of the intellectual, to help reflect on the centrality of these black women in the development of an early counterhegemonic movement.
To assess potential transmission of antibiotic-resistant organisms (AROs) using surrogate markers and bacterial cultures.
A 1,260-bed tertiary-care academic medical center.
The study included 25 patients (17 of whom were on contact precautions for AROs) and 77 healthcare personnel (HCP).
Fluorescent powder (FP) and MS2 bacteriophage were applied in patient rooms. HCP visits to each room were observed for 2–4 hours; hand hygiene (HH) compliance was recorded. Surfaces inside and outside the room and HCP skin and clothing were assessed for fluorescence, and swabs were collected for MS2 detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and selective bacterial cultures.
Transfer of FP was observed for 20 rooms (80%) and 26 HCP (34%). Transfer of MS2 was detected for 10 rooms (40%) and 15 HCP (19%). Bacterial cultures were positive for 1 room and 8 HCP (10%). Interactions with patients on contact precautions resulted in fewer FP detections than interactions with patients not on precautions (P < .001); MS2 detections did not differ by patient isolation status. Fluorescent powder detections did not differ by HCP type, but MS2 was recovered more frequently from physicians than from nurses (P = .03). Overall, HH compliance was better among HCP caring for patients on contact precautions than among HCP caring for patients not on precautions (P = .003), among nurses than among other nonphysician HCP at room entry (P = .002), and among nurses than among physicians at room exit (P = .03). Moreover, HCP who performed HH prior to assessment had fewer fluorescence detections (P = .008).
Contact precautions were associated with greater HCP HH compliance and reduced detection of FP and MS2.
We present the initial results of a census of 684 barred galaxies in the MaNGA galaxy survey. This large sample contains galaxies with a wide range of physical properties, and we attempt to link bar properties to key observables for the whole galaxy. We find the length of the bar, when normalised for galaxy size, is correlated with the distance of the galaxy from the star formation main sequence, with more passive galaxies hosting larger-scale bars. Ionised gas is observed along the bars of low-mass galaxies only, and these galaxies are generally star-forming and host short bars. Higher-mass galaxies do not contain Hα emission along their bars, however, but are more likely to host rings or Hα at the centre and ends of the bar. Our results suggest that different physical processes are at play in the formation and evolution of bars in low- and high-mass galaxies.
Introduction: There is currently no protocol for the initiation of extra corporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) in out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in Atlantic Canada. Advanced care paramedics (ACPs) perform advanced cardiac life support in the prehospital setting often completing the entire resuscitation on-scene. Implementation of ECPR will present a novel intervention that is only available at the receiving hospital, altering how ACPs manage selected patients. Our objective is to determine if an educational program can improve paramedic identification of ECPR candidates. Methods: An educational program was delivered to paramedics including a short seminar and pocket card coupled with simulations of OHCA cases. A before and after study design using a case-based survey was employed. Paramedics were scored on their ability to correctly identify OHCA patients who met the inclusion criteria for our ECPR protocol. Scores before and after the education delivery were compared using a two tailed t-test. A 6-month follow-up is planned to assess knowledge retention. Qualitative data was also collected from paramedics during simulation to help identify potential barriers to implementation of our protocol in the prehospital setting. Results: Nine advanced care paramedics participated in our educational program. Mean score pre-education was 9.7/16 (61.1%) compared to 14/16 (87.5%) after education delivery. The mean difference between groups was 4.22 (CI = 2.65-5.80, p = 0.0003). There was a significant improvement in the paramedics’ ability to correctly identify ECPR candidates after completing our educational program. Conclusion: Paramedic training through a didactic session coupled with a pocket card and simulation appears to be a feasible method of knowledge translation. 6-month retention data will help ensure knowledge retention is achieved. If successful, this pilot will be expanded to train all paramedics in our prehospital system as we seek to implement an ECPR protocol at our centre.
Introduction: Emergency department (ED) staff carry a high risk for the burnout syndrome of increased emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and decreased personal accomplishment. Previous research has shown that task-oriented coping skills were associated with reduced levels of burnout compared to emotion-oriented coping. ED staff at one hospital participated in an intervention to teach task-oriented coping skills. We hypothesized that the intervention would alter staff coping behaviors and ultimately reduce burnout. Methods: ED physicians, nurses and support staff at two regional hospitals were surveyed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS). Surveys were performed before and after the implementation of communication and conflict resolution skills training at the intervention facility (I) consisting of a one-day course and a small group refresher 6 to 15 months later. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis assessed differences in staff burnout and coping styles compared to the control facility (C) and over time. Results: 85/143 (I) and 42/110 (C) ED staff responded to the initial survey. Post intervention 46 (I) and 23(C) responded. During the two year study period there was no statistically significant difference in CISS or MBI scores between hospitals (CISS: (Pillai's trace = .02, F(3,63) = .47, p = .71, partial η2 = .02); MBI: (Pillai's trace = .01, F(3,63) = .11, p = .95, partial η2 = .01)) or between pre- and post-intervention groups (CISS: (Pillai's trace = .01, F(3,63) = .22, p = .88, partial η2 = .01); MBI: (Pillai's trace = .09, F(3,63) = 2.15, p = .10, partial η2 = .01)). Conclusion: We were not able to measure improvement in staff coping or burnout in ED staff receiving communication skills intervention over a two year period. Burnout is a multifactorial problem and environmental rather than individual factors may be more important to address. Alternatively, to demonstrate a measurable effect on burnout may require more robust or inclusive interventions.
Introduction: Burnout includes emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP) and personal accomplishment (PA). Emergency Department (ED) staff have high levels of burnout that may be responsive to communication skills training. We surveyed ED staff perception of need and efficacy before and after an intervention using an established conflict resolution methodology. Methods: ED physicians, nurses and support staff were surveyed at two regional hospitals using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and a communications questionnaire to establish the perceived need for communication skill training. Participants from one center were provided with a communications intervention (Crucial Conversations®, VitalSmarts®), and a refresher course 6-15 months later. The survey was then repeated at both sites and course participant feedback was elicited. Results: MBI results were high (mean EE = 25.25 (high > 25), 95% CI = 22.5-28; DP = 11.6 (high > 8), 95% CI = 10.1-13.2; PA = 35.85 (low <34), 95% CI = 34.3-37.4). Initially 82% of intervention and 77% of control site participants responded that “attending an educational session about ways to communicate better would help the participants at work”. Post intervention group responses to “The program will be helpful to me in communicating more effectively in my work environment” were: 75% “strongly agree” and 25% “agree”. No rating below “agree” was assigned by any of the participants. Participants preferred facilitated small group simulations and advocated for earlier career implementation. Conclusion: There was a perceived need for and impact from communication skills training for ED staff with high measured burnout. Training may be best implemented in small group simulated encounters and in health professional education curriculum or as part of work orientation.
Background: Chest tube insertion is a time and safety critical procedure with a significant complication rate (up to 30%). Industry routinely uses Lean and ergonomic methodology to improve systems. This process improvement study used best evidence review, small group consensus, process mapping and prototyping in order to design a lean and ergonomically mindful equipment solution. Aim Statement: By simplifying and reorganising chest tube equipment, we aim to provide users with adequate equipment, reduce equipment waste, and wasted effort locating equipment. Measures & Design: The study was conducted between March 2018 and November 2018. An initial list of process steps from the best available evidence was produced. This list was then augmented by multispecialty team consensus (3 Emergency Physicians, 1 Thoracic Surgeon, 1 medical student, 2 EM nurses). Necessary equipment was identified. Next, two prototyping phases were conducted using a task trainer and a realistic interprofessional team (1 EM Physician, 1 ER Nurse, 1 Medical student) to refine the equipment list and packaging. A final equipment storage system was produced and evaluated by an interprofessional team during cadaver training using a survey and Likert scales. Evaluation/Results: There were 47 equipment items in the pre-intervention ED chest tube tray. After prototyping 21 items were removed while nine critical items were added. The nine items missing from the original design were found in four different locations in the department. Six physicians and seven RNs participated in cadaver testing and completed an evaluation survey of the new layout. Participants preferred the new storage design (Likert median 5, IQR of 1) over the current storage design (median of 1, IQR of 1). Discussion/Impact: The results suggest that the lean equipment storage is preferred by ED staff compared to the current set-up, may reduce time finding missing equipment, and will reduce waste. Future simulation work will quantitatively understand compliance with safety critical steps, user stress, wasted user time and cost.
Introduction: Improving public access and training for epinephrine auto-injectors (EAIs) can reduce time to initial treatment in anaphylaxis. Effective use of EAIs by the public requires bystanders to respond in a timely and proficient manner. We wished to examine optimal methods for assessing effective training and skill retention for public use of EAIs, including the use of microskills lists. Methods: In this prospective, stratified randomized study, 154 participants at 15 sites receiving installation of public EAIs were randomized to one of three experimental education interventions: A) didactic poster (POS) teaching; B) poster with video teaching (VID), and C) Poster, video, and simulation training (SIM). Participants were tested by participation in a standardized simulated anaphylaxis scenario at 0-months, immediately following training, and again at follow-up at 3 months. Participants’ responses were videoed and assessed by two blinded raters using microksills checklists. The microskills lists were derived from the best available evidence and interprofessional process mapping using a skills trainer. The interobserver reliability was assessed for each item in a 14 step microskill checklist composed of 3-point and 5-point Likert scale questions around EpiPen use, expressed as Kappa Values. Results: Overall there was poor agreement between the two raters. Being composed or panicked had the highest level of agreement K = 0.7, but a result that did not reach statistical significance (substantial agreement, p = 0.06) calling for EMS support has the second highest level of agreement, K = 0.6 (moderate agreement, p = 0.01), the remainder of the items had very low to moderate agreement with a Kappa value range of -103 to 0.48. Conclusion: Although microskills chesklists have been shown to identify areas where learners and interprofessional teams require deliberate practice, these results support previously published evidence that the use of microskills checklists to assess skills has poor reproducibility. Performance will be further assessed in this study using global rating scales, which have shown higher levels of agreement in other studies.
Introduction: Chest tube insertion, a critical procedure with a published complication rate (30%), is a required competency for emergency physicians. Microskills training has been shown to identify steps that require deliberate practice. Objectives were: 1. Develop a chest tube insertion microskills checklist to facilitate IPE, 2. Compare the microskills checklist with published best available evidence, 3. Develop an educational video based on the process map, 4. Evaluate the video in an interprofessional team prior to cadaver training as a proof of concept. Methods: The study was conducted between March 2018 and November 2018. An initial list of process steps from the best available evidence was produced. This list was then augmented by multispecialty team consensus (3 Emergency Physicians, 1 Thoracic Surgeon, 1 medical student, 2 EM nurses). Two prototyping phases were conducted using a task trainer and a realistic interprofessional team (1 EM Physician, 1 ER Nurse, 1 Medical student). A final microskills list was produced and compared to the procedural steps described in consensus publications. An educational video was produced and evaluated by an interprofessional team prior to cadaver training using a survey and Likert scales as a proof of concept. Participants were 7 EM RNs and 6 ATLS trained physicians. Participants were asked to fill out a nine-question survey, using a 5-point Likert Scale (1-strongly disagree to 5 strongly agree). Results: The final process map contained 54 interdisciplinary steps, compared to ATLS that describes 14 main steps and peer reviewed articles that describe 9 main steps. The microskills checklist described, in more detail, the steps that relate to team interaction and the operational environment. Physicians rated the training video were able to apply what they learned in the video with an average of 4.67 (median of 5, mode of 5, and an IQR of 0.75). Conclusion: The development of the process maps and microkills checklists provides interprofessional teams with more information about chest tube insertion than instructions described in commonly available courses and procedural steps derived by consensus.
Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe is a concept for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration probe-class space mission that will achieve ground-breaking science in the fields of galaxy evolution, cosmology, Milky Way, and the Solar System. It is the follow-up space mission to Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST), boosting its scientific return by obtaining deep 1–4 μm slit spectroscopy for ∼70% of all galaxies imaged by the ∼2 000 deg2 WFIRST High Latitude Survey at z > 0.5. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy will measure accurate and precise redshifts for ∼200 M galaxies out to z < 7, and deliver spectra that enable a wide range of diagnostic studies of the physical properties of galaxies over most of cosmic history. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe and WFIRST together will produce a 3D map of the Universe over 2 000 deg2, the definitive data sets for studying galaxy evolution, probing dark matter, dark energy and modifications of General Relativity, and quantifying the 3D structure and stellar content of the Milky Way. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe science spans four broad categories: (1) Revolutionising galaxy evolution studies by tracing the relation between galaxies and dark matter from galaxy groups to cosmic voids and filaments, from the epoch of reionisation through the peak era of galaxy assembly; (2) Opening a new window into the dark Universe by weighing the dark matter filaments using 3D weak lensing with spectroscopic redshifts, and obtaining definitive measurements of dark energy and modification of General Relativity using galaxy clustering; (3) Probing the Milky Way’s dust-enshrouded regions, reaching the far side of our Galaxy; and (4) Exploring the formation history of the outer Solar System by characterising Kuiper Belt Objects. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe is a 1.5 m telescope with a field of view of 0.4 deg2, and uses digital micro-mirror devices as slit selectors. It has a spectroscopic resolution of R = 1 000, and a wavelength range of 1–4 μm. The lack of slit spectroscopy from space over a wide field of view is the obvious gap in current and planned future space missions; Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy fills this big gap with an unprecedented spectroscopic capability based on digital micro-mirror devices (with an estimated spectroscopic multiplex factor greater than 5 000). Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy is designed to fit within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration probe-class space mission cost envelope; it has a single instrument, a telescope aperture that allows for a lighter launch vehicle, and mature technology (we have identified a path for digital micro-mirror devices to reach Technology Readiness Level 6 within 2 yr). Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe will lead to transformative science over the entire range of astrophysics: from galaxy evolution to the dark Universe, from Solar System objects to the dusty regions of the Milky Way.