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Apolipoprotein E (APOE) E4 is the main genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Due to the consistent association, there is interest as to whether E4 influences the risk of other neurodegenerative diseases. Further, there is a constant search for other genetic biomarkers contributing to these phenotypes, such as microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) haplotypes. Here, participants from the Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative were genotyped to investigate whether the APOE E4 allele or MAPT H1 haplotype are associated with five neurodegenerative diseases: (1) AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), (2) amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, (3) frontotemporal dementia (FTD), (4) Parkinson’s disease, and (5) vascular cognitive impairment.
Genotypes were defined for their respective APOE allele and MAPT haplotype calls for each participant, and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the associations with the presentations of neurodegenerative diseases.
Our work confirmed the association of the E4 allele with a dose-dependent increased presentation of AD, and an association between the E4 allele alone and MCI; however, the other four diseases were not associated with E4. Further, the APOE E2 allele was associated with decreased presentation of both AD and MCI. No associations were identified between MAPT haplotype and the neurodegenerative disease cohorts; but following subtyping of the FTD cohort, the H1 haplotype was significantly associated with progressive supranuclear palsy.
This is the first study to concurrently analyze the association of APOE isoforms and MAPT haplotypes with five neurodegenerative diseases using consistent enrollment criteria and broad phenotypic analysis.
At the meeting of the Commission in 1932 under the Presidency of Prof. E. W. Brown, it was resolved that the “Named Lunar Formations” presented in manuscript by Miss Blagg and Dr Müller should be printed and published. It is anticipated that the volume will be distributed before the meeting of the I.A.U. in Paris.
The reference maps prepared by Mr Wesley and Miss Blagg were not recommended for immediate publication. It was thought that they might be incorporated with the series of photographic maps in preparation by the Committee of the Carnegie Institution of Washington on Study of the Surface Features of the Moon. After correspondence with Dr Wright, however, it seemed better that the maps accompanying the “Named Lunar Formations” should be published with them. The Commission again expresses its great indebtedness to Miss Blagg and Dr Müller for their arduous and painstaking labour.
We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first- and second-born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI.
Two broad aims drive weed science research: improved management and improved
understanding of weed biology and ecology. In recent years, agricultural
weed research addressing these two aims has effectively split into separate
subdisciplines despite repeated calls for greater integration. Although some
excellent work is being done, agricultural weed research has developed a
very high level of repetitiveness, a preponderance of purely descriptive
studies, and has failed to clearly articulate novel hypotheses linked to
established bodies of ecological and evolutionary theory. In contrast,
invasive plant research attracts a diverse cadre of nonweed scientists using
invasions to explore broader and more integrated biological questions
grounded in theory. We propose that although studies focused on weed
management remain vitally important, agricultural weed research would
benefit from deeper theoretical justification, a broader vision, and
increased collaboration across diverse disciplines. To initiate change in
this direction, we call for more emphasis on interdisciplinary training for
weed scientists, and for focused workshops and working groups to develop
specific areas of research and promote interactions among weed scientists
and with the wider scientific community.
Significant new opportunities for astrophysics and cosmology have been identified at low radio frequencies. The Murchison Widefield Array is the first telescope in the southern hemisphere designed specifically to explore the low-frequency astronomical sky between 80 and 300 MHz with arcminute angular resolution and high survey efficiency. The telescope will enable new advances along four key science themes, including searching for redshifted 21-cm emission from the EoR in the early Universe; Galactic and extragalactic all-sky southern hemisphere surveys; time-domain astrophysics; and solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric science and space weather. The Murchison Widefield Array is located in Western Australia at the site of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA) low-band telescope and is the only low-frequency SKA precursor facility. In this paper, we review the performance properties of the Murchison Widefield Array and describe its primary scientific objectives.
Record-brightness infrared LEDs based on colloidal quantum-dots have been achieved through control of the spacing between adjacent quantum-dots. By tuning the size of quantum-dots, the emission wavelengths can be tuned between 900nm and 1650nm.
Few studies have applied multiple imaging modalities to examine cognitive correlates of white matter. We examined the utility of T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) -derived white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and diffusion tensor imaging-derived fractional anisotropy (FA) to predict cognitive functioning among older adults. Quantitative MRI and neuropsychological evaluations were performed in 112 older participants from an ongoing study of the genetics of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in African Americans. Regional WMH volumes and FA were measured in multiple regions of interest. We examined the association of regional WMH and an FA summary score with cognitive test performance. Differences in WMH and FA were compared across diagnostic groups (i.e., normal controls, mild cognitive impairment, and probable AD). Increased WMH volume in frontal lobes was associated with poorer delayed memory performance. FA did not emerge as a significant predictor of cognition. White matter hyperintensity volume in the frontal and parietal lobes was increased in MCI participants and more so in AD patients relative to controls. These results highlight the importance of regionally distributed small vessel cerebrovascular disease in memory performance and AD among African American older adults. White matter microstructural changes, quantified with diffusion tensor imaging, appear to play a lesser role in our sample. (JINS, 2012, 18, 414–427)
Let G and G' be two connected compact Lie groups with maximal tori T and T'. For a space X, let Xp be the p-completion of X. We will associate to each topological map f:(BG)p→(BG')p an “admissible map” ϕ:π1(T)⊗zZp→π1(T′)⊗zZp. We then show that the study of “admissible maps” in the p-complete case may be reduced to their study in the p-local case.
We introduce a non-Arrhenius method for measuring free-energy barrier to nucleation, W*, directly from size distribution of crystallites. W* is determined independent of any model for the nucleation barrier and independent of energy barrier to growth. The method is applicable to three-dimensionally growing crystallites, planar crystallites in thin films, and both compact and fractal crystallites. We apply the method to dendritic crystallites obtained by solid-phase crystallization of amorphous Si thin films into which Si+ ions are implanted at various conditions prior to the isothermal annealing. The ion implantation suppresses the nucleation of the crystallites and enhances the crystallite size of the resulting polycrystalline films. The directly measured W* increases as the accelerating energy or the dose of the Si+ ions increases. This result suggests that the observed suppression of the nucleation could not be accounted for simply by the amor-phization of the preexisting crystallites by the ion bombardment.
The crystallite size and orientation in molybdenum films prepared by magnetron sputtering at a low rate of typical 1 Å/s and a pressure of 0.45 Pa was investigated by X-ray diffraction and texture analysis. The surface topography was studied using atomic force microscopy. Increasing the film thickness from 20 nm to 3 μm, the films show a turnover from a (110) fiber texture to a (211) mosaic-like texture. In the early state of growth (20 nm thickness) the development of dome-like structures on the surface is observed. The number of these structures increases with film thickness, whereas their size is weakly influenced. The effect of texture turnover is reduced by increasing the deposition rate by a factor of six, and it is absent for samples mounted above the center of the magnetron source. The effect of texture turnover is related to the bombardment of the films with high energetic argon neutrals resulting from backscattering at the target under oblique angle and causing resputtering. Due to the narrow angular distribution of the reflected argon, bombardment of the substrate plane is inhomogeneous and only significant for regions close to the erosion zone of the magnetron.
We present several results from our analysis of dwarf irregular galaxies culled from The HI Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS). We analyse the rotation curves of two galaxies based on “bulk” velocity fields, i.e. velocity maps from which random non–circular motions are removed. We confirm that their dark matter distribution is best fit by an isothermal halo model. We show that the star formation properties of dIrr galaxies resemble those of the outer parts of larger, spiral systems. Lastly, we study the large scale (3–D) distribution of the gas, and argue that the gas disk in dIrrs is thick, both in a relative, as well as in an absolute sense as compared to spirals. Massive star formation through subsequent supernova explosions is able to redistribute the bulk of the ISM, creating large cavities. These cavities are often larger, and longer–lived than in spiral galaxies.
Studies of the atomic phase of the interstellar medium, via the 21–cm spectral line of neutral hydrogen (H I), play a key rôle in our attempts to understand the structure and evolution of disk galaxies. We present here results from The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS) and focus on the mass distribution as derived from the observed kinematics, and on the link between gas and star formation rate surface density, i.e., the Schmidt–Kennicutt law. Also, we briefly dwell on the wealth and wide variety of structures, often outlining what seem to be expanding shells surrounding sites of recent, massive star formation.
The ubiquity and high density of outflows from young stars in clusters make them an intriguing candidate for the source of turbulence energy in molecular clouds. In this contribution we discuss new studies, both observational and theoretical, which address the issue of jet/outflow interactions and their ability to drive turbulent flows in molecular clouds. Our results are surprising in that they show that fossil cavities, rather than bow shocks from active outflows, constitute the mechanism of re-energizing turbulence. We first present simulations which show that collisions between active jets are ineffective at converting directed momentum and energy in outflows into turbulence. This effect comes from the ability of radiative cooling to constrain the surface area through which colliding outflows entrain ambient gas. We next discuss observational results which demonstrate that fossil cavities from “extinct” outflows are abundant in molecular material surrounding clusters such as NGC 1333. These structures, rather than the bow shocks of active outflows, comprise the missing link between outflow energy input and re-energizing turbulence. In a separate theoretical/simulation study we confirm that the evolution of cavities from decaying outflow sources leads to structures which match the observations of fossil cavities. Finally we present new results of outflow propagation in a fully turbulent medium exploring the explicit mechanisms for the transfer of energy and momentum between the driving wind and the turbulent environment.
We discuss the formation of globules in planetary nebulae, typified by those observed in the Helix Nebula. We show that the properties of the globules, their number, mass, separation, and overall geometry strongly support a scenario in which globules are formed by the fragmentation of a swept-up shell as opposed to models in which the knots form in the AGB wind. We show that the RT or other instabilities which lead to the break-up of shells formed in the nebulae by fast winds or ionization fronts can produce arrays of globules with the overall geometry and within the mass range observed. We also show that the presence of a magnetic field in the circumstellar gas may play an important role in controlling the fragmentation process. Using field strengths measured in the precursor AGB envelopes, we find that close to the central star where the fields are relatively strong, the wavelengths of unstable MRT modes are larger than the shell dimensions, and the fragmentation of the shell is suppressed. The wavelength of the most unstable MRT mode decreases with increasing distance from the star, and when it becomes comparable to the shell thickness, it can lead to the sudden, rapid break-up of an accelerating shell. For typical nebula parameters, the model results in numerous fragments with a mass scale and a separation scale similar to those observed. Our results provide a link between global models of PN shaping in which shells form via winds and ionization fronts, and the formation of small scale structures in the nebulae.
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