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Endocannabinoid System (ECS) has been highlighted as one of the most relevant research topics by neurobiologists, pharmacists, basic scientists and clinicians (Skaper and Di Marzo, 2012). Recent work has associated major depressive disorder with the ECS (Ashton and Moore, 2011). Despite the close relationship between depression and bipolar disorders, as far as we know, there is no characterization of ECS and congeners in a sample of patients with bipolar disorders.
Aims and objectives
The objective of this work is to characterize the plasma levels of endocannabinoids and congeners in a sample of patients with bipolar disorders.
The clinical group was composed by 19 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorders using SCID-IV (First et al., 1999). The control group was formed by 18 relatives of first- or second-degree of the patients.
The following endocannabinoids and congeners were quantified: N-palmitoleoylethanolamide (POEA), N-palmitolylethanolamide (PEA), N-oleoylethanolamide (OEA), N-stearoylethanolamide (SEA), N-arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA), N-dihomo-γ-linolenoylethanolamide (DGLEA), N-docosatetraenoylethanolamide (DEA), N-linoleoylethanolamide (LEA), N-docosahexaenoylethanolamide (DHEA), 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), 2-linoleoylglycerol (2-LG), and 2-oleoylglycerol (2-OG).
The result showed statistically significant lower levels of AEA, DEA and DHEA in clinical sample. Previous research also identified lower levels of AEA in depressed women (Hill et al., 2008, 2009). Until date, it is unknown if DEA and DHEA have some effect on EC receptors, and whether they have some direct effects on endocannabinoids.
It would be necessary to carry our other research with a larger sample, which could allow the control of potential confounding variables.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Although executive and other cognitive deficits have been found in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), whether these have brain functional correlates has been little studied. This study aimed to examine patterns of task-related activation and de-activation during the performance of a working memory task in patients with the disorder.
Sixty-seven DSM-IV BPD patients and 67 healthy controls underwent fMRI during the performance of the n-back task. Linear models were used to obtain maps of within-group activations and areas of differential activation between the groups.
On corrected whole-brain analysis, there were no activation differences between the BPD patients and the healthy controls during the main 2-back v. baseline contrast, but reduced activation was seen in the precentral cortex bilaterally and the left inferior parietal cortex in the 2-back v. 1-back contrast. The patients showed failure of de-activation affecting the medial frontal cortex and the precuneus, plus in other areas. The changes did not appear to be attributable to previous history of depression, which was present in nearly half the sample.
In this study, there was some, though limited, evidence for lateral frontal hypoactivation in BPD during the performance of an executive task. BPD also appears to be associated with failure of de-activation in key regions of the default mode network.
The mechanical behavior of Ti-based metallic glass has been investigated by means of indentation experiments at different loading rates. Contrary to many crystalline materials, an increase of the loading rate causes a reduction of hardness, i.e., a mechanical softening. This effect is ascribed to deformation-induced creation of excess free volume, which is more pronounced for higher strain rates. The decrease of hardness is accompanied with an increase of the contact stiffness and a reduction of the reduced elastic modulus. Finite element simulations reveal that the mechanical response of this material can be described using the Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion. The changes in the nanoindentation curves with the increase of loading rate are well reproduced by decreasing the value of the Mohr-Coulomb cohesive stress. This result is consistent with the presumed enhancement of free volume.
The first purpose of this work is to design a new observation technique for
the Direct Torque Control (DTC). We put emphasis on robustness especially at
very low speed, which represents the basic problem of the DTC operating, and
on the optimization of the time computing. The reduced order observer is
defined by decoupling the full order one in
second basic aim of this paper is to apply the DTC strategy to multi-machine
multi-inverter industrial systems. Speed and tension controls are designed;
their performances and parameter robustness are analyzed and compared with
those obtained with a Flux Oriented Control (FOC). Mechanical and electrical
couplings constitute the principal operation difficulty of these systems
mainly when one of the machines is perturbed.
The provision of early intervention services for people with psychosis is
UK government policy, although evidence for benefit of such services is
To evaluate the effects of a service providing specialised care for early
psychosis (the Lambeth Early Onset team) on clinical and social outcomes,
and on service user satisfaction.
One hundred and forty-four people with psychosis, presenting to mental
health services for the first or second time (if previously failed to
engage in treatment), were randomly allocated to care by the early onset
team or to standard care. Information was obtained on symptoms, treatment
adherence, social and vocational functioning, satisfaction and quality of
life. Relapse and rehospitalisation data have been reported
Outcomes for the participants treated by the early onset team were
significantly better at 18 months for aspects of social and vocational
functioning, satisfaction, quality of life and medication adherence.
Symptom improvement did not significantly differ between the groups.
The provision of specialised care for early psychosis can achieve better
outcomes. The study therefore provides support for current policy.
A formalism is defined to describe systems composed of several
electrical machines with several electrical and/or mechanical
converters. So, a first classification of multi-converter
multi-machine systems is proposed in order to point out their
influences on the global power conversion: cost reduction,
conversion quality... Three examples are presented with this
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