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The Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) is an international group of scientists and clinicians with recognized expertise in meningococcal disease including microbiology, immunology, epidemiology, public health and vaccinology. The GMI was established to promote the global prevention of meningococcal disease through education, research and international cooperation. The GMI held its second summit meeting in 2013 to discuss the different aspects of existing meningococcal immunization programmes and surveillance systems. Laboratory confirmation and characterization were identified as essential for informing evidence-based vaccine implementation decisions. The relative merits of different confirmatory methodologies and their applications in different resource settings were a key component of the discussions. This paper summarizes the salient issues discussed, with special emphasis on the recommendations made and any deficiencies that were identified.
The induction of immunological memory to serogroup A and C polysaccharides in UK infants
immunized with three doses of a meningococcal A/C oligosaccharide CRM197 conjugate
vaccine was investigated. Forty UK infants vaccinated previously with three doses of a
meningococcal A/C oligosaccharide-CRM197 conjugate vaccine at 2, 3 and 4 months of age,
were revaccinated at a mean age of 145·6 weeks with either a 10 or 50 μg dose of licensed
meningococcal A/C polysaccharide vaccine. Serogroup-specific antibody and serum bactericidal
antibody (SBA) responses were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and serum
bactericidal assays, respectively. Following challenge, anti-serogroup A and C polysaccharide
antibody levels rose from pre-booster geometric mean concentrations (GMC) of 3·1 and 2·1
μg/ml respectively to 19·6 and 21·0 μg/ml 1 month post-booster. Serum bactericidal antibody
geometric mean titres (GMTs) for serogroups A and C increased 156- and 113-fold from 2·1
and 7·1 pre-booster respectively to 327·4 and 800·7 post-booster. A serogroup A control group
of 45 children received a 10 μg dose of licensed meningococcal A/C polysaccharide vaccine
(with no prior history of serogroup A vaccination) had serogroup A SBA GMTs of 2·3 pre-
vaccination rising to 8 post-vaccination with corresponding GMCs of 0·8 and 10·8 μg/ml.
These rises in SBA following serogroup A/C conjugate vaccination are indicative of
Quarry use at the Hermanas Ruin, a San Luis Phase community in southwestern New Mexico, is analyzed in light of modern optimization theory. Initial results of this analysis suggest that many of the changes in lithic use at this site resulted from a process of optimizing the procurement of five different lithic materials, so that all related costs were minimized. This research has broad implications for archaeological quarry analysis as it suggests that economic analyses of multiple material lithic procurement systems will provide insights into prehistoric quarry use not apparent in traditional quarry analyses.
Although reports on ‘quarry analysis’ are appearing with increased frequency in the archaeological literature, only a small fraction of these reports involve economic analyses. An even fewer number of studies have sought to analyze the total lithic procurement strategy of prehistoric societies. With a small number of exceptions (cf. Ericson 1977; Bettinger n.d.), most quarry analysts have focused their attention on quarrying procedures and subsequent manufacturing activities at single quarry sites (cf. Singer & Ericson 1977). Economic analyses of lithic procurement strategies involving multiple raw materials have generally remained outside the scope of quarry analysis.
Of particular interest in this analysis is a subject which is often overlooked, namely, to understand the ways in which prehistoric groups scheduled their quarry activities when multiple raw materials with different quarry locales were needed.
A new hydration rate is presented for the Government Mountain-Sitgreaves Peak obsidian source in Arizona. It is based on an analysis of hydration measurements from a series of independently dated obsidian artifacts from that source. Since obsidian obtained from Government Mountain-Sitgreaves Peak was widely traded in the prehistoric Southwest, the new hydration rate should provide archaeologists working in many parts of the Southwest with a reliable and inexpensive absolute dating technique.
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