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Featuring new coverage of quantum engineering and quantum information processing, the third edition of this bestselling textbook continues to provide a uniquely practical introduction to the fundamentals of quantum mechanics. It features straightforward explanations of quantum effects, suitable for readers from all backgrounds; real-world engineering problems showcasing the practical application of theory to practice, providing a relevant and accessible introduction to cutting-edge quantum applications; over 60 accessible worked examples using MATLAB, allowing deepened understanding through computational exploration and visualization; and a new chapter on quantum engineering, introducing state-of-the-art concepts in quantum information processing and quantum device design. Updated throughout and supported online by downloadable MATLAB code, exam questions, and solutions to over 150 homework problems for instructors, this is the ideal textbook for senior undergraduate and graduate students in applied science, applied physics, engineering, and materials science studying a first course in quantum mechanics.
Monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment for COVID-19 has been underutilized due to logistical challenges, lack of access and variable treatment awareness among patients and healthcare professionals. The use of telehealth during the pandemic provides an opportunity to increase access to COVID-19 care.
This is a single-center descriptive study of telehealth-based patient self-referral for mAb therapy between March 1, 2021, to October 31, 2021 at Baltimore Convention Center Field Hospital (BCCFH).
Among the 1001 self-referral patients, the mean age was 47, and most were female (57%) white (66%), and had a primary care provider (62%). During the study period, self-referrals increased from 14 per month in March to 427 in October resulting in a 30-fold increase. About 57% of self-referred patients received a telehealth visit, and of those 82% of patients received mAb infusion therapy. The median time from self-referral to onsite infusion was 2 days (1-3 IQR).
Our study shows the integration of telehealth with a self-referral process improved access to mAb infusion. A high proportion of self-referrals were appropriate and led to timely treatment. This approach helped those without traditional avenues for care and avoided potential delay for patients seeking referral from their PCPs.
There are many barriers to engaging in current psychological treatments, including time, cost, and availability. Ultra-brief treatments overcome some of these barriers by delivering therapeutic information and skills using significantly less time than standard-length treatments. We developed a therapist-guided online ultra-brief treatment for depression and anxiety and compared it to an existing 8-week, 5-lesson therapist-guided standard-length treatment and a waitlist control.
In a randomized controlled trial, adults with self-reported depression or anxiety were randomized (1:1:1) to the ultra-brief treatment, standard-length treatment, or waitlist control. The primary outcomes were depression symptoms and anxiety symptoms assessed at baseline, 5-weeks later, 9-weeks later (primary timepoint), and 3-months later. The trial was prospectively registered.
Between 7 February 2022, and 16 August 2022, 242 participants were enrolled in the ultra-brief treatment (n = 85), standard-length treatment (n = 80), and waitlist control (n = 77). Participants were mostly women with an average age of 48.56 years. At 9-weeks post-baseline, participants in the ultra-brief treatment group reported significantly lower depression (between groups d = 0.41) and anxiety (d = 0.53) than the waitlist control. The ultra-brief treatment was non-inferior for anxiety at both 9-weeks and 3-months follow-up. Non-inferiority for depression was observed at 9-weeks.
The online ultra-brief treatment resulted in significant reductions in depression and anxiety that were non-inferior to a longer treatment course after 9-weeks. Remotely delivered ultra-brief treatments have the potential to provide accessible and effective care for those who cannot, or would prefer not to, access longer psychological interventions.
The assortment of trillions of microorganisms resident along the human gastrointestinal tract, our gut microbiota, has co-evolved with us over thousands of years. It can influence a plethora of aspects of human physiology, including host metabolism, immunity and even brain function, cognition and behaviour across the lifespan. The gut microbiota and the brain can communicate with one another, directly and indirectly, through immune system modulation, tryptophan metabolism, vagus nerve activity, the enteric nervous system and bioactive microbial by-products, or metabolites produced by the gut microbiome. Indeed, the gut microbiota are responsible for a rich reservoir of novel metabolites and bioactive substances that can have pleiotropic functionalities for the host. Moreover, diet, an easily accessible and thus powerful interventional tool, can act as a modulator of gut-microbial composition and activity, impacting on host physiology. As such, nutrition is seen as one of the major modulators of the gut microbiota. Intriguingly, although psychiatric conditions often include a dietary aspect, much research investigating this link in clinical populations ignores this relationship, missing a key therapeutic avenue. This has led to the concept of nutritional psychiatry, where we can use food and supplements to support mental health and brain function. As a result, it is critical to consider emerging microbiome-targeted dietary approaches with the greatest potential to improve health outcomes in a psychiatric population.
Blazars, the most extreme active galactic nuclei with powerful relativistic jets extending out to kiloparsecs from their central engine, are among the most intriguing and consistently bright objects in the observable Universe. Understanding how they form and shine has been a cumbersome endeavor since their discovery in the 1960s, with several fundamental questions remaining open to this day. The 2020s mark the beginning of a new era of large-scale surveys, multimessenger astrophysics, high-energy polarization, and extreme angular resolution, setting the ideal stage to study astrophysical jets. IAU Symposium 375 was the first IAU symposium to take place in Nepal. It brought together experts from all aspects of the blazar community to facilitate the building of new collaborative efforts to take advantage of the wealth of incoming data that will help provide answers to long-standing questions. It also supported local efforts to promote astrophysics and astrophysical research in Nepal.
Preclinical Alzheimer disease (AD) has been associated with subtle changes in memory, attention, and spatial navigation abilities. The current study examined whether self- and informant-reported domain-specific cognitive changes are sensitive to AD-associated biomarkers.
Clinically normal adults aged 56–93 and their informants completed the memory, divided attention, and visuospatial abilities (which assesses spatial navigation) subsections of the Everyday Cognition Scale (ECog). Reliability and validity of these subsections were examined using Cronbach’s alpha and confirmatory factor analysis. Logistic regression was used to examine the ability of ECog subsections to predict AD-related biomarkers (cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ptau181/Aβ42 ratio (N = 371) or hippocampal volume (N = 313)). Hierarchical logistic regression was used to examine whether the self-reported subsections continued to predict biomarkers when controlling for depressive symptomatology if available (N = 197). Additionally, logistic regression was used to examine the ability of neuropsychological composites assessing the same or similar cognitive domains as the subsections (memory, executive function, and visuospatial abilities) to predict biomarkers to allow for comparison of the predictive ability of subjective and objective measures.
All subsections demonstrated appropriate reliability and validity. Self-reported memory (with outliers removed) was the only significant predictor of AD biomarker positivity (i.e., CSF ptau181/Aβ42 ratio; p = .018) but was not significant when examined in the subsample with depressive symptomatology available (p = .517). Self-reported memory (with outliers removed) was a significant predictor of CSF ptau181/Aβ42 ratio biomarker positivity when the objective memory composite was included in the model.
ECog subsections were not robust predictors of AD biomarker positivity.
Changes in abundance and distribution of marine top predators can indicate environmental change or anthropogenic pressure requiring management response. Here, we used an extensive dataset (21 years) to conduct a spatial and temporal analysis of grey seal strandings in Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly, close to the southern edge of the breeding range of the species. A total of 2007 strandings were reported from 2000 to 2020, increasing by 474% from 35 to 201 individuals per year during this period. The continued rise in strandings was consistent across all life stages and timeframes (5, 10 and 20 years), underpinning the suggestion of increasing abundance in the region. The observed seasonality differed by life stage, coinciding with the increased presence of animals near the coast for key life phases such as breeding, moulting and pupping. Strandings are widely distributed across the coast of Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly; however, most strandings were recorded on the north coast of Cornwall (70%) where major pupping and haul out sites are found. Despite hosting several pupping and haul out sites, a small proportion was recorded on the Isles of Scilly (5%) where it is thought that strandings are particularly underreported. Describing baselines in magnitude of strandings and life-stage compositions across space and time allows future deviations in frequency, demographic composition or spatial distribution to be detected and investigated. We demonstrate the utility of long-term citizen science data to provide valuable and cost-effective information on the distribution and abundance of a highly mobile marine mammal.
The Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery (WCPCCS) will be held in Washington DC, USA, from Saturday, 26 August, 2023 to Friday, 1 September, 2023, inclusive. The Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery will be the largest and most comprehensive scientific meeting dedicated to paediatric and congenital cardiac care ever held. At the time of the writing of this manuscript, The Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery has 5,037 registered attendees (and rising) from 117 countries, a truly diverse and international faculty of over 925 individuals from 89 countries, over 2,000 individual abstracts and poster presenters from 101 countries, and a Best Abstract Competition featuring 153 oral abstracts from 34 countries. For information about the Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery, please visit the following website: [www.WCPCCS2023.org]. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the activities related to global health and advocacy that will occur at the Eighth World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery.
Acknowledging the need for urgent change, we wanted to take the opportunity to bring a common voice to the global community and issue the Washington DC WCPCCS Call to Action on Addressing the Global Burden of Pediatric and Congenital Heart Diseases. A copy of this Washington DC WCPCCS Call to Action is provided in the Appendix of this manuscript. This Washington DC WCPCCS Call to Action is an initiative aimed at increasing awareness of the global burden, promoting the development of sustainable care systems, and improving access to high quality and equitable healthcare for children with heart disease as well as adults with congenital heart disease worldwide.
Early-life adversity (ELA) is one of the strongest predictors of childhood depression that may be exacerbated by a genetic predisposition to develop depression. We therefore investigated the bio-behavioural effects of an early-life stressor in an accepted rodent model of depression.
The Flinders sensitive line (FSL) and resistant line (FRL) rats were subjected to an early-life stressor, whereafter their bio-behavioural response during pubertal onset was evaluated. Male and female pups were maternally separated for 3 h per day from postnatal day 02 (PND02) to 17, when they were also weaned. Control animals were left undisturbed, until weaning on PND21. Depressive-like behaviour was analysed on PND21 and reassessed on PND36. Hippocampal monoamine levels, markers of oxidative stress and metabolic markers implicating mitochondrial function were also measured.
On PND21, the non-maternal separation and early weaning (non-MSEW) FSL rats spent 10% more time mobile than their FRL controls in the tail suspension test (TST) yet displayed increased depressive-like behaviour in the forced swim test (FST) on PND36. This depressive-like behaviour coincided with increased hippocampal norepinephrine levels, serotonin turnover and a dysfunctional redox state. Maternal separation and early weaning (MSEW) appeared to initially reduce early-life (PND21) depressive-like behaviour in the TST but then induced depressive-like behaviour on PND36 and increased norepinephrine levels more profoundly in the FRL rats.
These findings highlight the need to further investigate the stress response pathway in these animals and that the absence or presence of genetic susceptibility may influence the presentation of ELA effects.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) has been a leader in weed science research covering topics ranging from the development and use of integrated weed management (IWM) tactics to basic mechanistic studies, including biotic resistance of desirable plant communities and herbicide resistance. ARS weed scientists have worked in agricultural and natural ecosystems, including agronomic and horticultural crops, pastures, forests, wild lands, aquatic habitats, wetlands, and riparian areas. Through strong partnerships with academia, state agencies, private industry, and numerous federal programs, ARS weed scientists have made contributions to discoveries in the newest fields of robotics and genetics, as well as the traditional and fundamental subjects of weed–crop competition and physiology and integration of weed control tactics and practices. Weed science at ARS is often overshadowed by other research topics; thus, few are aware of the long history of ARS weed science and its important contributions. This review is the result of a symposium held at the Weed Science Society of America’s 62nd Annual Meeting in 2022 that included 10 separate presentations in a virtual Weed Science Webinar Series. The overarching themes of management tactics (IWM, biological control, and automation), basic mechanisms (competition, invasive plant genetics, and herbicide resistance), and ecosystem impacts (invasive plant spread, climate change, conservation, and restoration) represent core ARS weed science research that is dynamic and efficacious and has been a significant component of the agency’s national and international efforts. This review highlights current studies and future directions that exemplify the science and collaborative relationships both within and outside ARS. Given the constraints of weeds and invasive plants on all aspects of food, feed, and fiber systems, there is an acknowledged need to face new challenges, including agriculture and natural resources sustainability, economic resilience and reliability, and societal health and well-being.
In Part I we examined the form and function ofthe major families of power electronic converters.Our goal was to show how the intended powerconversion function is achieved in each case byappropriate configuration of the circuitcomponents and by proper operation of theswitches. Throughout those earlier chapters, ourconcern was with nominal operating conditions, that is,the ideal operating conditions in which aconverter is designed to perform its primaryconversion function. As nominal operation in mostpower electronic circuits involves a periodic steady state, wefocused on situations in which circuit operationand behavior are the same from cycle to cycle.
Power magnetics are often constrained by loss.Consequently, the ability to accurately predictthe loss of a magnetic component is extremelyvaluable for design. The techniques for modelingmagnetics loss introduced in the previous chaptersare useful, but do not adequately cover allsituations. In this chapter we introduce refinedmethods to predict winding and core losses inmagnetic components, with particular emphasis onfactors (such as proximity effect) that becomedominant at high frequencies and on cases wherethe waveforms are not purely dc or sinusoidal.
We add transformers to the topology of ahigh-frequency converter for three reasons: toprovide electrical isolation between two (or more)external systems; to reduce the component stressesthat result when the input/output conversion ratiois far from unity; and to create multiple relatedoutputs in a simple manner. (We showed therelationship between switch-stress factor and theconversion ratio in Fig. 5.26.) There are manyways in which we can include the transformer inthe topology of a dc/dc converter; we present anddiscuss some of them in this chapter.
Power electronic circuits change the characterof electrical energy: from dc or ac to ac or dc,from one voltage level or frequency to another, orin some other way. We refer to such circuitsgenerically as converters, staticconverters (because they contain nomoving parts), powerprocessors, or powerconditioners. The part of the system thatactually manipulates the flow of energy is thepower circuit. It isthe scaffold for the system’s other components,such as the control circuit or the thermalmanagement parts.
Substantially expanded and updated, the new edition of this classic textbook provides unrivalled coverage of the fundamentals of power electronics. Comprehensive coverage of foundational concepts in circuits, magnetics, devices, dynamic models, and control establishes a strong conceptual framework for further study. Extensive discussion of contemporary practical considerations, enhanced by real-world examples, prepares readers for design scenarios ranging from low-power dc/dc converters to multi-megawatt ac machine drives. New topics include SiC and GaN wide-bandgap materials, superjunction MOSFET and IGBT devices, advanced magnetics design, multi-level and switched-capacitor converters, RF converter circuits, and EMI. Over 300 new and revised end-of-chapter problems enhance and expand understanding of the material, with solutions for instructors. Unique in its breadth and depth, and providing a range of flexible teaching pathways at multiple levels, this is the definitive guide to power electronics for graduate and senior undergraduate students in electrical engineering, and practicing electrical engineers.
The rapid switching transitions of a powerconverter are potential sources of electromagneticinterference (EMI), both for the converter itselfand for the systems to which it is connected.Adequate filtering at the input and output of theconverter is important, both to obtain acceptableperformance and to prevent interference with otherequipment. In this chapter, we consider thesources of EMI in a converter, how EMI is measuredand modeled, and how it can be mitigated, with afocus on conducted (rather than radiated) EMI.