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Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) has been reported to rapidly reduce psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. This has the potential to revolutionize treatment for schizophrenia. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that SNP leads to a reduction in psychotic symptoms and an improvement in spatial working memory (SWM) performance in patients with schizophrenia.
This was a single-centre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial performed from 27 August 2014 to 10 February 2016 (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02176044). Twenty patients with schizophrenia aged 18–60 years with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were recruited from psychiatric outpatient clinics in the South London and Maudsley NHS Trust, London, UK. Baseline symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS-18), and SWM was assessed using the CANTAB computerized test. Participants received either an infusion of SNP (0.5 μg/kg per min for 4 h) or placebo and were re-assessed for symptoms and SWM performance immediately after the infusion, and 4 weeks later.
SNP did not lead to any reduction in psychotic symptoms or improvement in SWM performance compared to placebo.
Although this study was negative, it is possible that the beneficial effects of SNP may occur in patients with a shorter history of illness, or with more acute exacerbation of symptoms.
Cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of developing a psychotic disorder but the temporal relationship between cannabis use and onset of illness is unclear. The objective of this study was to assess prospectively the influence of cannabis use on transition to psychosis in people at ultra-high risk (UHR) for the disorder.
Lifetime and continued cannabis use was assessed in a consecutively ascertained sample of 182 people (104 male, 78 female) at UHR for psychosis. Individuals were then followed clinically for 2 years to determine their clinical outcomes.
Lifetime cannabis use was reported by 134 individuals (73.6%). However, most of these individuals had stopped using cannabis before clinical presentation (n = 98, 73.1%), usually because of adverse effects. Among lifetime users, frequent use, early-onset use and continued use after presentation were all associated with an increase in transition to psychosis. Transition to psychosis was highest among those who started using cannabis before the age of 15 years and went on to use frequently (frequent early-onset use: 25%; infrequent or late-onset use: 5%; χ21 = 10.971, p = 0.001). However, within the whole sample, cannabis users were no more likely to develop psychosis than those who had never used cannabis (cannabis use: 12.7%; no use: 18.8%; χ21 = 1.061, p = 0.303).
In people at UHR for psychosis, lifetime cannabis use was common but not related to outcome. Among cannabis users, frequent use, early-onset use and continued use after clinical presentation were associated with transition to psychosis.
Infection surveillance definitions for long-term care facilities (ie, the McGeer Criteria) have not been updated since 1991. An expert consensus panel modified these definitions on the basis of a structured review of the literature. Significant changes were made to the criteria defining urinary tract and respiratory tract infections. New definitions were added for norovirus gastroenteritis and Clostridum difficile infections.
We present experimental results supporting physics-based ejecta model development, where our main assumption is that ejecta form as a special limiting case of a Richtmyer–Meshkov (RM) instability at a metal–vacuum interface. From this assumption, we test established theory of unstable spike and bubble growth rates, rates that link to the wavelength and amplitudes of surface perturbations. We evaluate the rate theory through novel application of modern laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) techniques, where we coincidentally measure bubble and spike velocities from explosively shocked solid and liquid metals with a single LDV probe. We also explore the relationship of ejecta formation from a solid material to the plastic flow stress it experiences at high-strain rates () and high strains (700 %) as the fundamental link to the onset of ejecta formation. Our experimental observations allow us to approximate the strength of Cu at high strains and strain rates, revealing a unique diagnostic method for use at these extreme conditions.
Objectives: This study reviewed the
evidence for the effectiveness of different isolation policies and
screening practices in reducing the incidence of methicillin-resistant
Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization and infection in
hospital inpatients in an effort to develop transmission models to study
the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of isolation policies in
Activation volumes for plastic deformation of fcc metals are measured using nanoindentation. Materials include bulk, polycrystalline aluminum and α-brass, and sputtered copper and nickel thin films on silicon substrates. From a hardness measurement, V* is defined as 9kBT/∂H/∂ln , where H is the hardness and is a representative strain rate beneath the indenter. Data obtained using nanoindentation are consistent with those obtained using more conventional experiments based on uniaxial loading.
Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) nanocomposites were synthesized by free radical polymerization in the presence of various weight percentages of alumina (Al2O3) nanoparticles. The resulting nanocomposites show an average increase of 600% in strain-to-failure and the appearance of a well-defined yield point. Concurrently, the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the composites decreased 20°C, while the ultimate strength and the Young's modulus decreased by 20% and 15%, respectively.
Diffraction-contrast TEM, focused probe electron diffraction, and high-resolution X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the dislocation arrangements in a 16µm thick coalesced GaN film grown by MOVPE LEO. As is commonly observed, the threading dislocations that are duplicated from the template above the window bend toward (0001). At the coalescence plane they bend back to lie along  and thread to the surface. In addition, three other sets of dislocations were observed. The first set consists of a wall of parallel dislocations lying in the coalescence plane and nearly parallel to the substrate, with Burgers vector (b) in the (0001) plane. The second set is comprised of rectangular loops with b = 1/3  (perpendicular to the coalescence boundary) which originate in the coalescence boundary and extend laterally into the film on the (100). The third set of dislocations threads laterally through the film along the  bar axis with 1/3<110>-type Burgers vectors These sets result in a dislocation density of ∼109 cm−2. High resolution X-ray reciprocal space maps indicate wing tilt of ∼0.5º.
We investigate the effects of layer thickness (t) on hardness (H) and rate sensitivity of the hardness (∂H/∂ ln ) in 1 μm-thick Cu/Nb nanolayer composites. For t < 10 nm, we find that H correlates with t according to H = H0 = H1t-1/2, suggestive of a Hall–Petch mechanism with layer interfaces replacing grain boundaries as barriers against dislocation motion. The measured levels of ∂H/∂ ln clearly indicate the operation of bulk-like dislocation mechanisms consistent with a Hall–Petch mechanism. However, based on a Haasen-plot activation analysis, it appears that the Hall–Petch coefficient, H1, is strongly rate-dependent, inconsistent with a conventional Hall–Petch mechanism. For specimens with t < 10 nm there is a saturation in hardness, but the rate sensitivity data indicate no clear evidence of a corresponding change in mechanism. Simple models are proposed.
Diffraction-contrast TEM, focused probe electron diffraction, and high-resolution X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the dislocation arrangements in a 16[.proportional]m thick coalesced GaN film grown by MOVPE LEO. As is commonly observed, the threading dislocations that are duplicated from the template above the window bend toward (0001). At the coalescence plane they bend back to lie along  and thread to the surface. In addition, three other sets of dislocations were observed. The first set consists of a wall of parallel dislocations lying in the coalescence plane and nearly parallel to the substrate, with Burgers vector (b) in the (0001) plane. The second set is comprised of rectangular loops with b = 1/3 [11 20] (perpendicular to the coalescence boundary) which originate in the coalescence boundary and extend laterally into the film on the (1 100). The third set of dislocations threads laterally through the film along the [1 100] bar axis with 1/3<11 20>-type Burgers vectors These sets result in a dislocation density of ∼109 cm−2. High resolution X-ray reciprocal space maps indicate wing tilt of ∼0.5°.
The goal of this study was to further characterize
episodic memory functioning in schizophrenia. This study
compared verbal and visual learning and memory performance
in (1) patients with schizophrenia (N = 35), (2)
patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE; N =
30), and (3) normal controls (N = 25). Results
indicated significant memory impairments in patients with
schizophrenia and TLE. “Savings” score measures
of memory decay showed that the loss of information in
schizophrenia and TLE was approximately equal, and quantitatively
mild compared to that found in most neurologic groups with
memory disorders. The severe difficulty shown by the schizophrenia
group on a task of incidental recall suggested that the
absence of instructional set added to a vulnerability to
memory deficit. In contrast, relatively mildly impaired
performance on paired associate learning suggested that
patients with schizophrenia benefited from retrieval cues,
multiple trials, and short (nonsupraspan) informational
loads. Because patients with schizophrenia consisted of
a relatively nonchronic sample with a mean IQ of 99.7,
their memory disorder could not be attributed to schizophrenic
dementia, nor was it accounted for by other potential confounds.
Patients with schizophrenia, even those relatively early
in the course of illness, have a mild episodic memory disorder.
(JINS, 1998, 4, 342–352.)
This paper describes in detail a surface preparation, and post-etch removal
technique developed for InGaAs sidewalls. It illustrates the results
demonstrating the effect of sidewall post-etch, surface preparation, and
surface passivation on the performance of high speed InGaAs detectors. Dark
current density for circular diodes with a diameter size varying between 10
and 100 μm was measured at a reverse bias voltage of −5 V. The effectiveness
of various surface preparation techniques was studied by measuring the
immediate improvement in dark current density, as well as its long-term
stability. The benefits of this new technique compared to other techniques
we have investigated include improved device characteristics, long-term
stability, as well as a much less critical process to achieve optimum
Potassium-bentonites have been found in the Courceyan Lower Limestone Shales near Burrington Combe and Oakhill, Somerset, consisting of thin, greenish yellow, plastic clays interbedded within a mudrock and limestone sequence. Mineralogically, the clay fraction is composed of virtually monomineralic interstratified illite-smectite containing 7–10% smectite layers. The clay fraction of the surrounding mudrocks, however, consists of an illite-chlorite dominated assemblage. Their mineral composition, trace element content, and the relative abundance of zircon crystals suggest an origin from burial of montmorillonite originally formed from volcanic ash. The presence of anomalously high trace element contents with both euhedral and rounded zircon grains in the Oakhill K-bentonites suggests a secondary or reworked origin for these samples. In contrast, the presence of a non-anomalous trace element content and large (>100 μm) euhedral zircon grains suggests that the Burrington K-bentonite is primary in origin. Modelling of whole-rock rare-earth element (REE) patterns shows that the Oakhill REE pattern can be derived from the Burrington pattern by the addition of small contributions from zircon and monazite, two major heavy minerals present. These K-bentonites probably represent the oldest Carboniferous K-bentonites so far recorded in the British Isles.
Diamond is suitable for use as an ionizing particle detector for high rate, high radiation, and/or chemically harsh environments. A sampling calorimeter, a detector measuring the total energy of an incident particle, consisting of 20 alternating layers of diamond and tungsten has been constructed and tested. The diamond for the detector layers was grown by chemical vapor deposition with an averaged thickness of 500 μm. The active area of each layer was 3×3 cm2 with ohmic contacts on opposite faces forming a metal-insulator-metal structure. The calorimeter was tested with electrons of energies up to 5.0 GeV. The response of the diamond/tungsten calorimeter was found to be linear as a function of incident energy. A direct comparison of diamond/tungsten and silicon/tungsten calorimeters was made.
The electrical properties associated with diamond charged particle- and photo-detectors were studied using charged particle-induced conductivity (CPIC) and photo-induced conductivity (PIC). The collection distance d, the product of the excess carrier mobility μ excess carrier lifetime T and electric field E, was used to characterize the diamonds. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, SEM and TEM were performed on CVD diamond detectors to investigate the limitations of the electrical properties. Correlations were found between the electrical properties and the material characterizations.
Two complementary techniques are used to study the electrical transport properties related to the use of diamonds as materials for ionizing radiation detectors. Transient photoconductivity using soft x-rays is used to probe the first few microns of the material, while ionizing particle-excited conductivity is used to probe the entire bulk of the material (1 millimeter). Both techniques measure the mean drift distance of free carriers, or the collection distance d. In addition, transient photoconductivity is able to extract the lifetimes and mobilities of the excited carriers. The collection distance measured by the two methods are in agreement, suggesting the material is homogeneous. At an applied field of 10 kV/cm, d is 25 to 30 microns, and, up to a field of 25 kV/cm, d has not saturated. The lifetime varies between 100 and 600 ps, and the mobility varies between 1000 and 4000 cm2/V-s, the range due to natural variations from sample to sample. The primary defects limiting the lifetime are believed to be nitrogen impurities and dislocations.