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Laser-based compact MeV X-ray sources are useful for a variety of applications such as radiography and active interrogation of nuclear materials. MeV X rays are typically generated by impinging the intense laser onto ~mm-thick high-Z foil. Here, we have characterized such a MeV X-ray source from 120 TW (80 J, 650 fs) laser interaction with a 1 mm-thick tantalum foil. Our measurements show X-ray temperature of 2.5 MeV, flux of 3 × 1012 photons/sr/shot, beam divergence of ~0.1 sr, conversion efficiency of ~1%, that is, ~1 J of MeV X rays out of 80 J incident laser, and source size of 80 m. Our measurement also shows that MeV X-ray yield and temperature is largely insensitive to nanosecond laser contrasts up to 10−5. Also, preliminary measurements of similar MeV X-ray source using a double-foil scheme, where the laser-driven hot electrons from a thin foil undergoing relativistic transparency impinging onto a second high-Z converter foil separated by 50–400 m, show MeV X-ray yield more than an order of magnitude lower compared with the single-foil results.
There is evidence for health benefits from ‘Palaeolithic’ diets; however, there are a few data on the acute effects of rationally designed Palaeolithic-type meals. In the present study, we used Palaeolithic diet principles to construct meals comprising readily available ingredients: fish and a variety of plants, selected to be rich in fibre and phyto-nutrients. We investigated the acute effects of two Palaeolithic-type meals (PAL 1 and PAL 2) and a reference meal based on WHO guidelines (REF), on blood glucose control, gut hormone responses and appetite regulation. Using a randomised cross-over trial design, healthy subjects were given three meals on separate occasions. PAL2 and REF were matched for energy, protein, fat and carbohydrates; PAL1 contained more protein and energy. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and peptide YY (PYY) concentrations were measured over a period of 180 min. Satiation was assessed using electronic visual analogue scale (EVAS) scores. GLP-1 and PYY concentrations were significantly increased across 180 min for both PAL1 (P= 0·001 and P< 0·001) and PAL2 (P= 0·011 and P= 0·003) compared with the REF. Concomitant EVAS scores showed increased satiety. By contrast, GIP concentration was significantly suppressed. Positive incremental AUC over 120 min for glucose and insulin did not differ between the meals. Consumption of meals based on Palaeolithic diet principles resulted in significant increases in incretin and anorectic gut hormones and increased perceived satiety. Surprisingly, this was independent of the energy or protein content of the meal and therefore suggests potential benefits for reduced risk of obesity.
In this study the putative protective seroprevalence (PPS) of IgG antibodies to the 27-kDa and 15/17-kDa Cryptosporidium antigens in sera of healthy participants who were and were not exposed to Cryptosporidium oocysts via surface water-derived drinking water was compared. The participants completed a questionnaire regarding risk factors that have been shown to be associated with infection. The PPS was significantly greater (49−61%) in settlements where the drinking water originated from surface water, than in the control city where riverbank filtration was used (21% and 23%). Logistic regression analysis on the risk factors showed an association between bathing/swimming in outdoor pools and antibody responses to the 15/17-kDa antigen complex. Hence the elevated responses were most likely due to the use of contaminated water. Results indicate that waterborne Cryptosporidium infections occur more frequently than reported but may derive from multiple sources.
E. coli O157 can be transmitted to humans by three primary (foodborne, environmental, waterborne) and one secondary (person-to-person transmission) pathways. A regression model and quantitative microbiological risk assessments (QMRAs) were applied to determine the relative importance of the primary transmission pathways in NE Scotland. Both approaches indicated that waterborne infection was the least important but it was unclear whether food or the environment was the main source of infection. The QMRAs over-predicted the number of cases by a factor of 30 and this could be because all E. coli O157 strains may not be equally infective and/or the level of infectivity in the dose–response model was too high. The efficacy of potential risk mitigation strategies to reduce human exposure to E. coli O157 using QMRAs was simulated. Risk mitigation strategies focusing on food and environment are likely to have the biggest impact on infection figures.
The course of experimental infection in groups of 6-month-old castrated lambs with field isolates of Mycoplasma agalactiae from France was followed culturally and serologically for 7 months. Infection with an ovine field isolate following inoculation by different routes and contact exposure was compared with that caused similarly by a caprine field isolate. The prolonged infections produced were symptomless apart from limited arthritis in one animal inoculated with the isolate from sheep and increased lachrymation in another associated with the goat isolate. The ovine isolate was more virulent in that ante- and post-mortem recoveries of the organism were more consistent and the serological responses more pronounced. Serological responses varied between animals and between strain infections, and the results of the film inhibition test were more consistent than those of the complement fixation test. The limitations of both these tests for detecting carrier infections are discussed.
Molecular gas has now been detected in 15 z>2 QSOs. These detections are commonly obtained by observing high–J CO transitions due to their relatively high peak fluxes and observing frequencies in the millimeter atmospheric windows. However, only observations of the CO ground-state transition, CO(1–0), have the potential to trace the molecular gas at lower excitations, which may give a better estimate of the total molecular gas mass of high–z QSOs. Here we present first z>4 CO(1–0) observations obtained with the NRAO Green Bank Telescope and the MPIfR Effelsberg telescope (Riechers et al. 2006). With these two 100m telescopes, we detect the CO(1–0) transition in the high–redshift QSOs BR 1202-0725 (z = 4.7), PSS J2322+1944 (z = 4.1), and APM 08279+5255 (z = 3.9). We find that the CO/FIR luminosity ratios of these high-z sources follow the same trend as seen for low-z galaxies. Utilizing large velocity gradient (LVG) models based on previous results for higher–J CO transitions, we derive that all CO emission can be described by a single gas component and that all molecular gas appears to be concentrated in a compact nuclear region. We thus find no evidence for luminous, extended CO(1–0) components in the molecular gas reservoirs around our target quasars.
Purpose: To evaluate the role of retrograde urethrography in treatment planning for salvage external beam radiotherapy in patients with increasing prostate-specific antigen levels after radical prostatectomy.
Methods and Materials: From July 1988 to December 2002, 173 consecutive patients received external beam radiotherapy for increasing prostate-specific antigen levels after radical prostatectomy. All 173 simulation films were reviewed, and retrograde urethrography was performed in 148 patients (86%). The distance between the line connecting the lower poles of the ischial tuberosities and site of abrupt narrowing of contrast material was measured in all 148 patients. This distance was compared with that measured in 148 consecutive patients with intact prostates who had retrograde urethrography while undergoing treatment planning for definitive radiotherapy.
Results: The mean (median) distance from the line connecting the lower poles of the ischial tuberosities to the abrupt narrowing seen in the urethrogram in patients with increasing prostate-specific antigen levels was 1.54cm (1.50cm) compared with 1.73cm (1.80cm) in those with intact prostates (p = 0.0145).
Conclusion: Retrograde urethrography is important in treatment planning for salvage radiotherapy of the prostate bed after radical prostatectomy to adequately treat the apex of the prostate bed.
Avolition affects quality of life in chronic schizophrenia. We investigated the relationship between unconstrained motor activity and the volume of key executive brain regions in 16 male patients with schizophrenia. Wrist-worn actigraphy monitors were used to record motor activity over a 20 h period. Structural magnetic resonance imaging brain scans were parcellated and individual volumes for anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex extracted. Patients' total activity was positively correlated with volume of left anterior cingulate cortex. These data suggest that the volume of specific executive structures may affect (quantifiable) motor behaviours, having further implications for models of the ‘will’ and avolition.
We have developed a compact, 14.7 nm, sub-5 ps X-ray laser source at
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) together with a Mach-Zehnder
type diffraction grating interferometer built at Colorado State University
for probing dense, high intensity laser-produced plasmas. The short
wavelength and pulse length of the probe reduces refraction, absorption
effects within the plasma and minimizes plasma motion blurring. This
unique diagnostic capability gives precise two-dimensional (2D) density
profile snapshots and is generating new data for rapidly evolving
laser-heated plasmas. A review of the results from dense, mm-scale line
focus plasma experiments will be described with detailed comparisons to
The current study examines experiences of interpersonal mistreatment in federal litigation among a random sample of 4,608 practicing attorneys. Using both quantitative and qualitative survey data, we documented the nature and interplay of general incivility, gender-related incivility, and unwanted sexual attention. Nearly 75% of female attorneys had experienced some form of this misconduct in the previous five years, compared to half of male attorneys. An in-depth examination of instigators revealed that not only fellow attorneys but also federal judges, court personnel, marshals, and court security officers instigated the inappropriate behavior. We further found that most attorneys responded to this mistreatment with avoidance and denial; few used or trusted existing reporting mechanisms. The current study surpassed simple prevalence estimates to document effects of interpersonal mistreatment on the professional well-being of targeted attorneys. We discuss implications of these results, drawing on theories of social dominance, sex-role spillover, cognitive stress, organizations, and intervention.
A cDNA library constructed from 3 day post-infective L3 of the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi was screened by
differential hybridization with cDNA probes prepared from different life-cycle stages. Five cDNA clones hybridizing
selectively to the mosquito-derived L3 probe were isolated and characterized. Northern blot analysis of 4 of the clones
confirmed that each was most highly expressed in the mosquito-derived L3. The expression of each mRNAduring parasite
development in the mosquito vector was investigated using RT–PCR, and all were shown to be abundant in the immature
L3. Four of the 5 cDNAs cloned coded for structural proteins: 2 cuticular collagens, and the muscle proteins tropomyosin
and troponin. Further studies on troponin using an antiserum raised to the recombinant protein demonstrated that the
protein, unlike the mRNA, was present in all life-cycle stages examined, while immunogold labelling demonstrated that
it was localized to the muscle blocks.
Circularly polarized x-ray radiation is attracting increasing interest as a tool for the characterization of the electronic, magnetic, and chiral properties of low-dimensional structures. Using circular light (with electric field vector parallel to the orbital plane), a dependence of the measured quantity by changing either the orientation of the light polarization or the magnetization is indicative of the existence of magnetic circular dichroism. It can be observed in x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), in which the photon energy is scanned through an absorption threshold exciting a core electron into an unoccupied valence state using circularly polarized light. Synchrotron radiation sources have made this technique possible. It can also be observed in photo-emission spectroscopy from core and valence levels. Here we focus on magnetic circular x-ray dichroism (MCXD) in XAS as an element-specific tool to investigate magnetic properties of ultrathin films in situ. The application of magneto-optical sum rules enables the determination of the orbital and spin magnetic moments per atom from XAS spectra, as well as the easy magnetization direction.
MCXD-based magnetometry in XAS is extensively used by measuring the L absorption edges of 3d-transition metals, where large intensity changes (up to 60%) of the L-edge white lines are observed upon reversal of either the sample magnetization or the light helicity. The high magnetic contrast obtained, combined with the elemental specificity of the technique, allows for the study of very dilute samples such as ultrathin films. We first concentrate on the selection rules governing MCXD in XAS.
An experiment was conducted to examine the response of three genotypes of beef cows to contrasting levels of nutrition supplied from grazed pasture. Twenty-two Hereford × Friesian (HF), 20 Aberdeen Angus × Friesian (AF) and 24 Welsh Black (WB) spring-calving beef cows with their Charolais-cross calves were used in 4 years consecutively. During the summer grazing period they grazed permanent pasture maintained at either 4 to 5 cm (short) or 7 to 8 cm (tall) sward surface height. Sward height treatment significantly (P < 0·001) affected cow and calf live-weight gain (0·498 v. 0·041 (s.e.d. 0·0405) kg/day and 1·12 v. 0·90 (s.e.d. 0·021) kg/day for cow and calf live-weight gain on the tall and short swards respectively). The live-weight gains of the HF and WB cows were similar, but the AF cows gained less weight on the tall sward and lost weight on the short sward. Calf live-weight gain reflected cow milk yield, with the calves from HF and AF cows having similar live weight gains (1·06 and 1·02 kg/day respectively) and those from WB cows having lower gains (0·95 kg/day; P < 0·001). The effect of sward height on calf live-weight gain was greatest in the WB-born calves because of the lower milk yield from WB cows. Body chemical composition changes of cows were predicted from live weight and body condition score, using prediction equations derived from separate groups of cows which were slaughtered at a range of body compositions for determination of chemical composition. Energy balances, calculated from changes in chemical composition, showed the AF cows to have the lowest energy balances with the WB cows the highest. Calculation of energetic efficiency and land use efficiency of weaned calf production taking account of annual food requirements indicated that the HF cows were most efficient, and the WB cows least efficient. The effect of increasing nutritional environment (as represented by sward height treatment) was such as to increase energetic efficiency for all genotypes, but land use efficiency was increased for HF and AF cows, and decreased for WB cows. These results indicate the factors such as size of cows, milk yield potential and pattern of nutrient partitioning can influence energetic land use efficiency of weaned calf production, and that important interactions between genotype and nutritional environment can occur in different measures of efficiency.
The effects on herbage intake of changes of herbage mass associated with different stocking rates were studied in Greyface (Border Leicester × Scottish Blackface) ewes in the autumn. Intake was measured in 5-day periods in late September (PI), late October (P2) and late November (P3) on two established, perennial ryegrass/white clover swards (SI and S2). Both swards had previously been variably stocked to produce areas with a range in herbage masses, some of which were grazed continuously (G) at stocking rates declining from 18 to 6 ewes per ha.
Intake was also measured in P2 and P3 on other areas of the swards which were ungrazed for 6 weeks in September and October (C) and then stocked at 18 ewes per ha. Intakes of dry matter, organic matter and digestible organic matter were 16 g, 10 g and 7·5 g/kg live weight, respectively. Organic matter digestibility was 075 in PI and P2 but declined in P3.
Differences in herbage intake and digestibility arose largely because of differences between the swards in herbage mass, sward height and sward density. Ewes in condition scores > 3·00 in early September had lower intakes at all times than did thinner ewes. Changes in sward management associated with different strategies of use had little long-term effect on herbage intake. Keywords: digestibility, herbage, sheep, stocking rate.