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The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Although the UK is the largest lamb meat producer in Europe, there are limited data available on sheep flock performance and on how sheep farmers manage their flocks. The aims of this study were to gather evidence on the types of disease control practices implemented in sheep flocks, and to explore husbandry factors associated with flock productivity. A questionnaire focusing on farm characteristics, general husbandry and flock health management was carried out in 648 farms located in the UK over summer 2016. Abattoir sales data (lamb sales over 12 months) was compared with the number of breeding ewes on farm to estimate flock productivity (number of lambs sold for meat per 100 ewes per farm per year). Results of a multivariable linear regression model, conducted on 615 farms with complete data, indicated that farms vaccinating ewes against abortion and clostridial agents and administering a group 4/5 anthelmintic to ewes (as recommended by the Sustainable Control of Parasites in Sheep Initiative) during quarantining had a greater flock productivity than farms not implementing these actions (P<0.01 and 0.02, respectively). Flocks with maternal breed types had higher productivity indexes compared with flocks with either pure hill or terminal breeds (P<0.01). Farms weighing lambs during lactation had greater productivity than those not weighing (P<0.01). Importantly, these actions were associated with other disease control practices, for example, treating individual lame ewes with an antibiotic injection, weaning lambs between 13 and 15 weeks of age and carrying out faecal egg counts, suggesting that an increase in productivity may be associated with the combined effect of these factors. This study provides new evidence on the positive relationship between sheep flock performance and disease control measures and demonstrates that lamb sales data can be used as a baseline source of information on flock performance and for farm benchmarking. Further research is needed to explore additional drivers of flock performance.
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the most commonly cited factors that may have influenced infants’ gut microbiota profiles at one year of age: mode of delivery, breastfeeding duration and antibiotic exposure. Barcoded V3/V4 amplicons of bacterial 16S-rRNA gene were prepared from the stool samples of 52 healthy 1-year-old Australian children and sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Following the quality checks, the data were processed using the Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology pipeline and analysed using the Calypso package for microbiome data analysis. The stool microbiota profiles of children still breastfed were significantly different from that of children weaned earlier (P<0.05), independent of the age of solid food introduction. Among children still breastfed, Veillonella spp. abundance was higher. Children no longer breastfed possessed a more ‘mature’ microbiota, with notable increases of Firmicutes. The microbiota profiles of the children could not be differentiated by delivery mode or antibiotic exposure. Further analysis based on children’s feeding patterns found children who were breastfed alongside solid food had significantly different microbiota profiles compared to that of children who were receiving both breastmilk and formula milk alongside solid food. This study provided evidence that breastfeeding continues to influence gut microbial community even at late infancy when these children are also consuming table foods. At this age, any impacts from mode of delivery or antibiotic exposure did not appear to be discernible imprints on the microbial community profiles of these healthy children.
Most studies underline the contribution of heritable factors for psychiatric disorders. However, heritability estimates depend on the population under study, diagnostic instruments, and study designs that each has its inherent assumptions, strengths, and biases. We aim to test the homogeneity in heritability estimates between two powerful, and state of the art study designs for eight psychiatric disorders.
We assessed heritability based on data of Swedish siblings (N = 4 408 646 full and maternal half-siblings), and based on summary data of eight samples with measured genotypes (N = 125 533 cases and 208 215 controls). All data were based on standard diagnostic criteria. Eight psychiatric disorders were studied: (1) alcohol dependence (AD), (2) anorexia nervosa, (3) attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), (4) autism spectrum disorder, (5) bipolar disorder, (6) major depressive disorder, (7) obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and (8) schizophrenia.
Heritability estimates from sibling data varied from 0.30 for Major Depression to 0.80 for ADHD. The estimates based on the measured genotypes were lower, ranging from 0.10 for AD to 0.28 for OCD, but were significant, and correlated positively (0.19) with national sibling-based estimates. When removing OCD from the data the correlation increased to 0.50.
Given the unique character of each study design, the convergent findings for these eight psychiatric conditions suggest that heritability estimates are robust across different methods. The findings also highlight large differences in genetic and environmental influences between psychiatric disorders, providing future directions for etiological psychiatric research.
Let G be a group and H be a subgroup of G. We say that H is left relatively convex in G if the left G-set G/H has at least one G-invariant order; when G is left orderable, this holds if and only if H is convex in G under some left ordering of G. We give a criterion for H to be left relatively convex in G that generalizes a famous theorem of Burns and Hale and has essentially the same proof. We show that all maximal cyclic subgroups are left relatively convex in free groups, in right-angled Artin groups, and in surface groups that are not the Klein-bottle group. The free-group case extends a result of Duncan and Howie. More generally, every maximal m-generated subgroup in a free group is left relatively convex. The same result is valid, with some exceptions, for compact surface groups. Maximal m-generated abelian subgroups in right-angled Artin groups are left relatively convex. If G is left orderable, then each free factor of G is left relatively convex in G. More generally, for any graph of groups, if each edge group is left relatively convex in each of its vertex groups, then each vertex group is left relatively convex in the fundamental group; this generalizes a result of Chiswell.
We discuss the connection between Chevalley’s definition of a covering space and the usual definition given in an introductory topology course. Then we indicate how some theorems about the covering groups of a topological group can be proved from the global point of view, without using local isomorphisms between topological groups.
This is a summary, written by the first-named author, of his joint work with Ross Geoghegan over the past years. Most of the material is available in detail in the preprint “Limit sets for modules over groups on cat(0) spaces – from the Euclidean to the hyperbolic,” available at http://arxiv.org/abs/1306.3403, and I will occasionally refer to specific detail in that paper. Other parts of our joint work - results mostly concerned with extending concepts and results from that paper to higher dimensions – will also be mentioned but are still in preparation.
Let G be a group, and let S be a finite subset of G that generates G as a monoid. The co-word problem is the collection of words in the free monoid S∗ that represent non-trivial elements of G. A current conjecture, based originally on a conjecture of Lehnert and modified into its current form by Bleak, Matucci, and Neunhöffer, says that Thompson’s group V is a universal group with context-free co-word problem. It is thus conjectured that a group has a context-free co-word problem exactly if it is a finitely generated subgroup of V. Hughes introduced the class FSS of groups that are determined by finite similarity structures. An FSS group acts by local similarities on a compact ultrametric space. Thompson’s group V is a representative example, but there are many others.We show that FSS groups have context-free co-word problem under a minimal additional hypothesis. As a result, we can specify a subfamily of FSS groups that are potential counterexamples to the conjecture.
Let G be a finitely generated group, and Σ a finite subset that generates G as a monoid. The word problem of G with respect to Σ consists of all words in the free monoid Σ* that are equal to the identity in G. The co-word problem of G with respect to Σ is the complement in Σ* of the word problem. We say that a group G is coCF if its co-word problem with respect to some (equivalently, any) finite generating set Σ is a context-free language. We describe a generalized Thompson group V(G,θ) for each finite group G and homomorphism θ: G → G. Our group is constructed using the cloning systems introduced by Witzel and Zaremsky. We prove that V(G,θ) is coCF for any homomorphism θ and finite group G by constructing a pushdown automaton and showing that the co-word problem of V(G,θ) is the cyclic shift of the language accepted by our automaton. Demonstrative subgroups of V, introduced by Bleak and Salazar-Diaz, can be used to construct embeddings of certain wreath products and amalgamated free products into V. We extend the class of known finitely generated demonstrative subgroups of V to include all virtually cyclic groups.
An important “stability” theorem in shape theory, due to D. A. Edwards and R. Geoghegan, characterizes those compacta having the same shape as a finite CW complex. In this chapter we present a straightforward and self-contained proof of that theorem.
We give a simple technique to compute the distance between two points in an n-dimensional Euclidean simplex, where the points are given in barycentric coordinates, using only the edge lengths of that simplex. We then use this technique to verify a few computations which will be used in subsequent papers. The most important application is a formula for intrinsically computing the volume of a Euclidean simplex, which is more efficient (and more natural) than any previously documented methods.
We explore the ideal structure of the reduced C∗-algebra of R. Thompson’s group T. We show that even though T has trace, one cannot use the Kesten Condition to verify that the reduced C∗-algebra of T is simple. At the time of the initial writing of this chapter, there had been no example group for which it was known that the Kesten Condition would fail to prove simplicity, even though the group has trace. Motivated by this first result, we describe a class of groups where even if the group has trace, one cannot apply the Kesten Condition to verify the simplicity of those groups' reduced C∗-algebras. We also offer an apparently weaker condition to test for the simplicity of a group's reduced C∗-algebra, and we show this new test is still insufficient to show that the reduced C∗-algebra of T is simple. Separately, we find a controlled version of a Ping-Pong Lemma which allows one to find non-abelian free subgroups in groups of homeomorphisms of the circle generated by elements with rational rotation number. We use our Ping-Pong Lemma to find a simple converse to a theorem of Uffe Haagerup and Kristian Knudsen Olesen.
Bieri, Geoghegan and Kochloukova computed the BNSR-invariants Σ^m(F) of Thompson’s group F for all m. We recompute these using entirely geometric techniques, making use of the Stein–Farley CAT(0) cube complex X on which F acts.
The aim of this chapter is to provide some new tools to aid the study of decomposition complexity, a notion introduced by Guentner, Tessera and Yu. In this chapter, three equivalent definitions for decomposition complexity are established. We prove that metric spaces with finite hyperbolic dimension have finite (weak) decomposition complexity, and we prove that the collection of metric families that are coarsely embeddable into Hilbert space is closed under decomposition. A method for showing that certain metric spaces do not have finite decomposition complexity is also discussed.