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High-yielding dairy cows must produce large amounts of milk of a desired quality from a cost-effective diet in order for the farmer to remain in profit. Optimal rumen function and health is a key part of the process of converting nutrients into milk efficiently. Essential oils are steam-volatile or organic-solvent extracts of plants that have been shown to have beneficial effects on human digestion. They are mainly cyclic hydrocarbons and their alcohol, aldehyde or ester derivatives (Wallace, 2004). ‘Crina Ruminants’ is a blend of such essential oil compounds, designed to stimulate rumen activity and boost the population of beneficial microbes, through anti-microbial and digestive stimulant activity. In particular, it is believed to encourage an increase in fibre-fermenting bacteria and to counteract the acidotic rumen conditions that can be caused by feeding high starch diets. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of ‘Crina Ruminants’ on intake and milk production.
An increasing acreage of forage maize is being grown in the north of England and south of Scotland as an alternative to grass silage for dairy cows. Previous work has shown that molassed sugar beet pulp (MSBP) can be ensiled with maize to minimise effluent production and ensiling losses (Hameleers et al) from low dry matter (DM) maize. This experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of feeding 'Pulp'n'Maize' on intake, milk yield and milk composition in dairy cows.
A qualitative ranking method, Q methodology, was used to assess stakeholder priorities for socioecological services derived from coastal marshes and communities. The goal was to reveal strength of concerns for and tradeoffs among effects of coastal resilience strategies. Factor analysis identified three perspectives that formed a spectrum from high to low priorities on intangible services. Academic and government stakeholders were more likely than local residents to prioritize intangible services, but stakeholder views were diverse. A collaborative learning process promoted some alignment of views and academics showed the most movement – towards residents’ perspectives. Q-sort appeared effective at efficiently synthesizing broad concerns.
Mental health research funding priorities in high-income countries must balance longer-term investment in identifying neurobiological mechanisms of disease with shorter-term funding of novel prevention and treatment strategies to alleviate the current burden of mental illness. Prioritising one area of science over others risks reduced returns on the entire scientific portfolio.
We describe radio timing observations of the binary pulsar PSR J0045-7319 made over the past 3.3 yr. We show that a simple timing model involving a standard Keplerian orbit describes the data well; however, significant low-level systematic residuals never before seen in other binary pulsars remain. We consider various possible origins of the residuals.
We have compiled a catalogue of H ii regions detected with the Murchison Widefield Array between 72 and 231 MHz. The multiple frequency bands provided by the Murchison Widefield Array allow us identify the characteristic spectrum generated by the thermal Bremsstrahlung process in H ii regions. We detect 306 H ii regions between 260° < l < 340° and report on the positions, sizes, peak, integrated flux density, and spectral indices of these H ii regions. By identifying the point at which H ii regions transition from the optically thin to thick regime, we derive the physical properties including the electron density, ionised gas mass, and ionising photon flux, towards 61 H ii regions. This catalogue of H ii regions represents the most extensive and uniform low frequency survey of H ii regions in the Galaxy to date.
Radio astronomy provides a unique window on the universe, allowing us to study non-thermal processes (e.g. galactic nuclei, quasars, pulsars) at the highest angular resolution using VLBI, with low opacity. It is the most interesting waveband for SETI searches. To date it has yielded three Nobel prizes (microwave background, pulsars, gravitational radiation). There are both exciting possibilities and substantial challenges for radio astronomy to remain at the cutting edge over the next three decades. New instruments like ALMA and the SKA will open up new science if the challenge of dealing with human generated interference can be met. We summarise some of the issues and technological developments that will be essential to the future success of radio astronomy.
During the report period (1982–1984) several symposia, colloquia, and workshops in the field of stellar classification were held. These include: IAU Symposium No. 111 ”Calibration of Fundamental Stellar Quantities” (Como, May 24 29, 1984, ed. D. S. Hayes et al.), IAU Colloquium No. 76 “The Nearby Stars and the Stellar Luminosity Function” (Middletown, June 13-16, 1983, ed. A. G. Davis Philip and A. R. Upgren), IAU Colloquium No. 78 “Astronomy with Schmidt-Type Telescopes” (Asiago, August 30-September 2, 1983, ed. M. Capaccioli), the workshop “The MK Process and Stellar Classification” (Toronto, June 6-10, 1983, ed. R. F. Garrison), the Colloquium ”Cool Stars with Excess of Heavy Elements” (Strasbourg, July 3-6, 1984).
In 1988, a Joint Commission (9 and 25) meeting on the causes of the well-known limitations on the precision of infrared astronomy led to several suggestions to improve matters (see Milone 1989). These included better reporting of the photometric systems in use by practitioners, redesign of the infrared passbands to be more optimally placed inside the atmospheric windows, and development of a method to ascertain the water vapor content of the atmosphere when the astronomical infrared measurements were being made. An Infrared Astronomy Working Group was formed to look into the matter. Advice and suggestions were solicited from the community at large. All who volunteered information became, de facto, members of the Working Group. A small subgroup composed of Andrew Young, Chris Stagg, and Milone set to work on the central of the recommendations: improvement of the passbands. Young, Milone, k Stagg (1994) (hereafter YMS) summarized the work: existing JHKLMN and Q infrared passbands were found to be both far from standardized, and all too frequently defined, to various degrees, by the water vapor and other components of the terrestrial atmosphere. Following extensive numerical simulations with a MODTRAN 3 terrestrial-atmospheres model package, and Kurucz stellar atmospheres, we suggested a set of improved infrared passbands designed explicitly to fit within, and not be defined by, the terrestrial atmospheric windows; however, we sought to optimize them so as to get the maximum throughput consistent with plausible limitations on precision of manufacture of the filters. In 1995 and again in 1997, a number of improvements were made in the code with which the improved passbands were designed. While they do not much affect the optimization trials and thus the passband recommendations, they have been used to extend the modeling.
Measurement of accurate positions, pulse periods and period derivatives is an essential follow-up to any pulsar survey. The procedures being used to obtain timing parameters for the pulsars discovered in the Parkes multibeam pulsar survey are described. Completed solutions have been obtained so far for about 80 pulsars. They show that the survey is preferentially finding pulsars with higher than average surface dipole magnetic fields. Eight pulsars have been shown to be members of binary systems and some of the more interesting results relating to these are presented.
Using the Hubble Space Telescope we have successfully detected the ”dark” side of the optical companion to the eclipsing millisecond pulsar J2051–0827. These data were obtained over a number of system orbits and clearly show that there is variability in the optical flux, particularly at orbital phases after maximum light. Comparison with phases before maximum light suggests this variation is due to an additional component. The data are modelled by a gravitationally-distorted low-mass secondary star which is irradiated by the impinging pulsar wind. The quality of the model fits are however limited by the variability.
We propose a new way to measure accurate distances and transverse velocities for some nearby binary pulsars. In many cases the distances will be more accurately determined than is possible by annual parallax, as the relative error decreases as t−5/2. We also note that tests of the general relativistic prediction of orbital period decay of nearby relativistic binary pulsars will be limited to accuracies of a few percent. Nevertheless, PSR B1534+12 observations are consistent with general relativistic predictions if the proper-motion contribution to the orbital period derivative is accounted for.
The Parkes multibeam pulsar survey uses a 13-element receiver operating at a wavelength of 20 cm to survey the inner Galactic plane with remarkable sensitivity. To date we have collected and analyzed data from 45% of the survey region (|b| < 5°; 260° < l < 50°), and have discovered 440 pulsars, in addition to re-detecting 190 previously known ones. Most of the newly discovered pulsars are at great distances, as inferred from a median dispersion measure (DM) of 400 cm−3 pc.
Whereas the I.A.U. standard values of the constants Ro, ⊙o, A, and B, differ from those currently considered best, the errors of current determinations are still rather large. Although the means of recent determinations lead to a fairly consistent set of values for the four main constants, the agreement may be largely coincidental. However, a case can be made for agreeing on a new pair of standard values for Ro and ⊙o as a matter of practical convenience.
Models of galaxy formation in a hierarchical universe predict substantial scatter in the halo-to-halo stellar properties, owing to stochasticity in galaxies’ merger histories. Currently, only few detailed observations of galaxy’s halos are available, mainly for the Milky Way and M31. The Galaxy Halos, Outer disks, Substructure, Thick disks and Star clusters (GHOSTS) HST survey is the largest study to date of the resolved stellar populations in the outskirts of disk galaxies and its observations offer a direct test of model predictions. Here we present the results we obtain for six highly inclined nearby Milky Way-mass spiral galaxies. We find a great diversity in the properties of their stellar halos.
Increasing recognition of the extent to which nitrous oxide (N2O) contributes to climate change has resulted in greater demand to improve quantification of N2O emissions, identify emission sources and suggest mitigation options. Agriculture is by far the largest source and grasslands, occupying c. 0·22 of European agricultural land, are a major land-use within this sector. The application of mineral fertilizers to optimize pasture yields is a major source of N2O and with increasing pressure to increase agricultural productivity, options to quantify and reduce emissions whilst maintaining sufficient grassland for a given intensity of production are required. Identification of the source and extent of emissions will help to improve reporting in national inventories, with the most common approach using the IPCC emission factor (EF) default, where 0·01 of added nitrogen fertilizer is assumed to be emitted directly as N2O. The current experiment aimed to establish the suitability of applying this EF to fertilized Scottish grasslands and to identify variation in the EF depending on the application rate of ammonium nitrate (AN). Mitigation options to reduce N2O emissions were also investigated, including the use of urea fertilizer in place of AN, addition of a nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) and application of AN in smaller, more frequent doses. Nitrous oxide emissions were measured from a cut grassland in south-west Scotland from March 2011 to March 2012. Grass yield was also measured to establish the impact of mitigation options on grass production, along with soil and environmental variables to improve understanding of the controls on N2O emissions. A monotonic increase in annual cumulative N2O emissions was observed with increasing AN application rate. Emission factors ranging from 1·06–1·34% were measured for AN application rates between 80 and 320 kg N/ha, with a mean of 1·19%. A lack of any significant difference between these EFs indicates that use of a uniform EF is suitable over these application rates. The mean EF of 1·19% exceeds the IPCC default 1%, suggesting that use of the default value may underestimate emissions of AN-fertilizer-induced N2O loss from Scottish grasslands. The increase in emissions beyond an application rate of 320 kg N/ha produced an EF of 1·74%, significantly different to that from lower application rates and much greater than the 1% default. An EF of 0·89% for urea fertilizer and 0·59% for urea with DCD suggests that N2O quantification using the IPCC default EF will overestimate emissions for grasslands where these fertilizers are applied. Large rainfall shortly after fertilizer application appears to be the main trigger for N2O emissions, thus applicability of the 1% EF could vary and depend on the weather conditions at the time of fertilizer application.
We compare first-order (refractive) ionospheric effects seen by the MWA with the ionosphere as inferred from GPS data. The first-order ionosphere manifests itself as a bulk position shift of the observed sources across an MWA field of view. These effects can be computed from global ionosphere maps provided by GPS analysis centres, namely the CODE. However, for precision radio astronomy applications, data from local GPS networks needs to be incorporated into ionospheric modelling. For GPS observations, the ionospheric parameters are biased by GPS receiver instrument delays, among other effects, also known as receiver DCBs. The receiver DCBs need to be estimated for any non-CODE GPS station used for ionosphere modelling. In this work, single GPS station-based ionospheric modelling is performed at a time resolution of 10 min. Also the receiver DCBs are estimated for selected Geoscience Australia GPS receivers, located at Murchison Radio Observatory, Yarragadee, Mount Magnet and Wiluna. The ionospheric gradients estimated from GPS are compared with that inferred from MWA. The ionospheric gradients at all the GPS stations show a correlation with the gradients observed with the MWA. The ionosphere estimates obtained using GPS measurements show promise in terms of providing calibration information for the MWA.
Models of galaxy formation in a hierarchical universe predict substantial scatter in the halo-to-halo stellar properties, owing to stochasticity in galaxies' merger histories. Currently, only few detailed observations of stellar halos are available, mainly for the Milky Way and M31. We present the stellar halo color/metallicity and density profiles of red giant branch stars out to ~60 kpc along the minor axis of six massive nearby Milky Way-like galaxies beyond the Local Group from the Galaxy Halos, Outer disks, Substructure, Thick disks and Star clusters (GHOSTS) HST survey. This enlargement of the sample of galaxies with observations of stellar halo properties is needed to understand the range of possible halo properties, i.e. not only the mean properties but also the halo-to-halo scatter, what a ‘typical’ halo looks like, and how similar the Milky Way halo is to other halos beyond the Local Group.
We have mapped cold atomic gas in 21cm line H i self-absorption (HISA) at arcminute resolution over more than 90% of the Milky Way's disk. To probe the formation of H2 clouds, we have compared our HISA distribution with CO J = 1-0 line emission. Few HISA features in the outer Galaxy have CO at the same position and velocity, while most inner-Galaxy HISA has overlapping CO. But many apparent inner-Galaxy HISA-CO associations can be explained as chance superpositions, so most inner-Galaxy HISA may also be CO-free. Since standard equilibrium cloud models cannot explain the very cold H i in many HISA features without molecules being present, these clouds may instead have significant CO-dark H2.