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The Rapid ASKAP Continuum Survey (RACS) is the first large-area survey to be conducted with the full 36-antenna Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. RACS will provide a shallow model of the ASKAP sky that will aid the calibration of future deep ASKAP surveys. RACS will cover the whole sky visible from the ASKAP site in Western Australia and will cover the full ASKAP band of 700–1800 MHz. The RACS images are generally deeper than the existing NRAO VLA Sky Survey and Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey radio surveys and have better spatial resolution. All RACS survey products will be public, including radio images (with
15 arcsec resolution) and catalogues of about three million source components with spectral index and polarisation information. In this paper, we present a description of the RACS survey and the first data release of 903 images covering the sky south of declination
made over a 288-MHz band centred at 887.5 MHz.
We describe here efforts to create and study magnetized electron–positron pair plasmas, the existence of which in astrophysical environments is well-established. Laboratory incarnations of such systems are becoming ever more possible due to novel approaches and techniques in plasma, beam and laser physics. Traditional magnetized plasmas studied to date, both in nature and in the laboratory, exhibit a host of different wave types, many of which are generically unstable and evolve into turbulence or violent instabilities. This complexity and the instability of these waves stem to a large degree from the difference in mass between the positively and the negatively charged species: the ions and the electrons. The mass symmetry of pair plasmas, on the other hand, results in unique behaviour, a topic that has been intensively studied theoretically and numerically for decades, but experimental studies are still in the early stages of development. A levitated dipole device is now under construction to study magnetized low-energy, short-Debye-length electron–positron plasmas; this experiment, as well as a stellarator device that is in the planning stage, will be fuelled by a reactor-based positron source and make use of state-of-the-art positron cooling and storage techniques. Relativistic pair plasmas with very different parameters will be created using pair production resulting from intense laser–matter interactions and will be confined in a high-field mirror configuration. We highlight the differences between and similarities among these approaches, and discuss the unique physics insights that can be gained by these studies.
The Triassic–Jurassic Upper Karoo Group of the Mid-Zambezi Basin (MZB; Zimbabwe) includes a thick succession of terrestrial sediments with high palaeontological potential that has been neglected since the 1970s. Here, we review the Upper Karoo Group stratigraphy, present detailed sedimentological work and identify new vertebrate-bearing sites at several measured sections along the southern shore of Lake Kariba. These fossil-bearing sites fall within the Pebbly Arkose and Forest Sandstone formations, and are the first to be recorded from the region since the discovery of Vulcanodon karibaensis nearly 50 years ago. The unique and diverse assemblage of aquatic and terrestrial fauna reported includes phytosaurs, metoposaurid amphibians, lungfish, non-dinosaurian archosauromorphs and non-sauropod sauropodomorph dinosaurs. This improvement of Upper Karoo Group biostratigraphy is important in refining its temporal resolution, and impacts both regional and global studies. Finally, the new fossil sites demonstrate the palaeontological importance of the MZB and its role in providing a holistic understanding of early Mesozoic ecosystems in southern Gondwana.
Intentional facial disfigurement is documented in archaeological contexts around the world. Here, the authors present the first archaeological evidence for intentional facial mutilation from Anglo-Saxon England—comprising the removal of the nose, upper lip and possible scalping—inflicted upon a young adult female. The injuries are consistent with documented punishments for female offenders. Although such mutilations do not appear in the written record until the tenth century AD, the instance reported here suggests that the practice may have emerged a century earlier. This case is examined in the context of a wider consideration of the motivations and significance of facial disfigurement in past societies.
Background: In March 2012, the Veterans’ Health Administration (VHA) published the Guideline for the Prevention of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in VHA Inpatient Acute-Care Facilities, with a goal of 30% reduction of cases within 2 years. In March 2011, this facility, along with 31 others, served as a pilot site to develop the guidelines. Methods: The CDI prevention bundle was implemented to prevent new onset CDI cases in the facility with 4 core measures: (1) environmental cleaning (EMS), (2) hand hygiene, (3) contact precautions, and (4) cultural transformation. Education was provided to EMS staff, nursing, and care providers on the CDI case definition, criteria for testing, empiric isolation for patients with diarrhea, hand hygiene, and PPE to control spread. In 2014, antimicrobial stewardship was added, and within 5 years an algorithm for isolation and testing was published. Cases were reviewed weekly using TheraDoc software and were reported monthly to the national VHA Inpatient Evaluation Center (IPEC). Isolation was communicated using a ward roster/isolation list in TheraDoc for all unit champions to consult daily. CDI cases were classified using NHSN definitions for a laboratory-identified (LabID) event, recurrent cases, and community-onset cases. Real-time case review and weekly multidisciplinary case discussions identified opportunities for improved compliance with the core measures. Results: Over an 8-year period, CDI healthcare-onset LabID events decreased by 73%. The cases decreased from 149 to 40 over the 8-year period. The infection rate decreased 70% from 16.19 per 10,000 bed days of care in FY2011 (October 2010) to 4.88 in FY2019. The incidence of community onset infections increased from 75 in FY2011 to a high of 146 in FY2018 for a rate of 8.15 to 18.17. In FY2019, there was a decrease in both LabID events and community-onset cases to lows of 40 and 102, respectively. Inappropriate testing decreased by 84% from 50 in FY2011 to 8 in FY2019. Conclusions: A multidisciplinary team approach that included support from leadership and clinical providers as well as front line staff involvement, daily rounding, and case review by infection preventionists has reduced all CDI cases over an 8-year period using the modified VHA CDI bundle. TheraDoc enabled case review, correct isolation, changes to cleaning practices, and more appropriate lab testing. The antimicrobial stewardship program that includes clinical pharmacists working daily with providers was a strong driver for change.
SHEA endorses adhering to the recommendations by the CDC and ACIP for immunizations of all children and adults. All persons providing clinical care should be familiar with these recommendations and should routinely assess immunization compliance of their patients and strongly recommend all routine immunizations to patients. All healthcare personnel (HCP) should be immunized against vaccine-preventable diseases as recommended by the CDC/ACIP (unless immunity is demonstrated by another recommended method). SHEA endorses the policy that immunization should be a condition of employment or functioning (students, contract workers, volunteers, etc) at a healthcare facility. Only recognized medical contraindications should be accepted for not receiving recommended immunizations.
The extent to which Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) programs offer publicly accessible online resources for training in community-engaged research (CEnR) core competencies is unknown. This study cataloged publicly accessible online CEnR resources from CTSAs and mapped resources to CEnR core competency domains.
Following a search and review of the current literature regarding CEnR competencies, CEnR core competency domains were identified and defined. A systematic review of publicly accessible online CEnR resources from all 64 current CTSAs was conducted between July 2018 and May 2019. Resource content was independently reviewed by two reviewers and scored for the inclusion of each CEnR core competency domain. Domain scores across all resources were assessed using descriptive statistics.
Eight CEnR core competency domains were identified. Overall, 214 CEnR resources publicly accessible online from 35 CTSAs were eligible for review. Scoring discrepancies for at least one domain within a resource initially occurred in 51% of resources. “CEnR methods” (50.5%) and “Knowledge and relationships with communities” (40.2%) were the most frequently addressed domains, while “CEnR program evaluation” (12.1%) and “Dissemination and advocacy” (11.2%) were the least frequently addressed domains. Additionally, challenges were noted in navigating CTSA websites to access CEnR resources, and CEnR competency nomenclature was not standardized.
Our findings guide CEnR stakeholders to identify publicly accessible online resources and gaps to address in CEnR resource development. Standardized nomenclature for CEnR competency is needed for effective CEnR resource classification. Uniform organization of CTSA websites may maximize navigability.
Given the enormity of the field of personality assessment, it is beyond the scope of the present chapter to provide an exhaustive review of the many approaches to personality assessment in common use today. With entire books and peer-reviewed periodicals devoted to a variety of personality assessment instruments, a brief chapter such as this is necessarily limited in its coverage of the personality assessment domain. However, this chapter provides a comparison of the multidimensional personality assessment instruments constructed empirically using the empirical factor analytic methods advocated by Raymond B. Cattell and his colleagues (e.g., Cattell, 1973, 1978, 1983; Cattell & Kline, 1977; Hall, Lindzey & Campbell, 1998; cf., Boyle et al., 2016) with a variety of other multidimensional assessment instruments constructed using nonfactor analytic approaches including the construct-oriented methods advocated by Jackson (e.g., 1970, 1984, 1989, 1994, 2000).
We studied the compositional turnover in infracommunities and component communities of ecto- and endoparasites infesting a bat, Miniopterus natalensis (Chiroptera, Miniopteridae), across seven sampling sites using the zeta diversity metric (measuring similarity between multiple communities) and calculating zeta decline and retention rate (both scales) and zeta decay (component communities). We asked whether the patterns of zeta diversity differ between (a) infracommunities and component communities; (b) ecto- and endoparasites and (c) subsets of communities infecting male and female bats. The pattern of compositional turnover differed between infracommunities and component communities in endoparasites only. The shape of zeta decline for infracommunities indicated that there were approximately equal probabilities of ecto- and endoparasitic species to occur on/in any bat individual within a site. The shape of zeta decline for component communities suggested the stochasticity of ectoparasite turnover, whereas the turnover of endoparasites was driven by niche-based processes. Compositional turnover in component communities of ectoparasites was more spatially dependent than that of endoparasites. Spatial independence of compositional turnover in endoparasites was due to subcommunities harboured by female bats. We conclude that the patterns of compositional turnover in infracommunities were similar in ecto- and endoparasites, whereas the patterns of turnover in component communities differed between these groups.
Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms such as pain, heartburn, abdominal bloating, diarrhea, and constipation occur in most individuals at some time or another. Numerous diagnostic studies and medical interventions are available, but often the problems continue. Eager for relief, nearly half of all patients with chronic GI symptoms turn to the many “complementary” or “alternative” approaches available to the public . This chapter reviews the options that have undergone testing, and summarizes those that are most likely to be of clinical benefit based on the quality of the studies. Many of the alternative approaches have undergone one form or another of clinical trial, but most often the data was either of poor quality or the studies were poorly controlled. Table 9.1 lists those approaches that are low risk and may be beneficial or have some supportive evidence. Table 9.2 lists those approaches that are clinically interesting but have insufficient supportive data to make a recommendation.
The use of local knowledge observations to generate empirical wildlife resource exploitation data in data-poor, capacity-limited settings is increasing. Yet, there are few studies quantitatively examining their relationship with those made by researchers or natural resource managers. We present a case study comparing intra-annual patterns in effort and mobulid ray (Mobula spp.) catches derived from local knowledge and fisheries landings data at identical spatiotemporal scales in Zanzibar (Tanzania). The Bland–Altman approach to method comparison was used to quantify agreement, bias and precision between methods. Observations from the local knowledge of fishers and those led by researchers showed significant evidence of agreement, demonstrating the potential for local knowledge to act as a proxy, or complement, for researcher-led methods in assessing intra-annual patterns of wildlife resource exploitation. However, there was evidence of bias and low precision between methods, undermining any assumptions of equivalency. Our results underline the importance of considering bias and precision between methods as opposed to simply assessing agreement, as is commonplace in the literature. This case study demonstrates the value of rigorous method comparison in informing the appropriate use of outputs from different knowledge sources, thus facilitating the sustainable management of wildlife resources and the livelihoods of those reliant upon them.
When a patient in an in-patient psychiatric setting allegedly commits a crime, psychiatrists are sometimes asked to assess their fitness to be interviewed by the police. This article describes how to conduct this assessment, outlines the criminal justice process leading to police interviews (with particular reference to the legal system in England and Wales) and highlights practical issues to consider when assessing fitness to be interviewed in this context.
Air plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are used extensively throughout the gas turbine industry for both power and propulsion. As these engines push to higher temperatures, concern for failure from the melt infiltration of ingested siliceous debris [commonly called calcium–magnesium–alumino-silicate (CMAS)] arises, especially in aeroengines. 7 wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia is particularly prone to melt infiltration and stiffening-induced premature failure. Novel TBC materials such as gadolinium zirconate have been introduced for their infiltration-inhibiting CMAS reactions. Past academic work has utilized ideal laboratory furnace environments to study these phenomena. In this work, the influence of TBC microstructure and chemistry on impinging molten CMAS injected via a burner rig is studied. An observational study of the impacted surfaces and location-specific cross-sectional analysis is reported. Results point toward the critical role of surface microstructure on the mobility and reactivity of the molten CMAS.
Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) is an umbrella term for all drug and nondrug addictive behaviors, due to a dopamine deficiency, “hypodopaminergia.” There is an opioid-overdose epidemic in the USA, which may result in or worsen RDS. A paradigm shift is needed to combat a system that is not working. This shift involves the recognition of dopamine homeostasis as the ultimate treatment of RDS via precision, genetically guided KB220 variants, called Precision Behavioral Management (PBM). Recognition of RDS as an endophenotype and an umbrella term in the future DSM 6, following the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), would assist in shifting this paradigm.
Radiocarbon (14C) ages cannot provide absolutely dated chronologies for archaeological or paleoenvironmental studies directly but must be converted to calendar age equivalents using a calibration curve compensating for fluctuations in atmospheric 14C concentration. Although calibration curves are constructed from independently dated archives, they invariably require revision as new data become available and our understanding of the Earth system improves. In this volume the international 14C calibration curves for both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, as well as for the ocean surface layer, have been updated to include a wealth of new data and extended to 55,000 cal BP. Based on tree rings, IntCal20 now extends as a fully atmospheric record to ca. 13,900 cal BP. For the older part of the timescale, IntCal20 comprises statistically integrated evidence from floating tree-ring chronologies, lacustrine and marine sediments, speleothems, and corals. We utilized improved evaluation of the timescales and location variable 14C offsets from the atmosphere (reservoir age, dead carbon fraction) for each dataset. New statistical methods have refined the structure of the calibration curves while maintaining a robust treatment of uncertainties in the 14C ages, the calendar ages and other corrections. The inclusion of modeled marine reservoir ages derived from a three-dimensional ocean circulation model has allowed us to apply more appropriate reservoir corrections to the marine 14C data rather than the previous use of constant regional offsets from the atmosphere. Here we provide an overview of the new and revised datasets and the associated methods used for the construction of the IntCal20 curve and explore potential regional offsets for tree-ring data. We discuss the main differences with respect to the previous calibration curve, IntCal13, and some of the implications for archaeology and geosciences ranging from the recent past to the time of the extinction of the Neanderthals.
Social jetlag (SJ) occurs when sleep-timing irregularities from social or occupational demands conflict with endogenous sleep–wake rhythms. SJ is associated with evening chronotype and poor mental health, but mechanisms supporting this link remain unknown. Impaired ability to retrieve extinction memory is an emotion regulatory deficit observed in some psychiatric illnesses. Thus, SJ-dependent extinction memory deficits may provide a mechanism for poor mental health. To test this, healthy male college students completed 7–9 nights of actigraphy, sleep questionnaires, and a fear conditioning and extinction protocol. As expected, greater SJ, but not total sleep time discrepancy, was associated with poorer extinction memory. Unexpectedly, greater SJ was associated with a tendency toward morning rather than evening chronotype. These findings suggest that deficient extinction memory represents a potential mechanism linking SJ to psychopathology and that SJ is particularly problematic for college students with a greater tendency toward a morning chronotype.
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a devastating rare disease that affects individuals regardless of ethnicity, gender, and age. The first-approved disease-modifying therapy for SMA, nusinursen, was approved by Health Canada, as well as by American and European regulatory agencies following positive clinical trial outcomes. The trials were conducted in a narrow pediatric population defined by age, severity, and genotype. Broad approval of therapy necessitates close follow-up of potential rare adverse events and effectiveness in the larger real-world population.
The Canadian Neuromuscular Disease Registry (CNDR) undertook an iterative multi-stakeholder process to expand the existing SMA dataset to capture items relevant to patient outcomes in a post-marketing environment. The CNDR SMA expanded registry is a longitudinal, prospective, observational study of patients with SMA in Canada designed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of novel therapies and provide practical information unattainable in trials.
The consensus expanded dataset includes items that address therapy effectiveness and safety and is collected in a multicenter, prospective, observational study, including SMA patients regardless of therapeutic status. The expanded dataset is aligned with global datasets to facilitate collaboration. Additionally, consensus dataset development aimed to standardize appropriate outcome measures across the network and broader Canadian community. Prospective outcome studies, data use, and analyses are independent of the funding partner.
Prospective outcome data collected will provide results on safety and effectiveness in a post-therapy approval era. These data are essential to inform improvements in care and access to therapy for all SMA patients.