In Zimbabwe, catches of Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood and G. pallidipes Austen in traps baited with acetone and 1-octen-3-ol were increased by the addition of the synthetic mixture of eight phenols found in cattle urine to a level equal to or greater than those with natural urine. The addition of natural urine to the synthetic mixture did not increase catches further, indicating that the phenols account for essentially all the attractiveness of cattle urine. 4-Methylphenol and 3-n-propylphenol were shown to be the naturally-occurring components essential for attractiveness, and 2-methoxyphenol was found to reduce attractiveness. 4-Methylphenol alone was slightly attractive to both species, but only for males, increasing catches by approximately 30%. Catches of both species were increased by approximately 50% by 3-n-propylphenol. The addition of 4-methylphenol increased catches of G. pallidipes by up to a further four times, but catches of G. m. morsitans were decreased. Of 14 other phenols tested, phenol, 3-methylphenol and 4-ethylphenol increased the attractiveness of 3-n-propylphenol to G. pallidipes without decreasing the attractiveness to G. m. morsitans; (E)- and (Z)-3-(1-propenyl)phenol, potential contaminants in 3-n- propylphenol, did not reduce the attractiveness of mixtures of 3-n-propylphenol and 4-methylphenol, and the E and, to a lesser extent, the Z isomer could substitute for 3-n-pro-pylphenol in these mixtures. Mixtures of phenols which increased the attractiveness of traps to tsetse showed similar effects with targets but at a slightly reduced level.