To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In this work, the anodization of grade 2 titanium was performed using a HCl-based electrolyte in order to obtain Titania nanostructures. Different glycerol concentrations were added to the HCl electrolyte to study the effect it has on the shape and density of the nanostructures, additionally, anodization time and voltage was also varied. The anodized samples were observed by SEM microscopy and studied by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Raman spectroscopy and XRD showed the formation of the anatase phase of the TiO2. By SEM it was possible to observe several changes in the shape of the structures, by adding glycerol ball-like structures were visible, anodization time did not change the shape of the nanostructures. However, the voltage variation showed a clear control on the shape of the structures, forming nanotubes at higher voltages. It was concluded that a better control of the shape and density of the nanostructures is achieved by adding glycerol, however, in order to overcome the resistance that the electrolyte brings, higher voltages are required.
The Centro de Laseres Pulsados in Salamanca, Spain has recently started operation phase and the first user access period on the 6 J 30 fs 200 TW system (VEGA 2) already started at the beginning of 2018. In this paper we report on two commissioning experiments recently performed on the VEGA 2 system in preparation for the user campaign. VEGA 2 system has been tested in different configurations depending on the focusing optics and targets used. One configuration (long focal length
cm) is for underdense laser–matter interaction where VEGA 2 is focused onto a low density gas-jet generating electron beams (via laser wake field acceleration mechanism) with maximum energy up to 500 MeV and an X-ray betatron source with a 10 keV critical energy. A second configuration (short focal length
cm) is for overdense laser–matter interaction where VEGA 2 is focused onto a
thick Al target generating a proton beam with a maximum energy of 10 MeV and temperature of 2.5 MeV. In this paper we present preliminary experimental results.
A Q fever outbreak was declared in February 2016 in a company that manufactures hoists and chains and therefore with no apparent occupational-associated risk. Coxiella burnetii infection was diagnosed by serology in eight of the 29 workers of the company; seven of them had fever or flu-like signs and five had pneumonia, one requiring hospitalisation. A further case of C. burnetii pneumonia was diagnosed in a local resident. Real-time PCR (RTi–PCR) showed a widespread distribution of C. burnetii DNA in dust samples collected from the plant facilities, thus confirming the exposure of workers to the infection inside the factory. Epidemiological investigations identified a goat flock with high C. burnetii seroprevalence and active shedding which was owned and managed by one of the workers of the company as possible source of infection. Genotyping by multispacer sequence typing (MST) and a 10-loci single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discrimination using RTi–PCR identified the same genotype (MST18 and SNP type 8, respectively) in the farm and the factory. These results confirmed the link between the goat farm and the outbreak and allowed the identification of the source of infection. The circumstances and possible vehicles for the bacteria entering the factory are discussed.
The main goal of this work consisted in cloning, purifying and characterizing a protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) from promastigotes of Leishmania major. The gene was cloned and amplified by PCR using specific oligonucleotides and the recombinant protein was purified by affinity chromatography. The peak with maximal protein concentration was analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and revealed a protein of 44·9 kDa with PP2C activity. This activity was dependent on divalent cations (Mg+2 and Mn+2) and was optimal at pH of 8·5, using phosphothreonine as the substrate. Sanguinarine inhibited the activity of the recombinant LmPP2C, while protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors had no effect. The recombinant LmPP2C was used to generate polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies recognized a protein of 44·9 kDa in different Leishmania species; the LmPP2C was localized in the flagellar pocket and the flagellum of promastigotes.
Disk galaxies in cosmological numerical simulations grow by accreting gas from the cosmic web. This gas reaches the external disk, and then spirals in dragged along by tidal forces and/or disk instabilities. The importance of gas infall is as clear from numerical simulations as it is obscure to observations. Extremely metal poor (XMP) galaxies seem to be the best example we have of the gas accretion process at work. They have large off-center starbursts which show significant metallicity drop compared with the host galaxy. This observation is naturally explained as a gas accretion event caught in the act. We present preliminary results of the kinematical properties of the metal poor starbursts in XMPs, which suggest that the starbursts are kinematically decoupled entities within the host galaxy.
In humans, maximum brain development occurs between the third trimester of gestation and 2 years of life. Nutrition during these critical windows of rapid brain development might be essential for later cognitive functioning and behaviour. In the last few years, trends on protein recommendations during infancy and childhood have tended to be lower than that in the past. It remains to be demonstrated that lower protein intakes among healthy infants, a part of being able to reduce obesity risk, is safe in terms of mental performance achievement. Secondary analyses of the EU CHOP, a clinical trial in which infants from five European countries were randomised to be fed a higher or a lower protein content formula during the 1st year of life. Children were assessed at the age of 8 years with a neuropsychological battery of tests that included assessments of memory (visual and verbal), attention (visual, selective, focused and sustained), visual-perceptual integration, processing speed, visual-motor coordination, verbal fluency and comprehension, impulsivity/inhibition, flexibility/shifting, working memory, reasoning, visual-spatial skills and decision making. Internalising, externalising and total behaviour problems were assessed using the Child Behaviour Checklist 4–18. Adjusted analyses considering factors that could influence neurodevelopment, such as parental education level, maternal smoking, child’s gestational age at birth and head circumference, showed no differences between feeding groups in any of the assessed neuropsychological domains and behaviour. In summary, herewith we report on the safety of lower protein content in infant formulae (closer to the content of human milk) according to long-term mental performance.
This paper aims to present the Integrated Atlas of Mental Health of Catalonia (2010) focusing on: (a) the importance of using a taxonomy-based coding and standard system of data collection when assessing health services; and (b) its relevance as a tool for evidence-informed policy.
This study maps all the care-related services for people with mental disorders available in Catalonia in 2010, using the ‘Description and Evaluation of Services and Directories in Europe for long-term care’ (DESDE-LTC). The unit of analysis is the Basic Stable Input of Care (BSIC), which is the minimal organisation unit composed by a set of inputs with temporal stability. We presented data on: (a) availability of BSICs and their capacity; (b) the adequacy of the provision of care, taking into account availability and accessibility; (c) the evolution of BSCIs from 2002 to 2010; and (d) the perceived relevance of Atlas of Mental Health as a tool for evidence-informed policy.
We identified a total of 639 BSICs. A lack of Health services was detected in highly rural areas, although there was moderate availability of Social Services. Overall, more than 80% of the small mental health areas in Catalonia had an adequate core mental health service. Since 2002 the availability of mental health services has increased. Decision makers found the Atlas a useful and relevant tool for evidence informed policy.
Policy makers can use Atlases to detect gaps and inequities in the provision of care for people with mental health needs.
Networks of protected areas are one of the main strategies used to address the biodiversity crisis. These should encompass as many species and ecosystems as possible, particularly in territories with high biological diversity, such as the Spanish arid zones. We produce a priority ranking of the arid zones of south-east Spain according to the rarity and richness of their characteristic flora and the level of endangerment. The resulting hierarchy shows that optimal zones for the preservation of the flora are located outside the network of protected areas. In particular, it is important to extend the network and encourage the creation of microreserves in the depression of the River Guadiana Menor (Granada), where there is least protection. This river valley is a particularly important arid site because of its unique flora and fauna, and palaeontological and archaeological findings.
The roll of lubricants in the cold-drawn process is very important to obtain a good quality on the surface of aluminum and copper wires. The viscosity of a lubricant is closely related to its ability to reduce friction. When the viscosity of a lubricant is too low, the lubricated component will have inadequate protection and will therefore be subject to excessive wear. When the viscosity of the lubricant is too high, the lubricated component will expend additional energy to complete its task. In this work, the rheology behavior of traditional lubricants for the cold drawn of Al and Cu is determined from experimental data of viscosity Vs shear rate. To evaluate the efficiency of each lubricant, the roughness surface of each wire is measured by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). In this way a minimum of roughness in wires corresponds to the viscosity required for each cold-drawn process. It is known that different lubricants are used for the cold drawn of Al and Cu. In this work, a new lubricant developed with the aim to be used in both process is characterized by FTIR, rheometer analysis and AFM. Results have indicated that, this new lubricant with a low viscosity that promotes a lower energy process, also decreases the roughness of Al and Cu wires compared with conventional lubricants, i.e.it has an important influence in the quality of the wires surface. This means that this new lubricant could be used during the process of both metals without making important changes, which means low operations costs and flexibility for the manufacturing plant.
This paper describes the origin of the Colombian Creole breeds, in particular the formation of one of these, the Horned Coastal Creole (CCC) cattle. It outlines the ecological environment where it has flourished, and the history of the foundation of the conservation herd that the Colombian government has maintained since 1936 in one of its research stations, Turipaná, located at the town of Cereté in Córdoba department. Additionally we detail the breed's principal external, physiological and genetic characteristics, with special emphasis on the research results as regards growth and milk production traits. We conclude that the CCC, because of its adaptation to the humid tropic environment, is an important genetic resource to produce in a sustainable, competitive and ‘green’ way, especially in extensive systems with low external inputs.
The genotype of HCV was determined in 161 chronic HCV-infected patients. The patients were classified into three groups on the basis of the origin of the HCV infection: 50 patients had a history of intravenous drug use (IVDU) but no HIV infection; 41 patients had received blood transfusions, and 70 patients had no known exposure. The distribution of HCV genotypes was associated with the origin of infection and age of patients: genotype 1b was predominant among patients who had received blood transfusions and those without evidence of parenteral exposure (84·6% and 67·7%, respectively), whereas genotype 3a was present in 65·3% of IVDUs. Patients with genotype 1b were older than those with genotypes la or 3a: 50·3 ± 12 vs. 34·1±9·9 and 31 ± 5.4 years, respectively. These findings suggest that the pattern of HCV genotypes in our region is changing and that genotype 1b may be substituted by 3a as the dominant genotype in the future.
Cyclodextrin (CD) has been studied intensively due to its ability to form inclusion complexes with a variety of guest molecules in the solid state. A few studies have paid attention to the use of CD to facilitate the synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles. In this work the synthesis of magnetite (M) is made in the presence of CD. The particle size of the inorganic material is controlled by the presence of CD, in which spherical particles of few nanometers are grown. The synthesis of Fe3O4 (M) in the presence of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) and β-cyclodextrin (βCD) is described. The formation of an M-CD complex is studied in both cases by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) in order to elucidate the chemical bonding of the complex. The morphology and size of the particles are determined by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and software. X-ray diffraction (XRD) is used to confirm the formation of magnetite.
We determined the rate of nosocomial viral respiratory infection in infants and the effect of an infection control program during 4 winter seasons. The rate of nosocomial viral respiratory infection decreased from 6.09 episodes per 100 patients admitted during the first study year to 1.46 episodes per 100 patients admitted during the last study year.
We have studied blends of poly-(3-octylthiophene) (P3OT) and graphitic nanoparticles by macroscopic transport measurements, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Force Microscopy (SFM) techniques. Their morphology as well as their mechanical and electrical properties have been characterized on a nanometer scale as a function of the carbon nanoparticle concentration in the blend. For intermediate concentrations (5–10% wt. of carbon nanoparticles) the samples present regions of pure poly-(3-octylthiophene) and round regions of polymer and carbon nanoparticles mixture, while for higher concentrations (>15% wt.) the whole sample is composed of this mixture. The interface between both regions is studied by Electrostatic Scanning Force Microscopy as a function of the applied tip-sample voltage finding evidence for the creation of new electronic states at the heterojunction. TEM images show crystalline domains of P3OT surrounded by amorphous regions. XRD measurements show that the crystallinity of the polymer increases when carbon nanoparticle concentration increases. The potential of this blends to improve the performance of organic solar cells when used as active layer is discussed.
We present the more relevant results of various cationic substitutions in the RuSr2GdCu2O8 (Ru-1:2:1:2 ) compound. The substitutions were synthesized by solid-state reaction at ambient pressure in the following systems: Ru1−xSr2GdCu2+xO8 (0.0 < x < 1.0), Ru(Sr2-xCax)GdCu2O8 (0 < x < 2.0) and RuSr2(Gd1-xLnx)Cu2O8 (0 < x < 0.9) with Ln = Dy, Ho, Er, Yb and Lu. All of them were isostructural to Ru-1:2:1:2 compound with tetragonal unit cells. The phases have been characterized by X-Ray powder Diffraction (XRD), observing a solid solution (ss ) up to x = 0.4 for Ru ions replaced by Cu ions, x = 0.1 when we substitute Sr atoms by Ca atoms, and x = 0.7 changing Gd ions by Ln ions. As a result of the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), the grain sizes were discovered to be 1 – 10 μm. The Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis permitted us to analyze the impurities that we did not detect with XRD. We observed semiconducting, isolated and ferromagnetic behaviors. No superconducting transition could be observed for these ambient preparation conditions.