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A fibre withdrawn from a bath of a dilute particulate suspension exhibits different coating regimes depending on the physical properties of the fluid, the withdrawal speed, the particle sizes and the radius of the fibre. Our experiments indicate that only the liquid without particles is entrained for thin coating films. Beyond a threshold capillary number, the fibre is coated by a liquid film with entrained particles. We systematically characterize the role of the capillary number, the particle size and the fibre radius on the threshold speed for particle entrainment. We discuss the boundary between these two regimes and show that the thickness of the liquid film at the stagnation point controls the entrainment process. The radius of the fibre provides a new degree of control in capillary filtering, allowing greater control over the size of the particles entrained in the film.
Étudier la qualité de vie liée à la santé (QVS) et ses déterminants chez des adolescents consultant pour syndrome de Gilles de la Tourette (SGT).
Après hétéro-évaluation par la YGTSS et la CY-BOCS, la QVS des adolescents était mesurée à l’aide de 3 questionnaires d’autoévaluation (SF-36, VSP-A, CHAQ). Des contrôles appariés sur l’âge et le sexe ont rempli les mêmes questionnaires. Les parents des patients et des contrôles ont renseigné les questionnaires sociodémographique et médical, la CBCL et deux hétéroévaluations de la QVS des adolescents (VSP P et CHAQ parents). Tous les participants avaient donné leur consentement éclairé.
Pour les 75 adolescents (14,8 ans, DS = 1,8 ; 80 % de garçons) inclus, le score YGTSS moyen était de 33,9 (DS = 20). Pour la CBCL, le score total, les scores symptômes internalisés et symptômes externalisés étaient limites/pathologiques pour 39,4 %, 52,1 % et 33,3 % des adolescents respectivement. La QVS des adolescents SGT était significativement altérée comparée aux contrôles pour toutes les dimensions de la SF-36, pour les dimensions vitalité, relations avec les pairs et loisirs de la VSP A et pour le score total de la CHAQ. On retrouvait des corrélations négatives significatives entre les scores Tics moteurs et sévérité globale de la YGTSS et les dimensions psychologiques et sociales du SF-36, une corrélation positive entre le score Tics vocaux de la YGTSS et le score total à la CHAQ. Les adolescents avec des scores CBCL total et symptômes internalisés limites/pathologiques avaient des scores significativement plus bas sur plusieurs dimensions de QVS.
Les dimensions physiques, psychologiques et sociales de la QVS sont altérées chez les adolescents SGT. La sévérité des tics, les difficultés émotionnelles et comportementales ont un impact négatif sensible sur les dimensions physiques, psychologiques et sociales de la QVS chez les adolescents SGT.
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) canola is a widely grown crop across western Canada and has quickly become a prolific volunteer weed. Glyphosate-resistant soybean is rapidly gaining acreage in western Canada. Thus, there is a need to evaluate herbicide options to manage volunteer GR canola in GR soybean crops. We conducted an experiment to evaluate the efficacy of various PRE and POST herbicides applied sequentially to volunteer GR canola and to evaluate soybean injury caused by these herbicides. Trials were conducted across Saskatchewan and Manitoba in 2014 and 2015. All treatments provided a range of suppression (>70%) to control (>80%) of volunteer canola. All treatments with the exception of the glyphosate-treated control reduced aboveground canola biomass by an average of 96%. As well, canola seed contamination was reduced from 36% to less than 5% when a PRE and POST herbicide were both used. Moreover, all combinations of herbicides used had excellent crop safety (<10%). All PRE and POST herbicide combinations provided better control of volunteer canola compared with the glyphosate-only control, but tribenuron followed by bentazon and tribenuron followed by imazamox plus bentazon provided solutions that were low cost, currently available (registered in western Canada), and had the potential to minimize development of herbicide resistance in other weeds.
Associations between different forms of malnutrition and environmental conditions, including water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), may contribute towards persistently poor child health, growth and cognitive development. Experiencing poor nutrition in utero or during early childhood is furthermore associated with chronic diseases later in life. The primary responsibility for provision of water and sanitation, as a basic service and human right, lies with the State; however, a number of stakeholders are involved. The situation is most critical in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where, in 2015, 311 million people lacked a safe water source, and >70% of SSA populations were living without adequate sanitation. The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review to investigate the state of literature concerned with WASH and its association with nutritional status, and governance in children from birth to 5 years of age in SSA. Articles were sourced from PubMed Central, Science Direct and ProQuest Social Science databases published between 1990 and 2017. The PRISMA Statement was utilised and this systematic review is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42017071700). The search terms returned 15,351 articles for screening, with 46 articles included. This is indicative of a limited body of knowledge; however, the number of publications on this topic has been increasing, suggesting burgeoning field of interest. Targeted research on the governance of WASH through the identification of the various role players and stakeholders at various levels, while understanding the policy environment in relation to particular health-related outcomes is imperative to address the burden of child undernutrition.
In recent years, soybean acreage has increased significantly in western Canada. One of the challenges associated with growing soybean in western Canada is the control of volunteer glyphosate-resistant (GR) canola, because most soybean cultivars are also glyphosate resistant. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of soybean seeding rate and planting date on competition with volunteer canola. We also attempted to determine how high seeding rate could be raised while still being economically feasible for producers. Soybean was seeded at five different seeding rates (targeted 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 plants m−2) and three planting dates (targeted mid-May, late May, and early June) at four sites across western Canada in 2014 and 2015. Soybean yield consistently increased with higher seeding rates, whereas volunteer canola biomass decreased. Planting date generally produced variable results across site-years. An economic analysis determined that the optimal rate was 40 to 60 plants m−2, depending on market price, and the optimal planting date range was from May 20 to June 1.
This study discusses the investigation of a series of pit-kilns in and around the prehispanic site of Kiuic in the Puuc region of the northern Maya lowlands and presents the multiple lines of evidence that identify these structures as lime production features. The study reports the results of systematic excavations, archaeometric analyses, archaeological experiments, ethnographic inquiries, and spatial analyses. Burnt lime has been used for architectural, dietary, hygienic, and other purposes by the Maya for at least three millennia and yet its importance in prehispanic Maya society is belied by the lack of lime production features identified in the archaeological record. The identification of these structures as lime production features has implications for understanding subregional differences in socioeconomic organization and resource management practices among the prehispanic Maya. This report provides a model for using multiple methods and analyses to investigate and identify lime production kilns that can be applied to societies and landscapes throughout the Maya area and the broader premodern world.
The house mouse (Mus musculus) and the black rat (Rattus rattus) are reservoir hosts for zoonotic pathogens, several of which cause neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Studies of the prevalence of these NTD-causing zoonotic pathogens, in house mice and black rats from tropical residential areas are scarce. Three hundred and two house mice and 161 black rats were trapped in 2013 from two urban neighbourhoods and a rural village in Yucatan, Mexico, and subsequently tested for Trypanosoma cruzi, Hymenolepis diminuta and Leptospira interrogans. Using the polymerase chain reaction we detected T. cruzi DNA in the hearts of 4·9% (8/165) and 6·2% (7/113) of house mice and black rats, respectively. We applied the sedimentation technique to detect eggs of H. diminuta in 0·5% (1/182) and 14·2% (15/106) of house mice and black rats, respectively. Through the immunofluorescent imprint method, L. interrogans was identified in 0·9% (1/106) of rat kidney impressions. Our results suggest that the black rat could be an important reservoir for T. cruzi and H. diminuta in the studied sites. Further studies examining seasonal and geographical patterns could increase our knowledge on the epidemiology of these pathogens in Mexico and the risk to public health posed by rodents.
One view of major Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events is that these (proton-dominated) fluxes are accelerated in heliospheric shock sources created by Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs), and then travel mainly along interplanetary magnetic field lines connecting the shock(s) to the observer(s). This places a particular emphasis on the role of the heliospheric conditions during the event, requiring a realistic description of the latter to interpret and/or model SEP events. The well-known ENLIL heliospheric simulation with cone model generated ICME shocks is used together with the SEPMOD particle event modeling scheme to demonstrate the value of applying these concepts at multiple inner heliosphere sites.
Urban slum environments in the tropics are conducive to the proliferation and the spread of rodent-borne zoonotic pathogens to humans. Calodium hepaticum (Brancroft, 1893) is a zoonotic nematode known to infect a variety of mammalian hosts, including humans. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are considered the most important mammalian host of C. hepaticum and are therefore a potentially useful species to inform estimates of the risk to humans living in urban slum environments. There is a lack of studies systematically evaluating the role of demographic and environmental factors that influence both carriage and intensity of infection of C. hepaticum in rodents from urban slum areas within tropical regions. Carriage and the intensity of infection of C. hepaticum were studied in 402 Norway rats over a 2-year period in an urban slum in Salvador, Brazil. Overall, prevalence in Norway rats was 83% (337/402). Independent risk factors for C. hepaticum carriage in R. norvegicus were age and valley of capture. Of those infected the proportion with gross liver involvement (i.e. >75% of the liver affected, a proxy for a high level intensity of infection), was low (8%, 26/337). Sixty soil samples were collected from ten locations to estimate levels of environmental contamination and provide information on the potential risk to humans of contracting C. hepaticum from the environment. Sixty percent (6/10) of the sites were contaminated with C. hepaticum. High carriage levels of C. hepaticum within Norway rats and sub-standard living conditions within slum areas may increase the risk to humans of exposure to the infective eggs of C. hepaticum. This study supports the need for further studies to assess whether humans are becoming infected within this community and whether C. hepaticum is posing a significant risk to human health.
Introduction: Multiples barriers to appropriate analgesia are reported in the paediatric emergency department (PED), including limited accessibility to effective strategies. Our objective: was to evaluate the improvement in the accessibility of pain and anxiety management strategies in Canadian PEDs, after the creation of a national pediatric pain Quality Improvement Collaborative (QIC), through Pediatric Emergency Research Canada (PERC). Methods: In 2013, the TRAPPED 1 survey was administered to Canadian PEDs, in order to evaluate what resources were in place for pain and anxiety management. A pain QIC was then created to stimulate the implementation of new strategies, through information sharing between PEDs. In 2015, the TRAPPED 2 cross sectional survey was administered. Its focus was to evaluate the improvement in the accessibility of specific strategies reported by each centre, after participating in this QIC, and working to implement change within their own PEDs. Results: All 15/15 Canadian PEDs responded to the TRAPPED 1 survey in 2013 and 11 agreed to participate in the national pain QIC. In-person, phone meetings, follow up surveys and email communications were employed for information sharing. Strategies identified by the QIC to be newly introduced in individual centres were educational initiatives, distraction options, nurse-initiated protocols and intranasal (IN) medications. All 15 PEDs completed the TRAPPED 2 survey. Compared to 2013, an increased number of PEDs used face-based pain scales (14/15 vs 6/15) and behavioural scales (5/15 vs 1/15) for pain assessment in 2015. Use of reminder posters on pain management at triage increased from 4/15 to 6/15 PEDs. Availability of tablets for distraction increased from 4/15 to 10/15 PEDs. Nurse-initiated protocols for topical anesthetic and oral sucrose (for needle procedures) increased from 10/15 to 12/15 sites and from 12/15 to 14/15 sites respectively. Availability of IN medications increased; fentanyl from 9/15 to 14/15 sites and midazolam from 8/15 to 10/15 sites. Ten of the 11 PEDs involved in the QIC strategy reported the implementation of at least one of their own identified strategies. Conclusion: This study suggests that the use of a QIC may improve the introduction of new strategies to reduce pain and anxiety in EDs. QICs may also be helpful to other centres when introducing new strategies.
The terminal lake systems of central Australia are key sites for the reconstruction of late Quaternary paleoenvironments. Paleoshoreline deposits around these lakes reflect repeated lake filling episodes and such landforms have enabled the establishment of a luminescence-based chronology for filling events in previous studies. Here we present a detailed documentation of the morphology and chemistry of soils developed in four well-preserved beach ridges of late Pleistocene and mid-to-late Holocene age at Lake Callabonna to assess changes in dominant pedogenic processes. All soil profiles contain evidence for the incorporation of eolian-derived material, likely via the formation of desert pavements and vesicular horizons, and limited illuviation due to generally shallow wetting fronts. Even though soil properties in the four studied profiles also provide examples of parent material influence or site-specific processes related to the geomorphic setting, there is an overall trend of increasing enrichment of eolian-derived material since at least ~ 33 ka. Compared to the Holocene profiles, the derived average accumulation rates for the late Pleistocene profiles are significantly lower and may suggest that soils record important regional changes in paleoenvironments and dust dynamics related to shifts in the Southern Hemisphere westerlies.
To explore current practices and decision making regarding antimicrobial prescribing among emergency department (ED) clinical providers.
We conducted a survey of ED providers recruited from 8 sites in 3 cities. Using purposeful sampling, we then recruited 21 providers for in-depth interviews. Additionally, we observed 10 patient-provider interactions at one of the ED sites. SAS 9.3 was used for descriptive and predictive statistics. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using a thematic, constructivist approach with consensus coding using NVivo 10.0. Field and interview notes collected during the observational study were aligned with themes identified through individual interviews.
Of 150 survey respondents, 76% agreed or strongly agreed that antibiotics are overused in the ED, while half believed they personally did not overprescribe. Eighty-nine percent used a smartphone or tablet in the ED for antibiotic prescribing decisions. Several significant differences were found between attending and resident physicians. Interview analysis identified 42 codes aggregated into the following themes: (1) resource and environmental factors that affect care; (2) access to and quality of care received outside of the ED consult; (3) patient-provider relationships; (4) clinical inertia; and (5) local knowledge generation. The observational study revealed limited patient understanding of antibiotic use. Providers relied heavily upon diagnostics and provided limited education to patients. Most patients denied a priori expectations of being prescribed antibiotics.
Patient, provider, and healthcare system factors should be considered when designing interventions to improve antimicrobial stewardship in the ED setting.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014;35(9):1114-1125
Context: we present a study of the central 200 pc of NGC 6951, in the optical and NIR, taken with the Gemini North Telescope integral field spectrographs, with resolution of ~ 0”.1 Methods: we used a set of image processing techniques, as the filtering of high spatial and spectral frequencies, Richardson-Lucy deconvolution and PCA Tomography (Steiner et al.2009) to map the distribution and kinematics of the emission lines. Results: we found a thick molecular disk, with the ionization cone highly misaligned.
Silver thin films are used as a functional layer in many applications such as low-emissivity and solar control coatings on glass for insulating windows, as well as transparent conducting electrodes for OLEDs and PV. For these applications, the conductivity of the film is critical; it is linked to the crystallinity and the grain size of silver layers which thickness ranges from 5 to 15nm. Such coatings often undergo thermal treatments up to 700°C aimed at toughening the glass substrate or improving the coating itself by promoting grain growth and curing point defects. This treatment can however dramatically damage the silver layer by inducing the formation of defects in the layer, such as holes or silver domes, decreasing both conductivity and light transmission of the coatings. Because of the extreme thinness of the films (less than 15 nm), the investigation of these phenomena requires in situ imaging at the nanoscale. In this study, grain growth and defects formation were observed in 15 nm-thick Ag films encapsulated with zinc oxide and silicon nitride using Transmission Electron Microscopy with in-situ heating from ambient temperature to 600°C. Significant grain growth was found to occur only from 400°C, and from 500°C holes in the silver layer started to form and grow, as well as thick silver domes formed by dewetting. Irradiation by the electron beam was also found to cause grain growth.
The electrical heating of Ni/Al laminate foils allows interrogation of phenomena at heating rates as high as 10^12 K/s. In the 2011 Fall MRS meeting, we reported on emission spectra from rapidly heated Ni/Al laminates resolved temporally over 350 ns, which provided qualitative evidence of rapid and exothermic vapor phase mixing of Ni and Al in these experiments which we term electrical explosions. These results were significant, because thermal diffusion processes normally limit Ni/Al reactions to much slower energy release rates, potentially limiting their applications. Here we present further evidence of exothermic Ni/Al mixing, quantified by experimental velocity measurements of encapsulation material and interpreted by numerical calculations of energy partitioning into different processes. These calculations agreed well with experiments from different Al, Cu, and Ni samples, sputter-deposited and lithographically patterned into bow-tie bridge structures. Velocity measurements of up to 5 km/s for 11.5 μm thick parylene encapsulation layers were accurately predicted using a single, empirical fitting parameter which depended on the electrical circuit used. The calculations also agreed with encapsulation layers accelerated by electrically exploded Ni/Al laminates as long as an additional 1.2 kJ/g of energy was included in the model. This value is precisely the enthalpy of mixing between Ni and Al, and therefore quantifies the transduction of energy into encapsulation layer kinetic energy.
The ‘ethnic density hypothesis' is a proposition that members of ethnic minority groups may have better mental health when they live in areas with higher proportions of people of the same ethnicity. Investigations into this hypothesis have resulted in a complex and sometimes disparate literature.
To systematically identify relevant studies, summarise their findings and discuss potential explanations of the associations found between ethnic density and mental disorders.
A narrative review of studies published up to January 2011, identified through a systematic search strategy. Studies included have a defined ethnic minority sample; some measure of ethnic density defined at a geographical scale smaller than a nation or a US state; and a measure ascertaining mental health or disorder.
A total of 34 papers from 29 data-sets were identified. Protective associations between ethnic density and diagnosis of mental disorders were most consistent in older US ecological studies of admission rates. Among more recent multilevel studies, there was some evidence of ethnic density being protective against depression and anxiety for African American people and Hispanic adults in the USA. However, Hispanic, Asian–American and Canadian ‘visible minority’ adolescents have higher levels of depression at higher ethnic densities. Studies in the UK showed mixed results, with evidence for protective associations most consistent for psychoses.
The most consistent associations with ethnic density are found for psychoses. Ethnic density may also protect against other mental disorders, but presently, as most studies of ethnic density have limited statistical power, and given the heterogeneity of their study designs, our conclusions can only be tentative.