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The following paper presents detailed aerodynamic data of a Scottish Aviation Bulldog light aircraft. The data is taken from the pre-stall region of the aircraft flight envelope through two flight test methods and from a geometrically accurate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the full scale aircraft, which was meshed in Ansys ICEM CFD and solved in Ansys Fluent. The fidelity of the CFD model was achieved by development of a CATIA solid model with surfaces matching a spatial point cloud of the aircraft taken using a 3D laser scanner. Following a CFD verification process, a 3·4m hybrid mesh with a Spalart-Allmaras (SA) turbulence model was found to give the best overall lift and drag characteristics. Further detailed comparisons with the glide flight test data showed the CFD drag polar to have 63% lower zero lift drag, although this discrepancy was related to the simplification of the original CATIA surface model, which excluded the undercarriage, aerials and other protuberance drags. Inclusion of estimates of these sources of drag resulted in a match in zero lift drag to within 15% and a maximum lift to drag of 10:1 which was within 11% of the glide flight test result. The remaining drag discrepancy is attributed to other effects including trim drag and the surface finish of the actual aircraft.
The established control anticipation parameter longitudinal handling qualities criterion is based on the assumption that the short term dynamic response of the aeroplane is classical, or second-order-like. Modern fly-by-wire aircraft often have longitudinal short term dynamics which are not second-order-like and to which it is difficult to apply the criterion. This paper presents a proposed generic control anticipation parameter which is a modified version of the control anticipation parameter and which may be applicable to both unaugmented and augmented aircraft of all types. The appropriateness of the modified criterion was illustrated by designing a number of command and stability augmentation control laws, constrained to meet the criterion, for application to a medium weight fly-by-wire civil transport aircraft. The handling characteristics conferred by the control laws were assessed in a series of flight simulator trials, the results of which are briefly presented.
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