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In a crossover trial, a gown designed to increase skin coverage at the hands and wrists significantly reduced contamination of personnel during personal protective equipment (PPE) removal, and education on donning and doffing technique further reduced contamination. Simple modifications of PPE and education can reduce contamination during PPE removal.
The study uses interval regression to investigate factors affecting farmers’ willingness to pay for soil testing services in Northern Haiti. The model reveals that factors such as the type of crops grown, group membership, farmers’ educational level, access to credit, gender, contact with extension services or any institution, type of soils, income level, participation in soil testing program and farm size affect the amount to be paid for soil testing services. These results imply that the training module on soil testing and financial support in form of subsidies or access to credit should be provided to farmers.
In a randomized trial, a gown designed to allow easy removal at the neck and with increased skin coverage and snugness of fit at the wrist significantly reduced contamination of personnel during personal protective equipment (PPE) removal. Our results suggest that simple modifications of PPE can reduce contamination of personnel.
At weaning, piglets must adapt to considerable changes in their environmental, immunological, and nutritional status. This period of adaptation is accompanied by a reduction in piglet growth rate that has been associated with the shift from sow’s milk to a solid dry diet. Consequently, feeding management strategies that result in increased feed intake may increase piglet growth rate postweaning. This study evaluated the effects of providing feed as a gruel and feeding on floor mats on piglet performance for three weeks after weaning
When emptying finishing barns, it is common practice on U.S. operations to dispatch pigs over a two- to three-week period with the heaviest animals being selected first. However, there has been little research carried out under commercial conditions on the effect of removing pigs from a pen at slaughter weight on the performance of the remaining animals. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of removing the heaviest 30% of animals from a pen on the subsequent growth performance of the remaining pigs.
Wean-to-finish production, which involves taking pigs from weaning to slaughter in the same building, is becoming widely adopted in the US swine industry. This production system is being advocated largely because of claims of improved animal performance and a decrease in labor needed for animal movement compared to conventional multiple-stage systems. One of the potential disadvantages of this system is the considerable underutilization of floor space during the early growth period if pigs are penned in the group sizes that are appropriate for finishing pigs. However, increasing the stocking rate initially at weaning, with some of these pigs subsequently being moved to another finishing facility, may increase output from the system. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate effects of initial stocking rate and of feeder-trough space in commercial wean-to-finish facilities on pig performance from weaning to slaughter.
An ethanol-based spray disinfectant significantly reduced bacteriophage MS2 contamination on material from gowns meeting ASTM standard 1671 for resistance to blood and viral penetration and on a cover gown worn by personnel. Effectiveness of disinfection was affected by the type of gown material and the correctness of fit.
Anxiety disorders are common, and cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) is a first-line treatment. Candidate gene studies have suggested a genetic basis to treatment response, but findings have been inconsistent.
To perform the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of psychological treatment response in children with anxiety disorders (n = 980).
Presence and severity of anxiety was assessed using semi-structured interview at baseline, on completion of treatment (post-treatment), and 3 to 12 months after treatment completion (follow-up). DNA was genotyped using the Illumina Human Core Exome-12v1.0 array. Linear mixed models were used to test associations between genetic variants and response (change in symptom severity) immediately post-treatment and at 6-month follow-up.
No variants passed a genome-wide significance threshold (P=5×10–8) in either analysis. Four variants met criteria for suggestive significance (P<5×10–6) in association with response post-treatment, and three variants in the 6-month follow-up analysis.
This is the first genome-wide therapygenetic study. It suggests no common variants of very high effect underlie response to CBT. Future investigations should maximise power to detect single-variant and polygenic effects by using larger, more homogeneous cohorts.
Hospital floors are frequently contaminated with pathogens, but it is not known whether floors are a potential source of transmission. We demonstrated that a nonpathogenic virus inoculated onto floors in hospital rooms disseminated rapidly to the hands of patients and to high-touch surfaces inside and outside the room.
The nutrient choline is necessary for membrane synthesis and methyl donation, with increased requirements during lactation. The majority of immune development occurs postnatally, but the importance of choline supply for immune development during this critical period is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the importance of maternal supply of choline during suckling on immune function in their offspring among rodents. At parturition, Sprague–Dawley dams were randomised to either a choline-devoid (ChD; n 7) or choline-sufficient (ChS, 1 g/kg choline; n 10) diet with their offspring euthanised at 3 weeks of age. In a second experiment, offspring were weaned to a ChS diet until 10 weeks of age (ChD-ChS, n 5 and ChS-ChS, n 9). Splenocytes were isolated, and parameters of immune function were measured. The ChD offspring received less choline in breast milk and had lower final body and organ weight compared with ChS offspring (P<0·05), but this effect disappeared by week 10 with choline supplementation from weaning. ChD offspring had a higher proportion of T cells expressing activation markers (CD71 or CD28) and a lower proportion of total B cells (CD45RA+) and responded less to T cell stimulation (lower stimulation index and less IFN-γ production) ex vivo (P<0·05). ChD-ChS offspring had a lower proportion of total and activated CD4+ T cells, and produced less IL-6 after mitogen stimulation compared with cells from ChS-ChS (P<0·05). Our study suggests that choline is required in the suckling diet to facilitate immune development, and choline deprivation during this critical period has lasting effects on T cell function later in life.
In an experimental study, the frequency of contamination of healthcare personnel during removal of contaminated personal protective equipment (PPE) was similar for bacteriophage MS2 and a novel reflective marker visualized using flash photography. The reflective marker could be a useful tool to visualize and document personnel contamination during PPE removal.
To determine the effect of variation in test methods on performance of an ultraviolet-C (UV-C) room decontamination device.
We compared the efficacy of 2 UV-C room decontamination devices with low pressure mercury gas bulbs. For 1 of the devices, we evaluated the effect of variation in spreading of the inoculum, carrier orientation relative to the device, type of organic load, type of carrier, height of carrier, and uninterrupted versus interrupted exposures on measured UV-C killing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile spores.
The 2 UV-C room decontamination devices achieved similar log10 colony-forming unit reductions in the pathogens with exposure times ranging from 5 to 40 minutes. On steel carriers, spreading of the inoculum over a larger surface area significantly enhanced killing of both pathogens, such that a 10-minute exposure on a 22-mm2 disk resulted in greater than 2 log reduction in C. difficile spores. Orientation of carriers in parallel rather than perpendicular with the UV-C lamps significantly enhanced killing of both pathogens. Different types of organic load also significantly affected measured organism reductions, whereas type of carrier, variation in carrier height, and interrupted exposure cycles did not.
Variation in test methods can significantly impact measured reductions in pathogens by UV-C devices during experimental testing. Our findings highlight the need for standardized laboratory methods for testing the efficacy of UV-C devices and for evaluations of the efficacy of short UV-C exposure times in real-world settings.
In an observational study, we found that healthcare personnel frequently acquired Clostridium difficile on their hands when caring for patients with recently resolved C. difficile infection (CDI) (<6 weeks after treatment) who were no longer under contact precautions. Continuing contact precautions after diarrhea resolves may be useful to reduce transmission.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(4):475–477
Between 1910 and 1970, millions of southern-born Americans migrated to the northern and western regions of the country in search of better opportunities. Some traveled only short distances, leaving Appalachia for nearby destinations in the southern Midwest. Others made the much longer trek to the West Coast. In this article, we use data from the 1920, 1940, and 1970 Public Use Microdata Samples to investigate the distances traveled by male participants in the Great Migration, with a special focus on differences by race, as well as on changes over time. We find that the average distance traveled increased substantially during the Great Migration for blacks and whites alike. However, throughout this time period, white migrants moved significantly farther than black migrants. The greater propensity for white migrants to move west, rather than north, accounts for a good deal of this overall racial variation. Although the difference in distance traveled between blacks and whites narrowed significantly over time, it remained substantial as the Great Migration came to a close. We conclude by highlighting the impact of these differential migration patterns on the composition and social conditions in northern cities.
Decontamination of gloves before removal could reduce the risk for contamination of hands of personnel caring for patients with Clostridium difficile infection. We demonstrated that a novel sporicidal formulation of ethanol rapidly reduced C. difficile spores on gloved hands without adverse odor, respiratory irritation, or staining of clothing.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(3):337–339
In a prevalence study of 209 healthcare workers, 18 (8.6%) and 13 (6.2%) carried methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in their nares or on their hands, respectively. However, 100 (62%) of 162 workers completing an associated survey believed themselves to be colonized, revealing a knowledge deficit about methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus epidemiology.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;37(1):110–112
We present the first experimentally determined oscillator strengths for the Pb ii transitions at 1203.6 Å and 1433.9 Å, obtained from lifetime measurements made using beam-foil techniques. We also present new detections of these lines in the interstellar medium from an analysis of archival spectra acquired by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Our observations of the Pb ii λ1203 line represent the first detection of this transition in interstellar gas. Our experimental f-values for the Pb ii λ1203 and λ1433 transitions are consistent with recent theoretical results, including our own relativistic calculations, but are significantly smaller than previous values based on older calculations. Our new f-value for Pb ii λ1433 (0.321 ± 0.034) yields an increase in the interstellar abundance of Pb of 0.43 dex over estimates based on the f-value listed by Morton. With our revised f-values, and with our new detections of Pb ii λ1203 and λ1433, we find that the depletion of Pb onto interstellar grains is not nearly as severe as previously thought, and is very similar to the depletions seen for elements such as Zn and Sn, which have similar condensation temperatures.
We explored caregiver perspectives on their children’s pain management in both a pediatric (PED) and general emergency department (GED). Study objectives were to: (1) measure caregiver estimates of children’s pain scores and treatment; (2) determine caregiver level of satisfaction; and (3) determine factors associated with caregiver satisfaction.
This prospective survey examined a convenience sample of 97 caregivers (n=51 PED, n=46 GED) with children aged <17 years. A paper-based survey was distributed by research assistants, from 2009–2011.
Most caregivers were female (n=77, 79%) and were the child’s mother (n=69, 71%). Children were treated primarily for musculoskeletal pain (n=41, 42%), headache (n=16, 16%) and abdominal pain (n=7, 7%). Using a 100 mm Visual Analog Scale, the maximum mean reported pain score was 75 mm (95% CI: 70–80) and mean score at discharge was 39 mm (95% CI: 32–46). Ninety percent of caregiver respondents were satisfied (80/89, 90%); three (3/50, 6%) were dissatisfied in the PED and six (6/39, 15%) in the GED. Caregivers who rated their child’s pain at ED discharge as severe were less likely to be satisfied than those who rated their child’s pain as mild or moderate (p=0.034).
Despite continued pain upon discharge, most caregivers report being satisfied with their child’s pain management. Caregiver satisfaction is likely multifactorial, and physicians should be careful not to interpret satisfaction as equivalent to adequate provision of analgesia. The relationship between satisfaction and pain merits further exploration.
A portable booth designed to disinfect full-body coverage protective equipment before removal using ultraviolet-C radiation resulted in at least 3 log reductions in bacteriophage MS2 and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus within 3 minutes. The booth could be useful for disinfection of contaminated protective equipment before removal during care of Ebola patients.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;36(10):1226–1228