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The efficient and effective movement of research into practice is acknowledged as crucial to improving population health and assuring return on investment in healthcare research. The National Center for Advancing Translational Science which sponsors Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) recognizes that dissemination and implementation (D&I) sciences have matured over the last 15 years and are central to its goals to shift academic health institutions to better align with this reality. In 2016, the CTSA Collaboration and Engagement Domain Task Force chartered a D&I Science Workgroup to explore the role of D&I sciences across the translational research spectrum. This special communication discusses the conceptual distinctions and purposes of dissemination, implementation, and translational sciences. We propose an integrated framework and provide real-world examples for articulating the role of D&I sciences within and across all of the translational research spectrum. The framework’s major proposition is that it situates D&I sciences as targeted “sub-sciences” of translational science to be used by CTSAs, and others, to identify and investigate coherent strategies for more routinely and proactively accelerating research translation. The framework highlights the importance of D&I thought leaders in extending D&I principles to all research stages.
Although the sources responsible for the radio emission from the Galaxy are unknown, it may nevertheless be valuable to make a comparison between the magnitude and distribution of the emission observed in our Galaxy and that of other nebulae. Analyses have already been made to relate the total emitted power from nearby nebulae with that from the Galaxy, and by considering the integrated radiation from well-defined clusters attempts were made to extend the comparison to the average emission from fainter nebulae.
NGC 7027 is justifiably THE template spectrum for PNe. Its vast range of emission species – from molecular and neutral to ions with ionization potential > 120eV – its high surface brightness and accessibiliy for northern observatories make it the PN laboratory of choice. However the quality of the spectra from the UV to the IR is mixed, many line fluxes and identifications still remaining unchecked from photographic or image tube spectra. Very deep spectra of NGC 7027 (emission line strengths <10-4 of Hβ) in the 0.65 to 1.05μm region (Baluteau et al. 1995) showed the presence of many faint emission lines. Pequignot & Baluteau (1994) showed that heavy elements from the 4th, 5th and 6th rows of the Periodic Table have much higher abundances than Solar, confirming the synthesis of neutron capture elements in low mass stars and providing new constraints on stellar evolution theory.
We report the direct detection of cyclic diameter variations in the Mira variable χ Cygni. Interferometric observations made between 1997 July and 1998 September, using the Cambridge Optical Aperture Synthesis Telescope (COAST) indicate periodic changes in the apparent angular diameter with amplitude 45 per-cent of the smallest value.
The measurements were made in a 50 nm bandpass centred on 905 nm, which is only moderately contaminated by molecular absorption features. To assess the effects of atmospheric stratification on the apparent diameter measured in this band, we have also measured near-infrared diameters for a sample of five Miras, in both the J-band (1.3 μm) and Wing's (1971) 1.04 μm band, which is expected to isolate essentially pure continuum emission. We present J-band visibility curves which indicate that the intensity profiles of the stars in the sample differ greatly from each other.
Depuis la réunion de Cambridge, en 1932, la Commission de la Carte du Ciel a vu, avec un profond regret, disparaître son vénérable et eminent Président d’Honneur, M. Benjamin Bafflaud, artisan de la première heure de l’œuvre de la Carte du Ciel. Il était l’un des rares survivants du Congrès initial de Paris en 1887. Comme directeur de l’Observatoire de Toulouse d’abord, de l’Observatoire de Paris ensuite, il avait pris aux travaux une grande part personnelle; comme Président du Comité international permanent, il avait été, pendant de longues années, l’ordonnateur et l’animateur de l’œuvre. Il n’avait jamais cessé de s’en occuper.
Depuis le dernier Rapport, la Commission de la Carte du Ciel a été durement et douloureusement éprouvée par la mort imprévue de son eminent Président H. H. Turner. Il laisse parmi ses collègues de profonds et unanimes regrets.
Il s’était ardemment dévoué à ses fonctions de Président et, plus particulièrement, à l’achèvement du Catalogue photographique, auquel, sous sa direction, l’Observatoire de l’Université d’Oxford avait déjà pris une grande part. Sous son impulsion, et souvent avec le concours de son Observatoire, des Zones en retard avaient accompli d’importants progrès. Sa fin prématurée ne lui aura pas permis de voir le Catalogue terminé. Après comme avant la mort de Turner, la poursuite de ce but, qui lui était cher, demeure la tâche la plus urgente.
Two years ago the Cambridge 4-aerial interferometer  was adapted to work at a frequency of 159 Mc/s, the resolving power thereby being increased by a factor of four over that at the previous frequency, 81.5 Mc/s. The overall beamwidth at 159 Mc/s is 1.2 degrees by 7 degrees but the beam contains interference fringes in two planes at right angles, so that, by phase-switching between the east pair and the west pair of aerials, sources with angular diameters greater than about 7 minutes of arc are eliminated. A survey using this technique has been carried out by Edge and Shakeshaft and may be called a “small diameter” survey. If the phase-switching receiver is connected between the north pair and the south pair of aerials it is possible to record sources with diameters up to about 1 degree and to measure diameters between 2 and 8 minutes of arc. Archer and Baldwin have used the aerial in this way to make a “large diameter” survey. These two surveys will be referred to collectively as the 3C survey.
The discrete source of radio emission in Sagittarius is among the most intense in the whole sky, but its situation in the belt of emission from ionized hydrogen and other sources associated with the galactic plane makes it difficult to observe. The observations described in this paper were made at frequencies of 38, 81·5, 210, and 500 Mc./s.; at these low frequencies it is particularly difficult to obtain sufficient aerial resolving power to distinguish the discrete source from the background. Interferometer aerials were therefore used, and at 38 and 210 Mc./s. spacings up to λ60 were used, sufficient to resolve the source completely. At 81·5 Mc./s. various sections of the large interferometer aerial were used.
We know almost nothing about the evolutionary tracks of extragalactic radio sources but those tracks are, however, strongly constrained by the distribution of sources in the radio luminosity, P, overall physical size, D, diagram. This is the radioastronomer's H-R diagram, an analogy which two lines of algebra shows is exact. Fig. 1 is the P-D diagram for the 3CR 166 source sample of Jenkins et al. (1977) with later additions. Most of the sources are identified and have known redshifts. It is a flux density limited sample so that the numbers at any P are weighted relative to the true space density by P3/2 because of the differing volumes of space sampled. The important feature of the diagram is the lack of sources greater than 1 Mpc in size. Because of doubts about the completeness of the sample in this region, we have made searches in the 6C 151MHz survey for sources having surface brightnesses lying between the two lines of slope 2 on the right of Fig.1. The numbers found to a limiting flux density of 1–2 Jy suggest that there is no serious underestimate of the numbers in the 166 source sample.
I shall discuss observations of the spectrum of the integrated emission from the Crab Nebula. The radio data with accurate calibrations lead to a flux density spectral index of −0.26. Discrepancies in the published fluxes at millimetre wavelengths can be resolved if appropriate angular dimensions are used. In the optical range the spectral index has increased to a value of −0.9 if 1m.0 of absorption is used. At X-ray wavelengths the spectral index has increased further to −1.2.
As part of the programme of observations with the large Cambridge radio telescope, a survey of the integrated radio emission has been made using one of the four elements of the interferometer. At a wave-length of 3·7 metres this aerial has beam-widths to half-power points of 2° in right ascension and 15° in declination. The use of a long wave-length makes it possible to obtain accurate measurements of the brightness temperature of the sky in regions away from the galactic plane. It is with the radiation from these regions that this paper is primarily concerned.
Two surveys of the galactic background radiation at low frequencies have recently been made at Cambridge. At 38 Mc/s, a survey of the sky between declinations −20° and +70° has been made by Blythe  using a new type of pencil-beam aerial system. This instrument, consisting of an array 1200 feet long in an east-west direction together with a small movable aerial, used the principle of aperture synthesis to provide a beam 2°.2 × 2°.3 at the zenith increasing to 2°.2 × 7°.4 at an angle of 70 degrees from the zenith.
A new survey of radio sources at 151 MHz, which has not been described previously, is in progress at Cambridge. There are several of us working on it including Warner, Kenderdine, Waggett, Masson and Mayer. The results of the first observations are at present in a preliminary state but we hope that in time they will form the first part of the 6C survey. The purpose of the survey is not to reach the faintest sources detected so far in aperture synthesis observations but to study moderately faint sources at a low observing frequency and to cover a large part of the northern sky rapidly. The deepest survey made so far at a low frequency is that of Ryle and Neville (1962) at 178 MHz over a region of 50 square degrees near the north celestial pole. The faintest sources detected had flux densities of 0.25 Jy, corresponding to a source density of 104 sr−1. It is already 15 years since that survey, which was the first trial of aperture synthesis using the earth's rotation, and much more is now technically possible. One of the most interesting features of a low frequency survey is its ability to detect preferentially sources with steep radio spectra and to be sensitive to sources of very low surface brightness. We know that in many cases these two properties go together and are associated with old radio sources, or at least with those parts of sources which are old. Many of the weak radio galaxies in nearby clusters are obvious examples of this type of source while the final, and so far unidentified, stages of the development of the most powerful double sources may be exciting candidates for discovery.
Kraus and Ko  and Hanbury Brown and Hazard  have suggested that the band of radio emission running roughly perpendicular to the galactic plane at about 12h right ascension, represents the integrated emission from the concentration of bright galaxies lying along a great circle that crosses the galactic plane at longitudes l = 105 degrees and 285 degrees. This paper puts forward certain difficulties in this interpretation. These galaxies and our own are believed by de Vaucouleurs [3, 4] to be members of a “cluster of clusters,” which he terms the local supergalaxy, after Shapley.
The aim of this review paper is to consider how the principles of clinical audit could be applied to the development of an audit of nutritional care in hospitals and care homes, based on criteria derived from the Essence of Care: Food and Drink. A literature review identified fifteen key papers that included guidance or standards for nutritional care in hospitals or care homes. These were used to supplement the ten factors suggested by the Essence of Care to develop a set of potential audit criteria covering all aspects of the nutritional care pathway including the identification of risk of malnutrition, implementation of nutritional care plans, referral to healthcare professionals for further nutritional assessment and nutritional support strategies. A series of audit tools have been developed, including an organisational level audit tool, a staff questionnaire, a patients' and residents' records audit tool and a patients' and residents' experiences questionnaire. Further issues to consider in designing a national nutritional audit include the potential role of direct observation of care, the use of trained auditors and the scope for including the results of pre-existing local audits. In conclusion, a national audit would need to encompass a very large number of health and care organisations of widely varying sizes and types and a diverse range of people.
The boundaries of psychotic illness and the extent to which operational diagnostic categories are distinct in the long term remain poorly understood. Clarification of these issues requires prospective evaluation of diagnostic trajectory, interplay and convergence/divergence across psychotic illness, without a priori diagnostic or other restrictions.
The Cavan-Monaghan First Episode Psychosis Study (CAMFEPS), conducted using methods to attain the closest approximation to epidemiological completeness, incepts all 12 DSM-IV psychotic diagnoses. In this study we applied methodologies to achieve diagnostic reassessments on follow-up, at a mean of 6.4 years after first presentation, for 196 (97%) of the first 202 cases, with quantification of prospective and retrospective consistency.
Over 6 years, the 12 initial psychotic diagnoses were characterized by numerous transitions but only limited convergence towards a smaller number of more stable diagnostic nodes. In particular, for initial brief psychotic disorder (BrP), in 85% of cases this was the harbinger of long-term evolution to serious psychotic illness of diagnostic diversity; for initial major depressive disorder with psychotic features (MDDP), in 18% of cases this was associated with mortality of diverse causality; and for initial psychotic disorder not otherwise specified (PNOS), 31% of cases continued to defy DSM-IV criteria.
CAMFEPS methodology revealed, on an individual case basis, a diversity of stabilities in, and transitions between, all 12 DSM-IV psychotic diagnoses over 6 years; thus, psychotic illness showed longitudinal disrespect to current nosology and may be better accommodated by a dimensional model. In particular, a first episode of BrP or MDDP may benefit from more vigorous, sustained interventions.