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OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: o To review the community’s recommendations on how to rebuild trust in the Flint community. o To review effective community engagement strategies utilized with the Flint Special Projects for project conceptualization, participant recruitment, data analysis, project oversight, and dissemination. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The study population includes nearly two hundred residents representing seniors, youth and diverse ethnicities recruited to participate in eleven focus group meetings. The population also represents the general public who attended informational meetings in Flint, Michigan to learn about the crisis and allow residents to voice their opinions and concerns during the onset of the crisis. The project is a mixed methods community based participatory research effort that utilized community decision making in all phases of the effort such as pre-conception, implementation, dissemination and advocacy to encourage the community’s recommendations are adopted at policy and institutional responsiveness levels. It includes three community engaged research efforts: (project 1) A qualitative analysis of community sentiment provided during 17 recorded legislative, media and community events, and (projects 2-3) two mixed methods efforts utilizing purposive sampling of stakeholders whose voice may not have been heard. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The project presents a qualitative analysis of the community’s voice during the onset of the man-made disaster when the community first became aware of the emergency manager’s plans to switch the water source. It also reflects current perspectives of community voice since the projects are scheduled to end late February 2019. Findings from a trust measure administered to nearly two hundred residents will be presented, along with a qualitative analysis of focus group findings among segments of the population (seniors, youth, and diverse ethnicities) who may have been left out of narratives on the water crisis. Finally, the project will compare empowerment and resiliency approaches being utilized in Flint, Michigan to recover from the disaster with other approaches grounded in literature and theory. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Communities of color often experience social determinants of health which negatively impact their health, well-being and human rights. Some Flint citizens are experiencing negative health consequences (i.e., rashes, brain and behavioral sequelle, fertility, etc.) as a result of the disaster, and are uncertain of health outcomes in the future. This is the first project to rigorously document and analyze levels of trust and mistrust in the city of Flint since the water disaster occurred. The qualitative research will guide future clinical research that will benefit this traumatized community experiencing high levels of mistrust (i.e., government, elected officials, etc.). The community engaged methodology involved residents and study participants in all phases of the project including project oversight, validating and analyzing data, and dissemination. This methodology will contribute to existing literature and theory on community based participatory research, community engaged research, team science and citizen science. The approaches empowered a call to action among residents, for example, seniors who attended two senior focus group sessions shared “they are hopeful and have a purpose,” resulting in the creation of a council (with officers) at their housing complex to advocate for the well-being of seniors during the recovery process. Recruitment methodologies were extremely successful due to resident level trust in community leaders and community partner organizations. Finally, the project’s examination of approaches encouraging empowerment and resiliency will provide lessons learned for other communities challenged with crisis.
In nineteenth century Britain atmospheric pollution from coal-fired industrialization was on the order of 50 times higher than today. We examine the effects of these emissions on child development by analysing the heights on enlistment during WWI of men born in England and Wales in the 1890s. We find a strong negative relationship between adult heights and the coal intensity of the districts in which these men were observed as children in the 1901 census. The subsequent decline in atmospheric pollution likely contributed to the long-term improvement in health and increase in height.
Accurate models of X-ray absorption and re-emission in partly stripped ions are necessary to calculate the structure of stars, the performance of hohlraums for inertial confinement fusion and many other systems in high-energy-density plasma physics. Despite theoretical progress, a persistent discrepancy exists with recent experiments at the Sandia Z facility studying iron in conditions characteristic of the solar radiative–convective transition region. The increased iron opacity measured at Z could help resolve a longstanding issue with the standard solar model, but requires a radical departure for opacity theory. To replicate the Z measurements, an opacity experiment has been designed for the National Facility (NIF). The design uses established techniques scaled to NIF. A laser-heated hohlraum will produce X-ray-heated uniform iron plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) at temperatures
eV and electron densities
. The iron will be probed using continuum X-rays emitted in a
diameter source from a 2 mm diameter polystyrene (CH) capsule implosion. In this design,
of the NIF beams deliver 500 kJ to the
mm diameter hohlraum, and the remaining
directly drive the CH capsule with 200 kJ. Calculations indicate this capsule backlighter should outshine the iron sample, delivering a point-projection transmission opacity measurement to a time-integrated X-ray spectrometer viewing down the hohlraum axis. Preliminary experiments to develop the backlighter and hohlraum are underway, informing simulated measurements to guide the final design.
Introduction: Recently, intranasal (IN) fentanyl and inhaled nitrous oxide/oxygen (N2O) mixture have been increasingly used for procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) alone or in combination. There is a lack of data on the efficacy of these combined agents. Methods: The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of IN fentanyl and N2O as PSA for the reduction of mildly-to-moderately displaced fractures and dislocations. We performed a prospective, observational cohort study between September 2014 and October 2015. Patients were recruited at CHU Sainte Justine (Montréal) and Royal Children Hospital (Melbourne, Australia). Patients aged 4 to 18 years were eligible if PSA consisted of IN fentanyl and N2O for the reduction of mildly-to-moderately displaced fractures or dislocations. Patients received at least IN fentanyl 1.5 mcg/kg (100 mcg max) and at least a 50/50% mixture of N2O with oxygen. Primary outcome was the efficacy of PSA measured by the patient assigned Facial Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R). The Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability (FLACC) scale was also recorded. Depth of sedation was evaluated using University of Michigan Sedation Scale (UMSS). Adverse events were recorded following criteria of the Consensus Panel on Sedation Research of PERC/PECARN. Additional data concerning satisfaction or discomfort were evaluated via questionnaires, and follow-up telephone calls were made to elicit information on adverse events after discharge. Results: A total of 91 patients aged 9.7 ± 3.0 years were enrolled. There was no difference between the median FPS-R score during the procedure compared to before: Median 2 and 2 (median difference 0 [95% CI 0, 0]), respectively. The FLACC score was higher during the procedure than before: Median 4 and 0 (median difference 2 [95% CI 1, 3]). UMSS was 1 (95% CI 1, 2) during the procedure. 42 (46%) patients had adverse events, all mild: vertigo (20%), nausea (16%)]or vomiting (12%). A total of 85/88 (97%) parents and 82/85 (96%) ED physicians would want the same sedation in another procedure. Conclusion: PSA with IN fentanyl and N2O seems effective in our study, as evaluated by patient assigned FPS-R. Patients were minimally sedated. Adverse events were frequent but mild. Overall, parents and medical staff would want the same agents used in another procedure. Thus, PSA with IN fentanyl and N2O appears to be an attractive option for reduction of mildly displaced fractures or dislocations.
Findings from family and twin studies support a genetic contribution to the development of sexual orientation in men. However, previous studies have yielded conflicting evidence for linkage to chromosome Xq28.
We conducted a genome-wide linkage scan on 409 independent pairs of homosexual brothers (908 analyzed individuals in 384 families), by far the largest study of its kind to date.
We identified two regions of linkage: the pericentromeric region on chromosome 8 (maximum two-point LOD = 4.08, maximum multipoint LOD = 2.59), which overlaps with the second strongest region from a previous separate linkage scan of 155 brother pairs; and Xq28 (maximum two-point LOD = 2.99, maximum multipoint LOD = 2.76), which was also implicated in prior research.
Results, especially in the context of past studies, support the existence of genes on pericentromeric chromosome 8 and chromosome Xq28 influencing development of male sexual orientation.
The following paper presents detailed aerodynamic data of a Scottish Aviation Bulldog light aircraft. The data is taken from the pre-stall region of the aircraft flight envelope through two flight test methods and from a geometrically accurate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the full scale aircraft, which was meshed in Ansys ICEM CFD and solved in Ansys Fluent. The fidelity of the CFD model was achieved by development of a CATIA solid model with surfaces matching a spatial point cloud of the aircraft taken using a 3D laser scanner. Following a CFD verification process, a 3·4m hybrid mesh with a Spalart-Allmaras (SA) turbulence model was found to give the best overall lift and drag characteristics. Further detailed comparisons with the glide flight test data showed the CFD drag polar to have 63% lower zero lift drag, although this discrepancy was related to the simplification of the original CATIA surface model, which excluded the undercarriage, aerials and other protuberance drags. Inclusion of estimates of these sources of drag resulted in a match in zero lift drag to within 15% and a maximum lift to drag of 10:1 which was within 11% of the glide flight test result. The remaining drag discrepancy is attributed to other effects including trim drag and the surface finish of the actual aircraft.
A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (H i) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of H i emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b| < 10°) at all declinations south of δ = +40°, spanning longitudes 167° through 360°to 79° at b = 0°, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13 020 deg2. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically σT≃ 1 K at resolution 30 arcsec and 1 km s−1. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.
The scientific literature contains evidence suggesting that women who have been treated for breast cancer may, as a result of their diagnosis, increase their phyto-oestrogen (PE) intake. In the present paper, we describe the creation of a dietary analysis database (based on Dietplan6) for the determination of dietary intakes of specific PE (daidzein, genistein, glycitein, formononetin, biochanin A, coumestrol, matairesinol and secoisolariciresinol), in a group of women previously diagnosed and treated for postmenopausal breast cancer. The design of the database, data evaluation criteria, literature data entry for 551 foods and primary analysis by LC–MS/MS of an additional thirty-four foods for which there were no published data are described. The dietary intake of 316 women previously treated for postmenopausal breast cancer informed the identification of potential food and beverage sources of PE and the bespoke dietary analysis database was created to, ultimately, quantify their PE intake. In order that PE exposure could be comprehensively described, fifty-four of the 316 subjects completed a 24 h urine collection, and their urinary excretion results allowed for the description of exposure to include those identified as ‘equol producers’.
Evidence is given that many of the Mesozoic, geosynclinal serpentines of Turkey are deep-sea lavas, and that they functioned as efficient fertilizers of surface waters leading to rich crops of radiolaria now preserved in cherts and limestones. Furthermore, in anticlinals at Ankara and Alaca Höyük, Palæozoic, Triassic and Jurassic rocks in the condition of a tectonic mélange are overlain unconformably by Upper Cretaceous and Eocene; while, in associated synclinals at Ayas and Kirsehir, crystalline schists and granites, probably Palæozoic or earlier, emerge from beneath unconformable Oligocene. It is suggested that these crystallines are parts of a Pontic nappe which advanced southwards during Upper Cretaceous times, in part overriding and breaking local rocks to yield the Ankara Mélange, in part bulldozing them forwards to form the Taurus Mountains. The displacement along the Anatolian Thrust at the base of the invading Pontic nappe is reckoned at about 350 km.
In the 'eighties of last century R. G. Symes and A. McHenry mapped the schists of Antrim for the Geological Survey of Ireland. They made abundant records of dip, which are still valuable though, owing to the difficulty of the subject, not uniformly reliable. They also indicated outcrops of limestone at Torr Head and, 8 miles inland, at Glenshesk and Breem. The schist area of Antrim is contained in Sheets 8 and 14 of the one-inch to the mile Geological Survey Map of Ireland (text-fig. 1).
Although it is unlikely that the east of Sutherland will ever rival the west in geological renown, its varied interests have already furnished material for a considerable literature. Attention has been specially focussed upon a down-faulted coastal strip of Mesozoic rocks, which, starting at Golspie, extends north-eastwards for twenty miles through Brora and Helmsdale to the county boundary at the Ord (fig. 1). Golspie itself stands on a narrow outcrop of Trias. Jurassic follows, with a generally ascending sequence that leads up to Kimmeridgian at Kintradwell, a couple of miles north of Brora (fig. 2). Beyond this Corallian reappears, but only for a short distance. Then Kimmeridgian returns and holds the coast-line continuously for nearly nine miles, until, at the Ord, it disappears beneath the sea. The width of the Kimmeridgian exposures is occasionally three-quarters of a mile, but generally much less.
We undertake a re-interpretation of eighteen sheets of the 1: 100,000 Geological Survey map of Italy. Developing the tectonic discoveries of G. Steinmann and S. Lencewicz we group the pre-Middle Miocene rocks of the district in four structural units beginning with the lowest as follows: (1) The rocks seen through the Carrara Window; (2) Spezia Nappe; (3) Liguria Nappe; (4) Genoa Nappe. Our account mainly concerns the Liguria Nappe. In it we find too much layering to admit of G. I. Migliorini's invocation of successive piecemeal landslips. We also cannot agree with certain important features of R. Staub's synthesis of Mediterranean tectonics.
The insertion of nanostructured materials (such as quantum wells, wires, and dots) into the intrinsic region of p-i-n solar cells introduces an intermediate band within the bandgap of the host material. It has been shown that the sub-bandgap conversion provided by the nanostructured materials, enhances the short circuit current as well as the overall efficiency of InAs quantum dots (QD) imbedded in GaAs superlattice (SL) solar cells . As a contender for space applications, it is necessary to subject these solar cell structures to temperatures encountered in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO), probing for any material degradation. Herein, we focus on temperature dependent characterization using high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) of InAs QD enhanced GaAs solar cell structures with varying growth parameters. The structures characterized can be classified into three groups: (1) GaP strain compensation coverage, (2) GaAs barrier coverage, and (3) InAs coverage for QD formation. HRXRD rocking curves of each structure focusing around the GaAs peak are analyzed at a range of temperatures up to 200˚C. Although no noticeable shifts in the SL peaks are detected, interfacial diffusion decreased the resolution of fringes produced by reflections at the SL interfaces in test structures with varying InAs QD coverage. Unbalanced strain in the same structures shows a distortion in the GaAs peaks.