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As financial pressures on UK beef farms increase, each beef industry stockman will be expected to look after more animals. Consequently, labour availability around calving will be reduced in future years. In order to enable limited human assistance to be targeted towards those cows and calves that need it, a sound understanding of the time course of the natural calving process is needed. The objective of this study was to detail the time dynamics of the major externally visible calving events in unassisted spring calving suckler cows housed in a straw bedded yard, typical of UK practice.
Prenatal undernutrition can have a permanent ‘programming’ effect on offspring growth, health, behaviour and reproductive ability that persists into adulthood (Meaney et al., 2007; Bell, 2006). However, whether different genotypes are equally affected is unknown. Relatively slower growing breeds of sheep, that are adapted to poorer food availability in pregnancy (such as the Scottish Blackface) may be better able to buffer their developing foetuses from the effects of undernutrition in utero than faster growing breeds, such as the Suffolk. In this experiment we investigated whether a 25% reduction in food intake for the first 90 days of gestation would result in differential responses in these two breeds of sheep.
Lamb vigour at birth (i.e. time to stand after delivery) is known to be affected by a number of maternal factors, such as parity and litter size (Dwyer, 2002), as well as lamb breed (Dwyer et al., 1996), and is related to subsequent lamb survival (Dwyer et al., 2001). It is likely that these factors act before birth to influence lamb development and may exert their effects through differences in placental development and function. The purpose of this experiment was to examine the effects of ewe parity, litter size and ewe breed on placental components, and relate these to lamb behavioural development at birth.
In a longitudinal cohort study of young Australian adults, we reported that for women higher baseline levels of fish consumption were associated with reduced incidence of new depressive episodes during the 5-year follow-up. Fish are high in both n-3 fatty acids and tyrosine. In this study, we seek to determine whether n-3 fatty acids or tyrosine explain the observed association. During 2004–2006, a FFQ (nine fish items) was used to estimate weekly fish consumption among 546 women aged 26–36 years. A fasting blood sample was taken and high-throughput NMR spectroscopy was used to measure 233 metabolites, including serum n-3 fatty acids and tyrosine. During 2009–2011, new episodes of depression since baseline were identified using the lifetime version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Relative risks were calculated using log-binomial regression and indirect effects estimated using the STATA binary_mediation command. Potential mediators were added to separate models, and mediation was quantified as the proportion of the total effect due to the mediator. The n-3 DHA mediated 25·3 % of the association between fish consumption and depression when fish consumption was analysed as a continuous variable and 16·6 % when dichotomised (reference group: <2 serves/week). Tyrosine did not mediate the association (<0·1 %). Components in fish other than n-3 fatty acids and tyrosine might be beneficial for women’s mental health.
Over the past decades, Indigenous communities around the world have become more vocal and mobilized to address the health inequities they experience. Many Indigenous communities we work with in Canada, Australia, Latin America, the USA, New Zealand and to a lesser extent Scandinavia have developed their own culturally-informed services, focusing on the needs of their own community members. This paper discusses Indigenous healthcare innovations from an international perspective, and showcases Indigenous health system innovations that emerged in Canada (the First Nation Health Authority) and Colombia (Anas Wayúu). These case studies serve as examples of Indigenous-led innovations that might serve as models to other communities. The analysis we present suggests that when opportunities arise, Indigenous communities can and will mobilize to develop Indigenous-led primary healthcare services that are well managed and effective at addressing health inequities. Sustainable funding and supportive policy frameworks that are harmonized across international, national and local levels are required for these organizations to achieve their full potential. In conclusion, this paper demonstrates the value of supporting Indigenous health system innovations.
Healthy lifestyles prevent cardiovascular disease and are increasingly recognized in relation to mental health but longitudinal studies are limited. We examined bi-directional associations between mood disorders and healthy lifestyles in a cohort followed for 5 years.
Participants were aged 26–36 years at baseline (2004–2006) and 31–41 years at follow-up (2009–2011). At follow-up, lifetime mood disorders (depression or dysthymia) were retrospectively diagnosed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. A five-item lifestyle score (comprising body mass index, non-smoking, alcohol consumption, leisure time physical activity and healthy diet) was measured at both time points. Linear and log multinomial regression determined if mood disorder before baseline predicted changes in lifestyle (n = 1041). Log binomial regression estimated whether lifestyle at baseline predicted new episodes of mood disorder (n = 1233). Covariates included age, sex, socio-economic position, parental and marital status, social support, major life events, cardiovascular disease history, and self-rated physical and mental health.
A history of mood disorder before baseline predicted unfavourable trajectories of lifestyle over follow-up, including somewhat lower risk of improvement [relative risk (RR) 0.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56–1.03] and greater risk of worsening (RR 1.46, 95% CI 0.99–2.15) of lifestyle independent of confounding factors. Higher lifestyle scores at baseline were associated with a 22% (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.61–0.95) reduced risk of first episodes of mood disorder, independent of confounding factors.
Healthy lifestyles and mood disorders are closely related. Our results suggest that healthy lifestyles may not only reduce cardiovascular disease but also promote mental health.
Fine arts and culture have existed in British Columbia from the time that the First Peoples came to the North Pacific coast of Canada. Vancouver’s first fine arts library was established in 1930 at the Vancouver Public Library; significant collections have subsequently been developed at the Vancouver Art Gallery, Emily Carr Institute of Art & Design and the University of British Columbia. They serve a diverse clientele: students, artists and researchers. Outlook, a province-wide network, provides access via the Internet to library catalogues of public, college and institution libraries throughout the Province.
At first, microforms and the Fine Arts did not appear to be very compatible. Today with improvements of microform readers and technology together with the proliferation of types of materials which are published in microform, their acceptance is assured. Journals, series of out-of-print books, exhibition catalogues, photographs and other archival collections are now appearing in ever increasing numbers and are being accepted by those interested in both the acquisitions and research in Fine Arts. Librarians must constantly demand acceptable quality, complete bibliographic control and also begin to plan for regional and international co-operation so that those libraries unable to purchase the expensive sets may share in the increasing wealth of information and not be left without some form of access.
Canadian publishing was inhibited from the beginning by Canada’s colonial origins and dependence on Great Britain and the USA. Few art books were published until quite recently; the relatively small, scattered population, the flooding of the market with British, American and (in Quebec) French books, and limited (at best) or non-existent sales outside Canada continue to be constraining factors. The necessity to include both English and French texts adds to the cost of book production in Canada. The publication of art books, and of exhibition catalogues, depends on the availability of government grants. Publications on the art of the North American Indian and Inuit peoples are an exception, attracting widespread interest and leading in some instances to co-publishing initiatives. In addition to the larger publishing houses, a number of small presses produce occasional art books, thanks to grants and in a few cases with the added benefit of sales abroad achieved through international networking. A government programme of support for Canadian publishing, launched in 1986, is continuing.
Support for academic African language programs (ALPs) in the US began at the national level with the National Defense Education Act of 1958 (renamed the Higher Education Act of 1965). The goal of this legislation was to establish a world-wide language and area studies knowledge base that could be called upon in the event of conflict, but in addition it has provided generations of students a wealth of knowledge about the less commonly taught languages (LCTLs) and the communities where they are spoken. Although the Africa region’s share of this support has hovered around 12%, its effect has been substantial. For example, based on a world-wide listing of Africanist linguists, approximately half of these specialists live in Africa, with the remainder being equally divided between the countries of Europe and the US, a remarkable fact given that the US has no colonial legacy in Africa. Title VI of this legislation supports a set of National Resource Centers (NRCs) that promote language and area study of a specific region including Africa.
For efficient charge separation and charge transport in optoelectronic materials,
small internal reorganization energies are desired. While many p-type organic
semiconductors have been reported with low internal reorganization energies, few
n-type materials with low reorganization energy are known. Metal phthalocyanines
have long received extensive research attention in the field of organic device
electronics due to their highly tunable electronic properties through
modification of the molecular periphery. In this study, density functional
theory (DFT) calculations are performed on a series of zinc-phthalocyanines
(ZnPc) with various degrees of peripheral per-fluoroalkyl
(-C3F7) modification. Introduction of the highly electron
withdrawing groups on the periphery leads to a lowering in the energy of the
molecular frontier orbitals as well as an increase in the electron affinity.
Additionally, all molecules studies are found to be most stable in their anionic
form, demonstrating their potential as n-type materials. However, the calculated
internal reorganization energy slightly increases as a function of peripheral
modification. By varying the degree of modification we develop a strategy for
obtaining an optimal balance between low reorganization energy and high electron
affinity for the development of novel n-type optoelectronic materials.
Neonatal mortality in small ruminant livestock has remained stubbornly unchanging over the past 40 years, and represents a significant loss of farm income, contributes to wastage and affects animal welfare. Scientific knowledge about the biology of neonatal adaptation after birth has been accumulating but does not appear to have had an impact in improving survival. In this paper, we ask what might be the reasons for the lack of impact of the scientific studies of lamb and kid mortality, and suggest strategies to move forward. Biologically, it is clear that achieving a good intake of colostrum, as soon as possible after birth, is crucial for neonatal survival. This provides fuel for thermoregulation, passive immunological protection and is involved in the development of attachment between the ewe and lamb. The behaviour of the lamb in finding the udder and sucking rapidly after birth is a key component in ensuring sufficient colostrum is ingested. In experimental studies, the main risk factors for lamb mortality are low birthweight, particularly owing to poor maternal nutrition during gestation, birth difficulty, litter size and genetics, which can all be partly attributed to their effect on the speed with which the lamb reaches the udder and sucks. Similarly, on commercial farms, low birthweight and issues with sucking were identified as important contributors to mortality. In epidemiological studies, management factors such as providing assistance with difficult births, were found to be more important than risk factors associated with housing. Social science studies suggest that farmers generally have a positive attitude to improving neonatal mortality but may differ in beliefs about how this can be achieved, with some farmers believing they had no control over early lamb mortality. Facilitative approaches, where farmers and advisors work together to develop neonatal survival strategies, have been shown to be effective in achieving management goals, such as optimising ewe nutrition, that lead to reductions in lamb mortality. We conclude that scientific research is providing useful information on the biology underpinning neonatal survival, such as optimal birthweights, lamb vigour and understanding the importance of sufficient colostrum intake, but the transfer of that knowledge would benefit from an improved understanding of the psychology of management change on farm. Developing tailored solutions, on the basis of adequate farm records, that make use of the now substantial body of scientific literature on neonatal mortality will help to achieve lower neonatal mortality.
This study examines the relationship between long-term intake of six flavonoid classes and incidence of CVD and CHD, using a comprehensive flavonoid database and repeated measures of intake, while accounting for possible confounding by components of a healthy dietary pattern. Flavonoid intakes were assessed using a FFQ among the Framingham Offspring Cohort at baseline and three times during follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to characterise prospective associations between the natural logarithms of flavonoid intakes and CVD incidence using a time-dependent approach, in which intake data were updated at each examination to represent average intakes from previous examinations. Mean baseline age was 54 years, and 45 % of the population was male. Over an average 14·9 years of follow-up among 2880 participants, there were 518 CVD events and 261 CHD events. After multivariable adjustment, only flavonol intake was significantly associated with lower risk of CVD incidence (hazard ratios (HR) per 2·5-fold flavonol increase=0·86, Ptrend=0·05). Additional adjustment for total fruit and vegetable intake and overall diet quality attenuated this observation (HR=0·89, Ptrend=0·20 and HR=0·92, Ptrend=0·33, respectively). There were no significant associations between flavonoids and CHD incidence after multivariable adjustment. Our findings suggest that the observed association between flavonol intake and CVD risk may be a consequence of better overall diet. However, the strength of this non-significant association was also consistent with relative risks observed in previous meta-analyses, and therefore a modest benefit of flavonol intake on CVD risk cannot be ruled out.
A quality dementia-screening tool is required for older remote Aboriginal Australians who have high rates of dementia and limited access to appropriate medical equipment and clinicians. The Kimberley Indigenous Cognitive Assessment (KICA Cog) is a valid cognitive test for dementia in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The KICA cognitive informant questionnaire (KICA Carer) had yet to be analyzed to determine validity alone or in combination with the KICA Cog.
The KICA Carer was completed by nominated informants of 349 remote-living Aboriginal Australians in the Kimberley region, Western Australia. Validity was assessed by comparing KICA Carer with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) consensus diagnoses based on a blinded specialist review. KICA Carer and KICA Cog were then compared to determine joint validity.
A KICA Carer score of ≥3/16 gave optimum sensitivity (76.2%) and specificity (81.4%), area under curve (AUC) 0.89 (95% CI = 0.85, 0.94) with positive predictive value (PPV) of 35.8%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 96.2%. A KICA Cog score of ≤33/39 gave a sensitivity of 92.9% and specificity of 89.9%, AUC 0.96 (95% CI = 0.94, 0.98), with PPV of 55.6% and NPV of 98.9%. Cut-off scores of KICA Cog ≤ 33/39 and KICA Carer ≥ 2/16 in series indicate possible dementia, with sensitivity of 90.5% and specificity of 93.5%. In this setting, PPV was 66.5% and NPV was 98.6%.
The KICA Carer is an important tool to accurately screen dementia in remote Aboriginal Australians when the KICA Cog is unable to be used for a patient. It is readily accepted by caregivers.
•For the best practice in the cognitive assessment of an Aboriginal Australian aged over 45 years, KICA Cog should be utilized.
•In cases where Aboriginal patients are not assessed directly, KICA Carer should be conducted with an informant. A cut-off score of ≥3/16 should be used (these tools can be downloaded from www.wacha.org.au/kica.html).
Important to the development of dye-sensitized solar cells is the longevity and photo-conversion efficiency of the dye. To improve cost effectiveness, dyes of superior thermal and chemical stability are desirable to extend device performance. In this study, we examine a series of peripherally fluorinated Zinc-Phthalocyanines (FxZnPc). Introduction of chemically inert fluorine and isopropyl fluoroalkyl groups on the periphery of the Pc improve the dye stability and allow for tunable photo-physical properties. Additionally, introduction of the bulky isopropyl fluoroalkyl groups help mitigate molecular aggregation in thin films which is known to be detrimental to maintaining the desired photo-physical properties of the surface coating. Using molecular dynamics and first principles modeling, various substituent effects on surface adhesion and aggregation over TiO2 surfaces are characterized for both symmetric and asymmetric substitution.
A completely solid state dye sensitized solar cell (DSSSC) is proposed in which chemically robust phthalocyanine (Pc) sensitizers, F16ZnPc and F40ZnPc, are sandwiched between n-TiO2 and p-NiO. While the energy conversion efficiencies of conventional Grätzel cells are continually increasing, the DSSSC design effectively solves the long term stability issues of the volatile liquid electrolyte. Through analysis of the electronic structure of the Pc|semiconductor systems, the free energy associated with hole injection into the valence band of NiO upon photoexcitation of the sensitizer and electron injection into the conduction band of TiO2 from the reduced form of the sensitizer as well as the competing charge recombination processes are calculated. Thermodynamically, the charge injection processes are found to be favored over the undesired charge recombination processes. These findings suggest promising energy conversion for the NiO|Pc|TiO2 DSSSC.
We report the observation of two isolated clouds of positrons inside an active thunderstorm. These observations were made by the Airborne Detector for Energetic Lightning Emissions (ADELE), an array of six gamma-ray detectors, which flew on a Gulfstream V jet aircraft through the top of an active thunderstorm in August 2009. ADELE recorded two 511 keV gamma-ray count rate enhancements, 35 s apart, each lasting approximately 0.2 s. The enhancements, which were approximately a factor of 12 above background, were both accompanied by electrical activity as measured by a flat-plate antenna on the underside of the aircraft. The energy spectra were consistent with a source mostly composed of positron annihilation gamma rays, with a prominent 511 keV line clearly visible in the data. Model fits to the data suggest that the aircraft was briefly immersed in clouds of positrons, more than a kilometre across. It is not clear how the positron clouds were created within the thunderstorm, but it is possible they were caused by the presence of the aircraft in the electrified environment.