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Good scientific research depends on critical thinking at least as much as factual knowledge; psychology is no exception to this rule. And yet, despite the importance of critical thinking, psychology students are rarely taught how to think critically about the theories, methods, and concepts they must use. This book shows students and researchers how to think critically about key topics such as experimental research, statistical inference, case studies, logical fallacies, and ethical judgments. Using updated research findings and new insights, this volume provides a comprehensive overview of what critical thinking is and how to teach it in psychology. Written by leading experts in critical thinking in psychology, each chapter contains useful pedagogical features, such as critical-thinking questions, brief summaries, and definitions of key terms. It also supplies descriptions of each chapter author's critical-thinking experience, which evidences how critical thinking has made a difference to facilitating career development.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
As in vivo cellular imaging becomes the necessary norm for understanding cancer and other diseases, new non-toxic nanoprobes are going to be required to replace the high quality cadmium based nanoprobes in use today. We are developing less toxic probes based on two types of luminescent ceramic nanoparticles: naturally occurring fluorescent (NOF) mimics and Ln-based ceramic oxide materials. The NOF minerals of interest and that have demonstrated initial luminosity of sufficient brightness for use in cellular studies that include sphalerite, scheelite, manganoan and perovskite nanoparticles. For Ln-based materials we have shown that Ln-doped zincite will also luminesce enough to allow for quantification in cellular activity. Once formed, these probes are functionalized such that they can be delivered to desired cellular targets. Probe derivatization has focused on surface capping with functionalized poly(ethyleneglycol) molecules/lipids to yield water soluble NCs and polyarginine-based transporters for transmembrane delivery. The probes are being evaluated for their luminescent properties, as well as their non-toxicity and ability to report on cell-signaling events with various cell lines using multi-spectral, confocal microscopy, and other techniques. Preliminary interdisciplinary studies have validated the basic approaches for the synthesis of NOF nanoprobes and the bio-delivery and imaging of nanoparticles. Work to optimize the design, delivery, and imaging of these new nanoprobes is expected to achieve the NIH directed goal of increasing in the sensitivity and specificity of molecular probes for imaging. Details of the synthesis, functionalization and biological imaging using these probes will be presented. This work partially supported by the United States Department of Energy under contract number DE-AC04-94AL85000. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy and by the National Institutes of health through the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research, Grant #1 R21 EB005365-01. Information on this RFA (Innovation in Molecular Imaging Probes) can be found at http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/rfa-files/RFA-RM-04-021.html.
Dietary quality (DQ), as assessed by the Alternative Healthy Eating Index for Pregnancy (AHEI-P), and conception and pregnancy outcomes were evaluated.
In this prospective cohort study on couples planning their first pregnancy. Cox proportional hazards regression assessed the relationship between AHEI-P score and clinical pregnancy, live birth and pregnancy loss.
Participants were recruited from the Northeast region of the USA.
Participants: Healthy, nulliparous couples (females, n 132; males, n 131; one male did not enrol).
There were eighty clinical pregnancies, of which sixty-nine resulted in live births and eleven were pregnancy losses. Mean (sd) female AHEI-P was 71·0 (13·7). Of those who achieved pregnancy, those in the highest tertile of AHEI-P had the greatest proportion of clinical pregnancies; however, this association was not statistically significant (P = 0·41). When the time it took to conceive was considered, females with the highest AHEI-P scores were 20 % and 14 % more likely to achieve clinical pregnancy (model 1: hazard ratio (HR) = 1·20; 95 % CI 0·66, 2·17) and live birth (model 1: HR = 1·14; 95 % CI 0·59, 2·20), respectively. Likelihood of achieving clinical pregnancy and live birth increased when the fully adjusted model, including male AHEI-P score, was examined (clinical pregnancy model 4: HR = 1·55; 95 % CI 0·71, 3·39; live birth model 4: HR = 1·36; 95 % CI 0·59, 3·13).
The present study is the first to examine AHEI-P score and achievement of clinical pregnancy. DQ was not significantly related to pregnancy outcomes, even after adjustments for covariates.
The Texas red beds represent one of the richest series of early Permian deposits in the world. In particular, the Clear Fork Group has produced a diverse assemblage of temnospondyls, early reptiles, and synapsids. However, most of this material has been sourced from the oldest member, the Arroyo Formation, and the understanding of the paleoecosystem of the younger Vale and Choza formations is less well resolved. Here we present a previously undescribed Vale locality, the first vertebrate-bearing locality from the formation to be described in detail in several decades, from near Abilene, Texas with juvenile diplocaulids, captorhinids, abundant material of rare taxa such as Varanops and diadectids, and the first report of a recumbirostran ‘microsaur’ from the formation. This assemblage is atypical of early Permian deposits in the taxonomic and size distribution of the vertebrate fauna in comparison to other localities from the Vale Formation that preserve a greater abundance of aquatic taxa (e.g., fishes, Trimerorhachis) and synapsids (e.g., Dimetrodon). Minimal abrasion of the elements, relative articulation and association of the specimen of Varanops, and the paucity of aquatic taxa suggest an ephemeral pond deposit in which organisms were preserved essentially in situ. Our characterization of the locality also permits a revision and discussion of the vertebrate faunal assemblage of the Vale Formation.
Child maltreatment is a significant public health issue in the United States. Yet, fewer than half of pediatricians discuss behavioral, developmental, or parenting issues with parents.
This paper describes the testing of bundles of tools and processes, part of a larger intervention, Practicing Safety, targeted at changing physician and staff behavior to identify families at risk for child maltreatment, provide anticipatory guidance, refer to community resources, and follow-up and track at-risk families. The intervention was implemented with 14 pediatric primary care practices throughout the United States; the study was completed in 2011.
A within-subjects repeated measures pre-post follow-up design was used to evaluate the intervention. Baseline and repeated measurements of pediatric practices’ processes were collected using qualitative and quantitative methods. In total, 14 core improvement teams from across the country tested three bundles of tools (maternal, infant, toddler) within a quality improvement framework over seven months.
Quantitative results showed statistically significant adoption of tools and processes and enhancement of practice behaviors and office environmental supports. The increase in tool use was immediate and was sustained for six months after implementation. Qualitative data provided insight as to how meaningful the intervention was to the core improvement teams, especially with more complicated behaviors (eg, engaging social workers or community agencies for referrals). Barriers included lack of community resources. Findings showed unanticipated outcomes such as helping practices to become medical homes.
Lessons learned included that practices appreciate and can adopt brief interventions that have meaningful and useful tools and process to enhance psychosocial care for children 0–3 and that do not place a burden on pediatric practice. An innovative, quality improvement strategy, intuitive to pediatricians, with a brief intervention may help prevent child maltreatment.
Two separate experiments were conducted in 2015 and 2016 in Citra, FL to investigate the effects of preplant application timing of 2,4-D and dicamba on sesame stand and yield. Nonlinear regression analysis was performed to determine the application timing that caused 10% stand or yield reduction (GR10) compared to the nontreated control (NTC) and expressed as d before planting (DBP; longer intervals indicate more injury). Likewise, regression analysis was used to determine sesame stand that resulted in 10% yield reduction (YR10) expressed as plants m−1 row. Stand measured 3 wk after planting (WAP) revealed 2,4-D applied at 0.53 kg ae ha−1 to be the least injurious treatment to sesame stand (GR10=6.4 DBP). Conversely, dicamba at 1.12 kg ha−1 produced a GR10 of 15.7 DBP for sesame stand at 3 WAP. 2,4-D applied at 0.53 and 1.06 kg ha−1 and dicamba applied at 0.56 kg ha−1 had the lowest GR10 for yield of 2, 3.7, and 3 DBP, respectively. Dicamba applied at 1.12 kg ha−1 proved to be the most injurious treatment to yield, which produced a GR10 value of 10.3 DBP. To simulate possible stand losses associated with dicamba or 2,4-D and the subsequent effect on yield, a separate experiment was conducted in which sesame was thinned to various plant densities and yield was recorded to determine the relationship between plant stand and seed yield. The regression analysis of these data was then compared to that of the experiment treated with 2,4-D and dicamba to separate any physiological effects of the herbicides that would lead to yield reduction from yield effects due to stand loss only. Rate constants were compared and no statistical differences were detected between herbicide and non-herbicide treatments, suggesting that yield reductions that occur from preplant applications of 2,4-D and dicamba were purely due to stand reductions.
It has long been contentious as to whether the presence of bilateral infundibulums, or conuses, is a prerequisite for the diagnosis of double-outlet right ventricle. As the use of such a criterion would abrogate the so-called “morphological method”, which correctly states that one variable entity should not be defined on the basis of another entity that is itself variable, it is now accepted that double outlet can exist in the setting of fibrous continuity between the leaflets of the atrioventricular and arterial valves. Although this debate has now been resolved, there are other contentious areas still requiring clarification in the setting of hearts unified because of the presence of this particular ventriculo-arterial connection – for example, it is questionable whether the channel between the ventricles should be described as a “ventricular septal defect”, whereas it is equally arguable that the mere presence of fibrous continuity between the leaflets of the arterial valves does not necessarily place the channel in a doubly committed location. In this review, we describe a series of autopsied hearts in which the anatomical features serve to illuminate these various topics. We then discuss recent findings regarding cardiac development that point to the individuality of the building blocks of the ventricular outflow tracts, specifically the outlet septum, the inner heart curvature, or ventriculo-infundibular fold, and the septomarginal trabeculation, or septal band.
Two experiments were conducted in 2015 at multiple locations in Florida to evaluate the effects of planting depth and application timing on S-metolachlor injury in sesame. In both studies, sesame responded negatively to increases in S-metolachlor rate. Altering sesame planting depth did not provide increased safety to PRE S-metolachlor applications. Sesame establishment declined with increased planting depth, likely because of the physical inability of the small seed to emerge from the 3.8-cm depth. Delaying applications of S-metolachlor by 3 or 6 d after planting (DAP) consistently improved sesame establishment. Applications 3 and 6 DAP resulted in 89 to 92% seedling emergence at 2 wk after planting (WAP), relative to 55 to 63% emergence when S-metolachlor was applied the day of planting (0 DAP) or 3 days before (−3 DAP), respectively. Applications 3 DAP resulted in 21 and 2% plant stunting when evaluated 3 and 6 WAP, respectively, whereas all other timings caused 25 to 51% stunting. Yield was reduced 22 and 33% by the −3 DAP and 0 DAP application timings, respectively, whereas no reduction in yield was observed by the delayed application timings. Therefore, delaying applications of S-metolachlor by 3 to 6 days will likely result in improved sesame seedling establishment and total seed yield.
Supraglacial streams are important hydrologic features in glaciated environments as they are conduits for the transport of aeolian debris, meltwater, solutes and microbial communities. We characterized the basic geomorphology, hydrology and biogeochemistry of the Cotton Glacier supraglacial stream located in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. The distinctive geomorphology of the stream is driven by accumulated aeolian sediment from the Transantarctic Mountains, while solar radiation and summer temperatures govern melt in the system. The hydrologic functioning of the Cotton Glacier stream is largely controlled by the formation of ice dams that lead to vastly different annual flow regimes and extreme flushing events. Stream water is chemically dilute and lacks a detectable humic signature. However, the fluorescent signature of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the stream does demonstrate an extremely transitory red-shifted signal found only in near-stream sediment leachates and during the initial flushing of the system at the onset of flow. This suggests that episodic physical flushing drives pulses of DOM with variable quality in this stream. This is the first description of a large Antarctic supraglacial stream and our results provide evidence that the hydrology and geomorphology of supraglacial streams drive resident microbial community composition and biogeochemical cycling.
Pediatric patients seek timely access to subspecialty care within a complex delivery system while facing barriers: distance, economics, and clinician shortages.
We examined stakeholder perceptions about solutions to the access challenge. We engaged over 300 referring primary care pediatricians in the evaluation of Access Clinics at an academic children’s hospital.
Using an anonymous online survey, we asked pediatricians about their and their patients’ experiences and analyzed factors that may influence referrals.
Referring pediatricians reported satisfaction; they provided feedback about their patients’ experiences, physician communication, and referral influences. Distance from the Access Clinic does not correlate with differences in referral volume; living in areas with higher child populations and higher median income is associated with more referrals. Referring pediatricians have strong opinions about referrals, are attuned to patient experiences, and desire bi-directional communication. Multiple factors influence referral to and acceptance of Access Clinics, but external influences have less impact than expected.
The strongest broad absorption feature in the peculiar energy distributions of the Ap stars is that centered at about 5200 Å, thus the Stromgren y band and the Geneva VI band are most affected in stars in which this feature is strong. Fig. 1 shows bandpasses (full width at ½ intensity maximum) of three widely used photometric systems superimposed on two of our scans of Ap stars and two solar abundance line blanketed model atmospheres (Kurucz 1979). It is seen that both the y and VI bands fall entirely within the λ5200 feature. The plot (Fig. 2a) of b-y vs. Tpc (the color temperature of the red end of the Paschen continuum), shows that the b-y colors for most of our sample of Ap stars are displaced to the blue of the b-y, Teff relationship of Relyea and Kurucz (1978). In Fig. 2b, Δ(b−y) = (model b−y) − (observed b−y), for a given temperature is plotted vs. ΔWS2(5200), a spectrophotometric index measuring the equivalent width of the λ5200 feature. There is a strong correlation between Δ(b-y) and ΔWS2(5200), indicating quantitatively the large effect of the λ5200 feature on the y band, previously discussed by Adelman (1979). The deviations in Ap star B2-G values from the normal star B2-G vs. T curve are much less than for b-y, as the Geneva G band is largely outside the λ5200 feature (Fig. 2c). Thus B2-G is a better temperature indicator for Ap stars than is b-y (also see Hauck and North 1982).
Los Alamos National Laboratory’s ALEXIS satellite, containing six wide field of view EUV telescopes was launched 1993 April 25. ALEXIS is a sky monitor/survey experiment, and with each 50 s rotation, the satellite’s six telescopes (three energy bands 130, 178 and 186 Å) scan nearly half of the sky. Due to the damage sustained at launch by the satellite, the ALEXIS project team has had to spend over a year devising new methods to determine spacecraft attitude knowledge, essential for putting photons back on the sky correctly. These efforts have been successful. A recent review of the ALEXIS point source effort can be found in the Proceedings of IAU Colloquium 152, 1995. This paper reviews the transient systems that have been observed by ALEXIS which fall into two types: cataclysmic variables and unknown, short duration transients.
The College of Charleston The Citadel, the University of Nevada, Las Vegas and Villanova University constitute the Four College Automatic Photoelectric Telescope Consortium which has a 0.75-m telescope on Mt. Hopkins, Arizona. It has been in regular operation for two years. Prior to this time we obtained some differential UBV observations with the Phoenix 10” APT of the Fairborn Observatory. We are coordinating observations of CP stars of the upper main sequence. Some initial results include evidence for significant changes in the light curve of 56 Ari, the constancy of the HgMn stars 53 Tau and HR 4072, an improved period for HD 244801, and new observations in the broad minimum of HD 9996.
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated protective effects of breast-feeding on childhood obesity. Differences between human milk and infant milk formula (IMF) in dietary lipid structure may contribute to this effect. In our mouse model, feeding a diet containing large lipid droplets coated with phospholipids (PL) (Nuturis®; PL of milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) fraction origin) in early life protected against excessive body fat accumulation following a diet challenge in adult life. We now set out to determine the relevance of increased droplet size and/or MFGM lipid droplet coating to the observed anti-obesogenic effects in adult life. From day 16 to 42, male mouse pups were exposed to diets with small (S) or large (L) lipid droplets (0·3 v. 2·9 µm average mode diameter, respectively), either without MFGM or with MFGM coating around the lipid droplet, resulting in four groups: S (control diet), L, Scoating and Lcoating (Nuturis® IMF diet). Mice were subsequently challenged with a Western-style diet until dissection at postnatal day 98. A non-challenged group served as reference (REF). We repeatedly determined body composition between postnatal day 42 and 98. At day 98 plasma and gene expression measurements were performed. Only the Nuturis® IMF diet (Lcoating) in early life containing MFGM-coated large lipid droplets reduced body fat mass to a level comparable with the REF group. These data support the notion that the structural aspects of lipids in human milk, for example, both lipid droplet size as well as the MFGM coating, may contribute to its reported protective effect against obesity in later life.
At present, there is significant interest in the morphology of the coronary arteries, not least due to the increasingly well-recognised association between anomalous origin of the arteries and sudden cardiac death. Much has also been learnt over the last decade regarding the embryology of the arteries. In this review, therefore, we provide a brief introduction into the recent findings regarding their development. In particular, we emphasise that new evidence, derived using the developing murine heart, points to the arterial stems growing out from the adjacent sinuses of the aortic root, rather than the arteries growing in, as is currently assumed. As we show, the concept of outgrowth provides an excellent explanation for several of the abnormal arrangements encountered in the clinical setting. Before summarising these abnormal features, we draw attention to the need to describe the heart in an attitudinally appropriate manner, following the basic rule of human anatomy, rather than describing the cardiac components with the heart in the “Valentine” orientation. We then show how the major abnormalities involving the coronary arteries in humans can be summarised in terms of abnormal origin from the pulmonary circulation, abnormal aortic origin, or fistulous communications between the coronary arteries and the cardiac cavities. In the case of abnormal aortic origin, we highlight those malformations known to be associated with sudden cardiac death.
We develop a new star formation (SF) law based on the density PDF of turbulence and on the multi-freefall concept of gas collapse. We derive a relation where the star formation rate (SFR) correlates with the molecular gas mass per multi-freefall time, whereas previous models had used the average, single-freefall time. We define a new quantity called maximum (multi-freefall) gas consumption rate (MGCR) and show that the actual SFR is only about 0.4% of this maximum possible SFR, confirming the observed low efficiency of star formation.