To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Prevention programs that are ‘transdiagnostic’ may be more cost-effective and beneficial, in terms of reducing levels of psychopathology in the general population, than those focused on a specific disorder. This randomized controlled study evaluated the efficacy of one such intervention program called Resilience Training (RT).
College students who reported mildly elevated depressive or subclinical psychotic symptoms (‘psychotic experiences' (PEs)) (n = 107) were randomized to receiving RT (n = 54) or to a waitlist control condition (n = 53). RT consists of a four-session intervention focused on improving resilience through the acquisition of mindfulness, self-compassion, and mentalization skills. Measures of symptoms and these resilience-enhancing skills were collected before and after the 4-week RT/waitlist period, with a follow-up assessment 12-months later.
Compared to the waitlist control group, RT participants reported significantly greater reductions in PEs, distress associated with PEs, depression, and anxiety, as well as significantly greater improvements in resilience, mindfulness, self-compassion, and positive affect, following the 4-week RT/waitlist period (all p < 0.03). Moreover, improvements in resilience-promoting skills were significantly correlated with symptom reductions (all p < 0.05). Lastly, the RT-related reductions in PEs and associated distress were maintained at the 12-month follow-up assessment.
RT is a brief, group-based intervention associated with improved resilience and reduced symptoms of psychopathology, with sustained effects on PEs, in transdiagnostically at-risk young adults. Follow-up studies can further assess the efficacy of RT relative to other interventions and test whether it can reduce the likelihood of developing a serious mental illness.
While comorbidity of clinical high-risk for psychosis (CHR-P) status and social anxiety is well-established, it remains unclear how social anxiety and positive symptoms covary over time in this population. The present study aimed to determine whether there are more than one covariant trajectory of social anxiety and positive symptoms in the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study cohort (NAPLS 2) and, if so, to test whether the different trajectory subgroups differ in terms of genetic and environmental risk factors for psychotic disorders and general functional outcome.
In total, 764 CHR individuals were evaluated at baseline for social anxiety and psychosis risk symptom severity and followed up every 6 months for 2 years. Application of group-based multi-trajectory modeling discerned three subgroups based on the covariant trajectories of social anxiety and positive symptoms over 2 years.
One of the subgroups showed sustained social anxiety over time despite moderate recovery in positive symptoms, while the other two showed recovery of social anxiety below clinically significant thresholds, along with modest to moderate recovery in positive symptom severity. The trajectory group with sustained social anxiety had poorer long-term global functional outcomes than the other trajectory groups. In addition, compared with the other two trajectory groups, membership in the group with sustained social anxiety was predicted by higher levels of polygenic risk for schizophrenia and environmental stress exposures.
Together, these analyses indicate differential relevance of sustained v. remitting social anxiety symptoms in the CHR-P population, which in turn may carry implications for differential intervention strategies.
Stratospheric airships are lighter-than-air vehicles that work at an altitude of 20km in the lower calm portion of the stratosphere. They can be used as real-time surveillance platforms for environment monitoring and civil communication. Solar energy is the ideal power choice for long-endurance stratospheric airships. Attitude control is important for airships so that they can point at a target for observation or adjust the attitude to improve the output performance of solar panels. Stratospheric airships have a large volume and semi-flexible structure. The typical actuators used are aerodynamic surfaces, vectored thrust and ballonets. However, not all these actuators can work well under special working conditions, such as low density and low speed. In this study, moving-mass control is introduced to stratospheric airships because its control efficiency is independent of airspeed and atmospheric density. A nonlinear feedback controller based on generalised inverse with a nonlinear mapping module is designed to implement moving-mass control. Such a new station keeping scheme with moving masses is proposed for airships with different working situations.
This review outlines the current use of magnetic resonance (MR) techniques to study digestion and highlights their potential for providing markers of digestive processes such as texture changes and nutrient breakdown. In vivo digestion research can be challenging due to practical constraints and biological complexity. Therefore, digestion is primarily studied using in vitro models. These would benefit from further in vivo validation. NMR is widely used to characterise food systems. MRI is a related technique that can be used to study both in vitro model systems and in vivo gastro-intestinal processes. MRI allows visualisation and quantification of gastric processes such as gastric emptying and coagulation. Both MRI and NMR scan sequences can be configured to be sensitive to different aspects of gastric or intestinal contents. For example, magnetisation transfer and chemical exchange saturation transfer can detect proton (1H) exchange between water and proteins. MRI techniques have the potential to provide molecular-level and quantitative information on in vivo gastric (protein) digestion. This requires careful validation in order to understand what these MR markers of digestion mean in a specific digestion context. Combined with other measures they can be used to validate and inform in vitro digestion models. This may bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo digestion research and can aid the optimisation of food properties for different applications in health and disease.
The seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) IgG antibody was evaluated among employees of a Veterans Affairs healthcare system to assess potential risk factors for transmission and infection.
All employees were invited to participate in a questionnaire and serological survey to detect antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 as part of a facility-wide quality improvement and infection prevention initiative regardless of clinical or nonclinical duties. The initiative was conducted from June 8 to July 8, 2020.
Of the 2,900 employees, 51% participated in the study, revealing a positive SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence of 4.9% (72 of 1,476; 95% CI, 3.8%–6.1%). There were no statistically significant differences in the presence of antibody based on gender, age, frontline worker status, job title, performance of aerosol-generating procedures, or exposure to known patients with coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) within the hospital. Employees who reported exposure to a known COVID-19 case outside work had a significantly higher seroprevalence at 14.8% (23 of 155) compared to those who did not 3.7% (48 of 1,296; OR, 4.53; 95% CI, 2.67–7.68; P < .0001). Notably, 29% of seropositive employees reported no history of symptoms for SARS-CoV-2 infection.
The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among employees was not significantly different among those who provided direct patient care and those who did not, suggesting that facility-wide infection control measures were effective. Employees who reported direct personal contact with COVID-19–positive persons outside work were more likely to have SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Employee exposure to SARS-CoV-2 outside work may introduce infection into hospitals.
We describe 14 yr of public data from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA), an ongoing project that is producing precise measurements of pulse times of arrival from 26 millisecond pulsars using the 64-m Parkes radio telescope with a cadence of approximately 3 weeks in three observing bands. A comprehensive description of the pulsar observing systems employed at the telescope since 2004 is provided, including the calibration methodology and an analysis of the stability of system components. We attempt to provide full accounting of the reduction from the raw measured Stokes parameters to pulse times of arrival to aid third parties in reproducing our results. This conversion is encapsulated in a processing pipeline designed to track provenance. Our data products include pulse times of arrival for each of the pulsars along with an initial set of pulsar parameters and noise models. The calibrated pulse profiles and timing template profiles are also available. These data represent almost 21 000 h of recorded data spanning over 14 yr. After accounting for processes that induce time-correlated noise, 22 of the pulsars have weighted root-mean-square timing residuals of
in at least one radio band. The data should allow end users to quickly undertake their own gravitational wave analyses, for example, without having to understand the intricacies of pulsar polarisation calibration or attain a mastery of radio frequency interference mitigation as is required when analysing raw data files.
Recently, Echinacea purpurea and its extracts have gained much interest due to their improvement on meat quality, but little information is available on the application of the purified Echinacea purpurea polysaccharide (4-O-methyl-glucuronoarabinoxylan, 4OMG). Thus, this trial aimed at assessing the effects of dietary supplementation of 4OMG on growth performance, thigh meat quality and small intestine development of broilers. A total of 240 1-day-old female broiler chicks were randomly distributed to four groups with three replicates of 20 within each group. Each group received either 0, 15, 20 or 25 g 4OMG/kg DM of diet. During the entire experiment, broilers had ad libitum access to water and feed, and the feed intake was recorded daily. All broilers were weighed before and end of the experiment. For each group, three pens with a total of 20 broilers were randomly selected to slaughter after 30 days. Increasing dietary supplementation of 4OMG linearly increased final live weight and daily body weight gain (P = 0.013) of broilers, Gain-to-Feed ratio (P < 0.001), muscle pH (P = 0.024) and redness (P = 0.001), but decreased drip loss (P = 0.033), shear force value (P = 0.004) and hardness (P = 0.022) of the thigh meat. Broilers fed diet with higher 4OMG had greater weight index, villus height and ratio of villus height to crypt depth in both duodenum and jejunum. These results indicated that increasing dietary supplementation of 4OMG was beneficial for growth performance, meat quality and development of the small intestine of broilers.
Flexibility is one of the important mechanical performance parameters of stent. The flexibility of tapered stents, especially self-expanding tapered stents, remains unknown. In this study, we developed a new selfexpanding tapered stent for tapered arteries and performed a numerical investigation of stent flexibility by using finite element method. The effect of stent design parameters, including taper and link space width, on stent flexibility was studied. The flexibility of the proposed stent was also compared with that of traditional cylindrical stents. Results show that the tapered stent is more flexible than the traditional cylindrical stent. Furthermore, the flexibility of the tapered stent increases with increasing stent taper and stent link space width. The increase in the stent link space width can contribute to the reduction in the peak stress. Therefore, tapered stents with high link space width will improve the stent flexibility. This work provides useful information for improvement of stent design and clinical selection.
The aim of this study was to develop and externally validate a simple-to-use nomogram for predicting the survival of hospitalised human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients (hospitalised person living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs)). Hospitalised PLWHAs (n = 3724) between January 2012 and December 2014 were enrolled in the training cohort. HIV-infected inpatients (n = 1987) admitted in 2015 were included as the external-validation cohort. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator method was used to perform data dimension reduction and select the optimal predictors. The nomogram incorporated 11 independent predictors, including occupation, antiretroviral therapy, pneumonia, tuberculosis, Talaromyces marneffei, hypertension, septicemia, anaemia, respiratory failure, hypoproteinemia and electrolyte disturbances. The Likelihood χ2 statistic of the model was 516.30 (P = 0.000). Integrated Brier Score was 0.076 and Brier scores of the nomogram at the 10-day and 20-day time points were 0.046 and 0.071, respectively. The area under the curves for receiver operating characteristic were 0.819 and 0.828, and precision-recall curves were 0.242 and 0.378 at two time points. Calibration plots and decision curve analysis in the two sets showed good performance and a high net benefit of nomogram. In conclusion, the nomogram developed in the current study has relatively high calibration and is clinically useful. It provides a convenient and useful tool for timely clinical decision-making and the risk management of hospitalised PLWHAs.
Lurasidone is an atypical antipsychotic that demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of adults with schizophrenia in the dose range of 37–148 mg/day.
The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of lurasidone in adolescent patients with schizophrenia.
Adolescents (13–17 years old) diagnosed with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to six weeks of double-blind treatment with lurasidone 37 mg/day, 74 mg/day or placebo. Changes from baseline to week 6 in PANSS total and subscale (positive, negative, general psychopathology, excitability) scores were evaluated using mixed-model repeated-measures analysis.
A total of 326 patients (mean age, 15.4 years) were randomized and received lurasidone 37 mg/day (n = 108), 74 mg/day (n = 106), or placebo (n = 112). The PANSS total score at week 6 demonstrated a placebo-adjusted, least-squares (LS) mean improvement of –8.0 (P < 0.001; effect size [ES], 0.51) for the 37 mg/day group and –7.7 (P < 0.001; ES = 0.48) for the 74 mg/day group. Placebo-adjusted LS mean change for lurasidone 37 mg/day and 74 mg/day, respectively, was –3.2 (P < 0.001; ES = 0.62) and –3.2 (P < 0.001; ES = 0.60) on the PANSS positive subscale, –1.7 (P = 0.011; ES = 0.41) and –1.6 (P = 0.022; ES = 0.35) on the PANSS negative subscale, –2.8 (P = 0.012; ES = 0.38) and –2.8 (P = 0.011; ES = 0.37) on the PANSS general psychopathology subscale, and –1.1 (P = 0.016; ES = 0.36) and –1.8 (P < 0.001; ES = 0.53) on the PANSS excitability subscale.
In adolescent patients with schizophrenia, lurasidone (37 mg/day and 74 mg/day) demonstrated statistically significant efficacy and clinically meaningful improvement across a wide spectrum of symptoms associated with schizophrenia. Sponsored by Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01911429.
Disclosure of interest
Dr Correll reports being a consultant and/or advisor for Alkermes, Forum Pharmaceuticals Inc., Gerson Lehrman Group, IntraCellular Therapies, Janssen/J&J, Lundbeck, Medavante, Medscape, Otsuka, Pfizer Inc, ProPhase, Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc., Supernus, Takeda, and Teva providing expert testimony for Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Janssen, and Otsuka serving on a Data Safety Monitoring Board for Lundbeck and Pfizer Inc and receiving grant support from Takeda. Drs Goldman, Cucchiaro, Deng and Loebel are employees of Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Lurasidone, an atypical antipsychotic, demonstrated efficacy and safety in adults with schizophrenia.
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of lurasidone in adolescent patients with schizophrenia.
Adolescents (13–17 years old) with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to six weeks of double-blind treatment with lurasidone 37 mg/day, 74 mg/day or placebo. An ANCOVA using an LOCF approach was performed to assess change from baseline on secondary study endpoints: Pediatric Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (PQ-LES-Q) and Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS).
Patients were randomized to lurasidone 37 mg/d (n = 108), 74 mg/day (n = 106), or placebo (n = 112). Placebo-adjusted LS mean improvement at week 6 on the PQ-LES-Q was 5.3 (P = 0.001) and 5.8 (P < 0.001) for the 37 mg/day and 74 mg/day groups, respectively; and, on the CGAS was 4.6 (P = 0.002) and 4.9 (P < 0.001) for the 37 mg/day and 74 mg/d groups, respectively. The most common adverse events occurring at ≥ 5% in either lurasidone group and at least twice the rate of placebo were: nausea, somnolence, akathisia, vomiting and sedation. Mean change in weight at week 6 for placebo, 37 mg/day, and 74 mg/day groups was 0.05 kg, 0.17 kg, and 0.49 kg, respectively. Lurasidone treated patients did not show clinically meaningful differences from placebo on laboratory measures of cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and prolactin.
Adolescent patients with schizophrenia treated with lurasidone demonstrated significant improvement in quality of life and function. Lurasidone was generally well-tolerated and associated with minimal changes in weight and metabolic parameters. Sponsored by Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01911429.
Disclosure of interest
Dr. Findling receives or has received research support, acted as a consultant and/or served on a speaker's bureau for Alcobra, American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, American Physician Institute, American Psychiatric Press, Bracket, CogCubed, Cognition Group, Coronado Biosciences, Dana Foundation, Elsevier, Forest, Guilford Press, Ironshore, Johns Hopkins University Press, Jubilant Clinsys, KemPharm, Lundbeck, Merck, NIH, Neurim, Novartis, Otsuka, Oxford University Press, Pfizer, Physicians Postgraduate Press, Purdue, Rhodes Pharmaceuticals, Roche, Sage, Shire, Sunovion, Supernus Pharmaceuticals, Transcept Pharmaceuticals, Tris, Validus, and WebMD. Drs. Goldman, Cucchiaro, Deng, and Loebel are employees of Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Triploid and pentaploid breeding is of great importance in agricultural production, but it is not always easy to obtain double ploidy parents. However, in fishes, chromosome ploidy is diversiform, which may provide natural parental resources for triploid and pentaploid breeding. Both tetraploid and hexaploid exist in Schizothorax fishes, which were thought to belong to different subfamilies with tetraploid Percocypris fishes in morphology, but they are sister genera in molecule. Fortunately, the pentaploid hybrid fishes have been successfully obtained by hybridization of Schizothorax wangchiachii (♀, 2n = 6X = 148) × Percocypris pingi (♂, 2n = 4X = 98). To understand the genetic and morphological difference among the hybrid fishes and their parents, four methods were used in this study: morphology, karyotype, red blood cell (RBC) DNA content determination and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR). In morphology, the hybrid fishes were steady, and between their parents with no obvious preference. The chromosome numbers of P. pingi have been reported as 2n = 4X = 98. In this study, the karyotype of S. wangchiachii was 2n = 6X = 148 = 36m + 34sm + 12st + 66t, while that the hybrid fishes was 2n = 5X = 123 = 39m + 28sm + 5st + 51t. Similarly, the RBC DNA content of the hybrid fishes was intermediate among their parents. In ISSR, the within-group genetic diversity of hybrid fishes was higher than that of their parents. Moreover, the genetic distance of hybrid fishes between P. pingi and S.wangchiachii was closely related to that of their parental ploidy, suggesting that parental genetic material stably coexisted in the hybrid fishes. This is the first report to show a stable pentaploid F1 hybrids produced by hybridization of a hexaploid and a tetraploid in aquaculture.
In this paper, a novel single-cavity triangular substrate-integrated waveguide (TSIW) dual-band filter loading a complementary triangular split ring resonator (CTSRR) is proposed, which has three transmission zeros (TZs) in the stopband in total. The dual-band response is achieved by the CTSRR and the degenerate modes of the TSIW cavity. In order to control the TZs, we propose two adjustment techniques, shift feeding technique and adding via perturbation. In addition, the CTSRR etched on the surface can produce a new TZ in the upper first-passband. Finally, a dual-band filter with three TZs is simulated, fabricated, and measured. There is a good agreement between the simulated results and measured ones.
The aim of the study was to investigate any association between extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR) and intestinal flora of <30-week-old preterm infants. A total of 59 preterm infants were assigned to EUGR (n=23) and non-EUGR (n=36) groups. Intestinal bacteria were compared by using high-throughput sequencing of bacterial rRNA. The total abundance of bacteria in 344 genera (7568 v. 13,760; P<0.0001) and 456 species (10,032 v. 18,240; P<0.0001) was significantly decreased in the EUGR group compared with the non-EUGR group. After application of a multivariate logistic model and adjusting for potential confounding factors, as well as false-discovery rate corrections, we found four bacterial genera with higher and one bacterial genus with lower abundance in the EUGR group compared with the control group. In addition, the EUGR group showed significantly increased abundances of six species (Streptococcus parasanguinis, Bacterium RB5FF6, two Klebsiella species and Microbacterium), but decreased frequencies of three species (one Acinetobacter species, Endosymbiont_of_Sphenophorus_lev and one Enterobacter_species) compared with the non-EUGR group. Taken together, there were significant changes in the intestinal microflora of preterm infants with EUGR compared to preterm infants without EUGR.
Alanyl-glutamine (Ala-Gln), a highly soluble and stable glutamine dipeptide, is known to improve gut integrity and function. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether dietary Ala-Gln supplementation could improve growth performance, intestinal development and digestive-absorption function in weaned piglets. A total of 100 purebred Yorkshire piglets weaned at 21 days of age were assigned randomly to four dietary treatment groups and fed a basal diet (control group) or a basal diet containing 0.15%, 0.30% and 0.45% Ala-Gln, respectively. Compared with the control group, piglets fed the Ala-Gln diets had higher average daily gain and lower feed : gain and diarrhea rate (P < 0.05). Moreover, dietary Ala-Gln supplementation increased villous height and villous height : crypt depth ratio in duodenum and jejunum (P < 0.05), as well as the activities of maltase and lysozyme in jejunum mucosa (P < 0.05). In addition, a decrease in serum diamine oxidase activity and crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum was observed in piglets fed the Ala-Gln diets (P < 0.05). Serum cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) concentration and gene expression of cPLA2, Na+-dependent glucose transporter 1, glucose transporter 2 and peptide transporter 1 in jejunum were increased by feeding Ala-Gln diets relative to control diet (P < 0.05). These results indicated that feeding Ala-Gln diet has beneficial effects on the growth performance of weaned piglets, which associated with maintaining intestinal morphology and digestive-absorption function.
Vessel flexure can be triggered naturally by surgical operation, heart pulsation and body movement. It may affect the mechanical behavior of the stent and the existence of a stent may in turn cause vessel injury. In the present study, the finite element method is employed to study the interaction between stent and vessel during vessel flexure. Two- and four-link stents made of stainless steel 316L and magnesium alloy WE43 are considered. Results indicate that longitudinal deformation of the stent can be caused by vessel flexure, and the higher levels of stress exist in the link struts. The existence of the stent could induce significant stress concentration and straightened deformation on vessel wall in the course of vessel flexure. Stents with more links or made of harder materials show greater anti-deformation capability, thus inducing a more severe stress concentration and straightened deformation on the vessel wall. The bending direction also affects the mechanical performance of the vessel-stent system. The results obtained could provide useful information for better stent designs and clinical decisions.
Ancient ivory, from the Chengdu Jinsha and Guanghan Sanxingdui sites in China, has been buried for several thousand years. In order to determine the degradation mechanisms and to provide a scientific basis for protecting them, these ancient ivory samples have been compared with modern ivory using infrared spectroscopy in the frequency range 400–4000 cm–1. By combining chemical analysis data we compare the crystallinity and crystal chemistry of the apatite component, as well as the structural characteristics of the ivory. These investigations showed that the ancient ivory consists almost entirely of hydroxyl-carbonate apatite as the predominant phase. Compared with the modern ivory, the PO43– and CO32– bands are stronger, the PO4RF values are obviously greater, and an extra OH– band at 3569 cm–1 is observed in the ancient ivory. These results indicate that there is a greater degree of apatite crystallinity in the ancient ivory and also imply that there has been incorporation and recrystallization of CO32– in the apatite during burial. Positive correlations have been found between the apatite crystallinity, CO32– and OH– ion contents, and burial time. The organic matter in ancient ivory has been lost or decomposed as the organic bands (e.g. at 1238 cm–1 and 1337 cm–1) have disappeared. This may be the main reason that ancient ivory is easily dewatered and readily friable after being unearthed.
Many China scholars have explored shirking by local officials and “effective implementation,” but fewer have examined polices that are implemented with great enthusiasm. The Microfinance for Women Programme fits in this last category. Especially in Sichuan, targets for lending were set by the province, exceeded, raised by cities and counties, and then exceeded again. The immediate reason that lending took off in 2012 was the relaxation of collateral requirements that shifted the risk of defaults away from local authorities. But the surge in lending also had deeper roots in the policy's vagueness, institutional incentives, bureaucratic pressure, and local fiscal and organizational interests. Although enthusiastic implementation occurred (and generated much-needed revenues for local governments), the history of the programme also shows that it can be halted, as was the case when instability loomed and the authorities reversed bureaucratic pressure by calling for local cost-sharing and introducing uncertainty over whether interest subsidies would continue.