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Water cultures were significantly more sensitive than concurrently collected swab cultures (n=2,147 each) in detecting Legionella pneumophila within a Veterans Affairs healthcare system. Sensitivity for water versus swab cultures was 90% versus 30% overall, 83% versus 48% during a nosocomial Legionnaires’ disease outbreak, and 93% versus 22% post outbreak.
Runaway electrons, which are generated in a plasma where the induced electric field exceeds a certain critical value, can reach very high energies in the MeV range. For such energetic electrons, radiative losses will contribute significantly to the momentum space dynamics. Under certain conditions, due to radiative momentum losses, a non-monotonic feature – a ‘bump’ – can form in the runaway electron tail, creating a potential for bump-on-tail-type instabilities to arise. Here, we study the conditions for the existence of the bump. We derive an analytical threshold condition for bump appearance and give an approximate expression for the minimum energy at which the bump can appear. Numerical calculations are performed to support the analytical derivations.
In this paper, we present the guiding-centre transformation of the radiation–reaction force of a classical point charge travelling in a non-uniform magnetic field. The transformation is valid as long as the gyroradius of the charged particles is much smaller than the magnetic field non-uniformity length scale, so that the guiding-centre Lie-transform method is applicable. Elimination of the gyromotion time scale from the radiation–reaction force is obtained with the Poisson-bracket formalism originally introduced by Brizard (Phys. Plasmas, vol. 11, 2004, 4429–4438), where it was used to eliminate the fast gyromotion from the Fokker–Planck collision operator. The formalism presented here is applicable to the motion of charged particles in planetary magnetic fields as well as in magnetic confinement fusion plasmas, where the corresponding so-called synchrotron radiation can be detected. Applications of the guiding-centre radiation–reaction force include tracing of charged particle orbits in complex magnetic fields as well as the kinetic description of plasma when the loss of energy and momentum due to radiation plays an important role, e.g. for runaway-electron dynamics in tokamaks.
In a tokamak, trapped electrons subject to a strong electric field cannot run away immediately, because their parallel velocity does not increase over a bounce period. However, they do pinch toward the tokamak center. As they pinch toward the center, the trapping cone becomes more narrow, so eventually they can be detrapped and run away. When they run away, trapped electrons will have a very different signature from circulating electrons subject to the Dreicer mechanism. The characteristics of what are called trapped-electron runaways are identified and quantified, including their distinguishable perpendicular velocity spectrum and radial extent.
The Bovine Respiratory Disease Coordinated Agricultural Project (BRD CAP) is a 5-year project funded by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), with an overriding objective to use the tools of modern genomics to identify cattle that are less susceptible to BRD. To do this, two large genome wide association studies (GWAS) were conducted using a case:control design on preweaned Holstein dairy heifers and beef feedlot cattle. A health scoring system was used to identify BRD cases and controls. Heritability estimates for BRD susceptibility ranged from 19 to 21% in dairy calves to 29.2% in beef cattle when using numerical scores as a semi-quantitative definition of BRD. A GWAS analysis conducted on the dairy calf data showed that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effects explained 20% of the variation in BRD incidence and 17–20% of the variation in clinical signs. These results represent a preliminary analysis of ongoing work to identify loci associated with BRD. Future work includes validation of the chromosomal regions and SNPs that have been identified as important for BRD susceptibility, fine mapping of chromosomes to identify causal SNPs, and integration of predictive markers for BRD susceptibility into genetic tests and national cattle genetic evaluations.
Oats are a uniquely nutritious food as they contain an excellent lipid profile and high amounts of soluble fibre. However, an oat kernel is largely non-digestible and thus must be utilised in milled form to reap its nutritional benefits. Milling is made up of numerous steps, the most important being dehulling to expose the digestible groat, heat processing to inactivate enzymes that cause rancidity, and cutting, rolling or grinding to convert the groat into a product that can be used directly in oatmeal or can be used as a food ingredient in products such as bread, ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and snack bars. Oats can also be processed into oat bran and fibre to obtain high-fibre-containing fractions that can be used in a variety of food products.
Introduction: Digoxin or propranolol are used as first-line enteral agents for treatment of infant supraventricular tachycardia. We used a large national database to determine whether enteral digoxin or propranolol was more effciacious as first-line infant supraventricular tachycardia therapy. Materials and Methods: The Pediatric Health Information System database was queried over 10 years for infants with supraventricular tachycardia initiated on enteral digoxin or propranolol monotherapy. Patients were excluded for Wolff–Parkinson–White, intravenous antiarrhythmics (other than adenosine), or death. Success was considered as discharge on the initiated monotherapy. Risk factors for successful monotherapy and risk factors for readmission for supraventricular tachycardia for patients discharged on monotherapy were determined. Results: A total of 374 patients (59.6% male) met the study criteria. Median length of stay was 7 days (interquartile range of 3–16 days). Patients had CHD (n=199, 53.2%) and underwent cardiac surgery (n=123, 32.9%), ICU admission (n=238, 63.6%), mechanical ventilation (n=146, 39.0%), and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (n=3, 0.8%). Pharmacotherapy initiation was at median 37 days of life (interquartile range of 12–127 days) and 47.3% were initiated on digoxin. Success was similar between digoxin (73.1%) and propranolol (73.5%). Initial therapy with digoxin was not associated with success (odds ratio 1.01, 95% CI 0.64–1.61, p=0.93). Multivariable analysis demonstrated hospital length of stay (odds ratio 0.98, 95% CI 0.98–1.00) and involvement of a paediatric cardiologist (odds ratio 0.46, 95% CI 0.29–0.75) associated with monotherapy failure, and male gender (odds ratio 1.66, 95% CI 1.03–2.67) associated with monotherapy success. No variables were significant for readmission on multivariable analysis. Discussion: Digoxin or propranolol may be equally efficacious for inpatient treatment of infant supraventricular tachycardia.
The late Maastrichtian to Late Paleocene seismostratigraphic record of the Roer Valley Graben provides new data on the timing and dynamics of stress changes related to the intra-plate deformation of northwestern Europe. During the deposition of late Maastrichtian to middle Danian limestones, no severe tectonic movements occurred in the southern part of the Roer Valley Graben. Around the late Danian, a known fundamental change in the European intra-plate stress field initiated an increase in subsidence of the southern part of the Roer Valley Graben. Subsidence along the graben border zone enabled relatively thick accumulations of the latest Danian to mid-Selandian siliciclastics in the intra-graben zone. Subsidence was not bounded by large offsets along faults, but rather by flexuring within and along the borders of the Roer Valley Graben. The intensity of these dynamics diminished after the middle Selandian. Most likely due to inherited intra-basinal structural differences, the northern and southern part of the Roer Valley Graben experienced distinctly different late Maastrichtian to Late Paleocene tectonics.
Although arrhythmias are commonly found in patients with all different types of congenital heart disease, perhaps no patient is at higher risk of late development of arrhythmias that may result in sudden death than in the patient following tetralogy of Fallot repair. Despite major improvement in the surgical repair of this disease, a significant percentage of these patients continue to remain at risk for the late development of arrhythmias, and a small percentage will develop life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden death. Which patients remain at highest risk is still not clearly delineated. Diligent arrhythmia surveillance and aggressive treatment strategies are necessary to minimise this risk. This article highlights important strategies to manage arrhythmia development and prevention in this patient population.
Background: Children with decompensated heart failure are at high risk for arrhythmias, and ventricular assist device placement is becoming a more common treatment strategy. The impact of ventricular assist devices on arrhythmias and how arrhythmias affect the clinical course of this population are not well described. Methods and results: A single-centre retrospective analysis of children receiving a ventricular assist device between 1998 and 2011 was performed. In all, 45 patients received 56 ventricular assist devices. The median age at initial placement was 13 years (interquartile range 6–15). The median duration of support was 10 days (range 2–260). The aetiology of heart failure included cardiomyopathy, transplant rejection, myocarditis, and congenital heart disease. In all, 32 patients (71%) had an arrhythmia; 19 patients (42%) had an arrhythmia before ventricular assist device and eight patients (18%) developed new arrhythmias on ventricular assist device. Ventricular tachycardia was most common (25/32, 78%). There was no correlation between arrhythmia and risk of death or transplantation (p=0.14). Of the 15 patients who weaned from ventricular assist device, post-ventricular assist device arrhythmias occurred in nine (60%), with five (33%) having their first arrhythmia after weaning. Patients with ventricular dysfunction after ventricular assist device were more likely to have arrhythmias (p<0.02). Conclusions: Arrhythmias, especially ventricular, are common in children requiring ventricular assist device. They frequently persist for those able to wean from ventricular assist device.
College students are susceptible to upper respiratory infections (URI) due to inadequate sleep, stress and close living quarters. Certain probiotic strains modulate immune function and may improve health-related quality of life (HRQL) during URI. The present study recruited apparently healthy college students and assessed the effect of probiotics on HRQL outcomes (i.e. self-reported duration, symptom severity and functional impairment of URI) in those who developed URI. Missed school and work days due to URI were also considered. Subjects (n 231) were apparently healthy college students living on campus in residence halls at the Framingham State University (Framingham, MA, USA), and were randomised to receive placebo (n 117) or probiotic-containing powder (daily dose of minimum 1 billion colony-forming units of each Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG® (LGG®) and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12® (BB-12®); n 114) for 12 weeks. Subjects completed The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 to assess HRQL during URI. The final analyses included 198 subjects (placebo, n 97 and probiotics, n 101). The median duration of URI was significantly shorter by 2 d and median severity score was significantly lower by 34 % with probiotics v. placebo (P< 0·001), indicating a higher HRQL during URI. Number of missed work days was not different between groups (P= 0·429); however, the probiotics group missed significantly fewer school days (mean difference = 0·2 d) compared to the placebo group (P= 0·002). LGG® and BB-12® may be beneficial among college students with URI for mitigating decrements in HRQL. More research is warranted regarding mechanisms of action associated with these findings and the cost–benefit of prophylactic supplementation.
The negative effect of invasive species on native species, communities, and ecosystems is widely recognized, and the economic effects in the United States are estimated to be billions of dollars annually. Studies often examine traits of nonnative species or examine what makes a particular habitat invasible. To better understand the factors governing invasions, we used the flora of Nebraska to characterize and compare native and nonnative plant occurrences throughout the state. In addition, we assessed four critical landscape predictors of nonnative plant richness: human population size and three land cover attributes that included percentage of grassland, percentage of agriculture, and percentage of public lands. Results indicated that individual plant species richness has increased by about 35% through invasions (primarily of annuals from the family Poaceae). In addition, human population density, percentage of agriculture, and percentage of public lands all show a positive association with nonnative plant richness. Successful plant invasions may change the composition of species communities, basic ecological functions, and the delivery of ecosystem services. Thus, identifying the factors that influence such variation in distribution patterns can be fundamental to recognizing the present and potential future extent of nonnative plant infestations and, in turn, developing appropriate management programs.
Young people with self-experienced cognitive thought and perception deficits (basic symptoms) may present with an early initial prodromal state (EIPS) of psychosis in which most of the disability and neurobiological deficits of schizophrenia have not yet occurred.
To investigate the effects of an integrated psychological intervention (IPI), combining individual cognitive–behavioural therapy, group skills training, cognitive remediation and multifamily psychoeducation, on the prevention of psychosis in the EIPS.
A randomised controlled, multicentre, parallel group trial of 12 months of IPI v. supportive counselling (trial registration number: NCT00204087). Primary outcome was progression to psychosis at 12- and 24-month follow-up.
A total of 128 help-seeking out-patients in an EIPS were randomised. Integrated psychological intervention was superior to supportive counselling in preventing progression to psychosis at 12-month follow-up (3.2% v. 16.9%; P = 0.008) and at 24-month follow-up (6.3% v. 20.0%; P = 0.019).
Integrated psychological intervention appears effective in delaying the onset of psychosis over a 24-month time period in people in an EIPS.
We have fabricated numerous magnetometers using our high temperature superconducting (HTS) Josephson junctions. These Josephson junctions are fabricated in a superconducting-normal-superconducting ramp edge configuration1 with silver doped YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) for the superconducting electrodes and PrBa2Cu3O7, (PBCO) for the normal layer. Small inductance quantum interference devices (SQUEDs) made from this junction technology have a transfer function exceeding 150 microvolts per flux quanta and a flux noise of 5×10−6flux quanta per root hertz. In addition, we have established that these junctions have identical electrical characteristics after either a year of storage or repeated thermal cycling. We have also examined the trade-off of 1/f noise versus thermal noise that is obtained as we vary the critical current of the devices.
The SQUID magnetometers were made using galvanically coupled input coils. These devices exhibit excellent operational characteristics in the geomagnetic field. They functioned in an unshielded environment for more than 24 hours and operated in a moving dewar (without any feedback fields to compensate the changing applied field) - both without flux trapping. Noise characteristics under these conditions are presented.
Microwave heating is used to activate solid phase epitaxial re-growth of amorphous silicon layers on single crystal silicon substrates. Layers of single crystal silicon were made amorphous through ion implantation with varying doses of boron or arsenic. Microwave processing occurred inside a 2.45 GHz, 1300 W cavity applicator microwave system for time-durations of 1-120 minutes. Sample temperatures were monitored using optical pyrometery. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy were used to monitor crystalline quality in as-implanted and annealed samples. Sheet resistance readings show dopant activation occurring in both boron and arsenic implanted samples. In samples with large doses of arsenic, the defects resulting from vacancies and/or micro cluster precipitates are seen in transmission electron micrographs. Materials properties are used to explain microwave heating of silicon and demonstrate that the damage created in the implantation process serves to enhance microwave absorption.