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How did Africans become 'blacks' in the Americas? Becoming Free, Becoming Black tells the story of enslaved and free people of color who used the law to claim freedom and citizenship for themselves and their loved ones. Their communities challenged slaveholders' efforts to make blackness synonymous with slavery. Looking closely at three slave societies - Cuba, Virginia, and Louisiana - Alejandro de la Fuente and Ariela J. Gross demonstrate that the law of freedom - not slavery - established the meaning of blackness in law. Contests over freedom determined whether and how it was possible to move from slave to free status, and whether claims to citizenship would be tied to racial identity. Laws regulating the lives and institutions of free people of color created the boundaries between black and white, the rights reserved to white people, and the degradations imposed only on black people.
This paper reviews the use of video games for measuring intelligence differences and reports two studies analyzing the relationship between intelligence and performance on a leisure video game. In the first study, the main focus was to design an Intelligence Test using puzzles from the video game. Forty-seven young participants played “Professor Layton and the curious village”® for a maximum of 15 hours and completed a set of intelligence standardized tests. Results show that the time required for completing the game interacts with intelligence differences: the higher the intelligence, the lower the time (d = .91). Furthermore, a set of 41 puzzles showed excellent psychometric properties. The second study, done seven years later, confirmed the previous findings. We finally discuss the pros and cons of video games as tools for measuring cognitive abilities with commercial video games, underscoring that psychologists must develop their own intelligence video games and delineate their key features for the measurement devices of next generation.
Enhancing the quality of beef meat is an important goal in terms of improving both the nutritional value for the consumer and the commercial value for producers. The aim of this work was to study the effects of different vegetable oil supplements on growth performance, carcass quality and meat quality in beef steers reared under intensive conditions. A total of 240 Blonde D’ Aquitaine steers (average BW=293.7±38.88 kg) were grouped into 24 batches (10 steers/batch) and were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments (eight batches per treatment), each supplemented with either 4% hydrogenated palm oil (PALM) or fatty acids (FAs) from olive oil (OLI) or soybean oil (SOY). No differences in growth performance or carcass quality were observed. For the meat quality analysis, a steer was randomly selected from each batch and the 6th rib on the left half of the carcass was dissected. PALM meat had the highest percentage of 16:0 (P<0.05) and the lowest n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio (P<0.05), OLI had the highest content of t11-18:1 (P<0.01) and c9,t11-18:2 (P<0.05) and SOY showed the lowest value of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (P<0.001), the highest percentage of PUFA (P<0.01) and a lower index of atherogenicity (P=0.07) than PALM. No significant differences in the sensory characteristics of the meat were noted. However, the results of the principal component analysis of meat characteristics enabled meat from those steers that consumed fatty acids from olive oil to be differentiated from that of steers that consumed soybean oil.
The highlight of this work is the synthesis of copper sulfide nanocrystals by a simple one-pot colloidal process, and the study of its electrochemical, electrical and morphological properties. Nanocrystals of Cu1.8S of about 15-30 nm were obtained at a temperature of 240°C under an argon atmosphere. The colloidal solution of the nanocrystals was analyzed by cyclic voltammetry. Agreeing to the values of EOx and ERedvs. SCE, and the average of three samples the HOMO and LUMO levels are 6.16 and 4.27 eV, respectively, the calculated HOMO – LUMO (Eg) is 1.89 eV. The Eg value, differs of that value obtained from Kubelka-Munk equation (1.7 eV). The photocurrent vs. time results showed that the Cu1.8S/Cu junction is photosensitive and could be used as absorbing material. The morphology and the topography of the film were analyzed by SEM and AFM techniques. Irregular agglomeration of nanocrystals was observed and a roughness of about 194 nm.
Epidemiological research confirms that the prevalence of suboptimal micronutrient intakes across Europe is an emerging concern in terms of public health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between a new index of carbohydrate (CHO) quality and micronutrient intake adequacy in the ‘Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN)’ cohort. The baseline assessment extended from 1999 to March 2012. We assessed 16 841 participants who completed a validated 136-item semi-quantitative FFQ at baseline. We created a new index to evaluate CHO quality for the following four criteria: dietary fibre intake; glycaemic index; whole grains:total grains ratio; solid CHO:total CHO ratio. The subjects were classified into quintiles according to this index. We evaluated the intakes of Zn, I, Se, Fe, Ca, K, P, Mg, Cr and vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, C, A, D, E and folic acid. The probability of intake adequacy was evaluated using the estimated average requirement cut-point approach and the probabilistic approach. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the nutritional adequacy according to the CHO quality index (CQI). Participants in the highest quintile of CQI were found to have the lowest prevalence of inadequacy. A higher quality of CHO intake was found to be associated with a lower risk of nutritional inadequacy in comparison with the lowest quintile of CQI (adjusted OR 0·06, 95 % CI 0·02, 0·16; P for trend < 0·001). A higher CQI was found to be strongly associated with better micronutrient intake adequacy in the young Mediterranean cohort, stressing the importance of focusing nutritional education not only on CHO quantity, but also on quality.
The diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are a set of absorption features, some of which are broad (“diffuse”), that are formed in the diffuse ISM. Since their discovery nearly a century ago their numbers have increased to over 500. The strongest of these are known to be ubiquitous in the universe. There is general consensus that they are produced by large carbon-bearing molecules; however, no specific identification of any single DIB has survived scrutiny. The overwhelming majority of DIBs are at optical and very near infrared wavelengths. In 1990 two DIBs were identified in J-band spectra, at 1.18 μm and 1.31 μm by Joblin et al. (1990); until recently these were the longest wavelength examples known.
To assess the long-term relationship between tree nut consumption and the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS).
Nut consumption was collected using a validated 136-item FFQ. The MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation and American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute harmonizing definition. The association between nut consumption and MetS was assessed with logistic regression models adjusting for potential confounders. We compared the incidence of MetS between extreme categories of nut intake (≥2 servings/week v. never/almost never) after 6 years of follow-up.
The SUN Project (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra, University of Navarra Follow-up) is a prospective cohort study, formed of Spanish university graduates. Information is gathered by mailed questionnaires collected biennially. Nut consumption and MetS information was collected by self-reported data.
Participants (n 9887) initially free of MetS or diabetes and followed up for a minimum of 6 years were included.
We observed 567 new cases of MetS during follow-up. Participants who consumed nuts ≥2 servings/week presented a 32 % lower risk of developing MetS than those who never/almost never consumed (adjusted OR = 0·68, 95 % CI 0·50, 0·92). The inverse association was stronger among participants who were health professionals.
Nut consumption was significantly associated with lower risk of developing MetS after a 6-year follow-up period in a cohort of Spanish graduates.
Bismuth superconducting oriented fibers of the compositions 2:2:1:2: and 2:2:2:3 have been grown by the Laser Floating Zone (LFZ) method. Growth conditions have been optimized in order to improve the superconducting properties. The 108 K onset in susceptibility measurements (associated to the 2:2:2:3 phase) only appears well defined when starting from Sr-defective precursors.
A comparative study of lithium insertion in W4Nb26O77 and W3Nb14O44, two block structure type phases, has been carried out. This process is, in both cases, reversible for a similar number of lithium ions incorporated to total metal atoms ratio (Li/ΣM), 1.15 in W3Nb14O44 and 1.23 in W4Nb26O77. No significant structural changes are seen by X-ray diffraction upon insertion. Sodium insertion in W3Nb14O44 has been also studied observing a substantial reduction on the number of ions incorporated when compared with lithium (Na/ΣM: 0.03).
We present evidence for the operation on reconstructed Au(001) of a novel mechanism, involving dislocation motion, which is much more efficient than surface diffusion to redistribute mass around nanoindentations. Cross-slip of individual dislocations generated around the indentation point, with a screw component perpendicular to the surface, is shown to be responsible for the generation of multiple-storied, crystallographically-oriented terraces around the nanoindentation points. We also show that standard dislocation theory can be used to quantitatively describe the characteristics of the dislocations involved in the different processes around the nanoindentation.
STM and molecular dynamics simulations are used to study Au(001) 5×25 reconstructed surfaces after Ar+ bombardment at 600 eV and ion doses from 0.05 to 1 ML+. Surface 2D dislocation dipoles, identified as such in a previous investigation, are shown to have dislocation properties and to be formed by anisotropic diffusion of surface vacancies along the ridges of the reconstructed topmost layer. A new vacancy diffusion mechanism involving intermediate states with de-localized vacancies is identified. Increasing ion fluences is shown to lead to the formation of vacancy islands that are nucleated at the dislocation dipoles.
The ancient technology involved in the application of pigments and paintings used by potters to decorate ceramic vessels is one of the most interesting aspects of ceramic technology in the past. Potters have used in the past several sources (e.g. inorganic and organic) to decorate the vessels in order to achieve the colours desired and fix them in the vessels throughout the firing process. In this paper, we present the results of a technological and chemical characterisation of pigments and paintings through the application of Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) to ceramics from the Middle Period (ca. 650 AD – 900 AD) at Northwestern Argentine region.
The effect of bovine embryo culture on a flat surface, (without a surface-active compound) on the level of mRNA expression of hyaluronan (HA) synthases (Has1, Has2 and Has3), Ha receptors RHAMM and C44 receptors was evaluated by mitochondrial DNA concentration and in vitro development. Cultures were evaluated up to 96 h post-insemination (hpi) using SOFaa medium. Of the three Has isoforms, Has2 expression only increased in the bovine serum albumin (BSA)-only supplemented groups regardless of time of BSA addition. Expression of RHAMM receptors was highly dependent on the addition of HA, irrespective of the presence of BSA in the medium. In contrast, expression of the CD44 receptor gene was not affected by any treatment. The cleavage rates and number of embryos that developed to ≤8-cell stage by day 4 were not affected by lack of BSA in the medium, but increased numbers of blastocysts developed in medium supplemented with BSA from days 1 or 4 with or without HA than in medium that had HA only. Addition of both HA and BSA at day 4 increased mtDNA copy numbers at the blastocyst stage. Data suggest that the addition of BSA and/or HA at 96 hpi increased expression of RHAMM and Has2 genes, but not CD44, Has1 or Has3 genes. Higher expression levels of Has2 than Has1 and the three isoforms indicate that high- rather than low-molecular-weight HA should be used for preimplantation bovine embryo culture.
In sheep, the traditional chemical control of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasites with anthelmintics has led to the widespread development of anthelmintic resistance. The selection of sheep with enhanced resistance to GIN parasites has been suggested as an alternative strategy to develop sustainable control of parasite infections. Most of the estimations of the genetic parameters for sheep resistance to GIN parasites have been obtained from young animals belonging to meat- and/or wool-specialised breeds. We present here the estimated genetic parameters for four parasite resistance traits studied in a commercial population of adult Spanish Churra dairy ewes. These involved two faecal egg counts (FECs) (LFEC0 and LFEC1) and two serum indicator traits, the anti-Teladorsagia circumcincta fourth stage larvae IgA (IgA) and the pepsinogen (Peps) levels. In addition, this study has allowed us to identify the environmental factors influencing parasite resistance in naturally infected Spanish Churra sheep and to quantify the genetic component of this complex phenotype. The heritabilities estimated for the two FECs analysed (0.12 for LFEC0 and 0.09 for LFEC1) were lower than those obtained for the examined serum indicators (0.19 for IgA and 0.21 for Peps). The genetic correlations between the traits ranged from 0.43 (Peps−IgA) to 0.82 (LFEC0−LFEC1) and were higher than their phenotypic counterparts, which ranged between 0.07 and 0.10. The heritabilities estimated for the studied traits were lower than previously reported in lambs. This may be due to the differences in the immune mechanisms controlling the infection in young (antibody reactions) and adult (hypersensitivity reactions) animals/sheep. In summary, this study demonstrates the presence of heritable variation in parasite resistance indicator traits in the Churra population studied, which suggests that genetic improvement is feasible for this complex trait in this population. However, further studies in which the experimental variables are controlled as much as possible are needed to identify the best trait that could be measured routinely in adult sheep as an indicator of parasite resistance.
To evaluate the effect of stocking density and transport time on physiological responses and meat quality, 72 male suckling lambs were transported by road to the slaughterhouse at three different stocking densities (0.12, 0.20 or 0.25 m2/lamb) and two transport times (5 h or 30 min). Blood samples were collected pre-transport at the farm and after unloading in the slaughterhouse to measure levels of cortisol, creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). After slaughter, the weights of the hot carcass, liver and spleen were recorded and pH in Musculuslongisimus thoracisetlumborum (L), Musculussemitendinosus (ST) and Musculuspsoas major (PM) were determined. Colour, water-holding capacity (WHC), texture and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values were measured in samples of L, at 24 h post mortem and after 5 days of ageing. Cortisol and LDH were higher in suckling lambs transported for 30 min than those transported for 5 h. Stocking density did not affect blood parameters studied. Transport time significantly affected some carcass quality parameters, but stocking density had no significant effect. Suckling lambs transported for 5 h had lower liver weights and dressing percentages than those transported for 30 min. Transport time influenced pH values, with lambs subjected to the longer journey showing the lowest pH at 0 h in the three muscles studied, with the lowest final pH in L and PM. The PM lambs transported at high density (0.12 m2/lamb) had the lowest pH at 24 h. Transport time and stocking density did not greatly affect colour and texture parameters. The meat from lambs transported for 30 min had higher WHC than meat from lambs transported for 5 h. Animals transported for longer journeys showed higher lipid oxidation after 5 days of ageing than those transported for 30 min. Loading and initial transport caused significant stress response in suckling lambs, that stress response was reduced over the time course of the journey.