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Two-step, solar-driven thermochemical fuel production offers the potential of efficient conversion of solar energy into dispatchable chemical fuel. Success relies on the availability of materials that readily undergo redox reactions in response to changes in environmental conditions. Those with a low enthalpy of reduction can typically be reduced at moderate temperatures, important for practical operation. However, easy reducibility has often been accompanied by surprisingly poor fuel production kinetics. Using the La1−xSrxMnO3 series of perovskites as an example, we show that poor fuel production rates are a direct consequence of the diminished enthalpy. Thus, material development efforts will need to balance the countering thermodynamic influences of reduction enthalpy on fuel production capacity and fuel production rate.
To determine if total lifetime physical activity (PA) is associated with better cognitive functioning with aging and if cerebrovascular function mediates this association. A sample of 226 (52.2% female) community dwelling middle-aged and older adults (66.5±6.4 years) in the Brain in Motion Study, completed the Lifetime Total Physical Activity Questionnaire and underwent neuropsychological and cerebrovascular blood flow testing. Multiple robust linear regressions were used to model the associations between lifetime PA and global cognition after adjusting for age, sex, North American Adult Reading Test results (i.e., an estimate of premorbid intellectual ability), maximal aerobic capacity, body mass index and interactions between age, sex, and lifetime PA. Mediation analysis assessed the effect of cerebrovascular measures on the association between lifetime PA and global cognition. Post hoc analyses assessed past year PA and current fitness levels relation to global cognition and cerebrovascular measures. Better global cognitive performance was associated with higher lifetime PA (p=.045), recreational PA (p=.021), and vigorous intensity PA (p=.004), PA between the ages of 0 and 20 years (p=.036), and between the ages of 21 and 35 years (p<.0001). Cerebrovascular measures did not mediate the association between PA and global cognition scores (p>.5), but partially mediated the relation between current fitness and global cognition. This study revealed significant associations between higher levels of PA (i.e., total lifetime, recreational, vigorous PA, and past year) and better cognitive function in later life. Current fitness levels relation to cognitive function may be partially mediated through current cerebrovascular function. (JINS, 2015, 21, 816–830)
In recent years, narrative interpretations of selfhood in Kierkegaard's works have provided a fertile basis for approaching a range of issues in moral psychology that are important in their own right. It is interesting how much these debates have started to focus less on Kierkegaard interpretation and more on developing Kierkegaard's insights to make headway on some of the perennial questions of philosophical anthropology. Anthony Rudd and I have defended ‘narrative realist’ accounts of selves that draw on Kierkegaard for inspiration. Likewise, several papers in this volume challenge these narrative theories on their merits, and especially as ways to understand ethical and religious ideals. I cannot do justice to the rich range of new questions raised in these contributions, but I will focus on three in particular. These are Walter Wietzke's suggestion that a rich conception of the human telos rather than narrative form is doing the heavy lifting in recent Kierkegaardian narrativist theories; John Lippitt's argument that forms of ambivalence incompatible with wholeheartedness may be needed both in coming to terms with psychic conflict and in forgiveness; and Eleanor Helms’ claim, supported by Kierkegaard and Kermode, that we can only hope for endings that yield a coherent story – in both artworks and real human lives. I am indebted to all three for these challenging questions about the adequacy of my own conception of practical identities as ‘narravives’, that is, living processes of accumulating meaning-relations with a narrative-like temporal structure that partly precede explicit ‘telling’ or reflective explanation.
In what follows, I will address Lippitt's suggestions first before turning to Wietzke's critique and finally to Helms’ redeployment of the ‘eschatological’ interpretation of existential faith as a paradigm for narratival completion in general. Wietzke's challenge is deepest in its potential dangers for narrativist readings of Kierkegaard (and selfhood in general), because it holds that a controversial conception of our telos is needed to ground the superiority of the ethical life-orientation defended by the Judge in Either-Or II. Thus it implies that the demands of narrative unity do not help explain or justify the telos involved in the ethical stage – which I have characterised as including ‘existential autonomy’ (the type of self-governance needed for responsibility for one's character), but which may also include flourishing or a robust kind of first-personal life-meaning.
Incidental findings arising from imaging research have important implications for patient safety. Magnetic resonance imaging is widespread in multiple sclerosis (MS) studies and care, yet the prevalence rate of incidental findings in MS is poorly defined. The absence of such reports in the MS literature suggests that such findings may be deemed inappropriate for documentation in research publications, or possibly, not fully reported at all.
We sought to document incidental findings from a study designed to detect features of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) in MS patients and control subjects.
Magnetic resonance images were obtained as part of a prospective study conducted between October 2010 and September 2012. Patients with MS (relapsing-remitting, primary progressive, secondary progressive), clinically isolated syndromes, and neuromyelitis optica and age/sex-matched healthy controls were included. All images were reviewed by neuro-radiologists for quality-control purposes.
Magnetic resonance imaging was successfully obtained in 166 participants (110 patients, 56 controls). Incidental abnormalities (n = 33) were detected in 15% of patients (n = 17) and 27% of controls (n = 15), comprising 19% overall (n = 32).
The prevalence of incidental findings from the MS population was not significantly different from the control population. However, the overall prevalence was high and warrants a careful management strategy for future imaging studies.
We describe the data being collected from the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study in Australia as part of the US National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-funded project, Pathways to Cannabis Use, Abuse and Dependence. The history, recruitment, assessment, and retention of twin families in this project are described in detail, along with preliminary findings and plans for future research. The goal of this NIDA project is to make a significant contribution to the discovery of quantitative trait loci influencing cannabis use disorders. Although the focus is cannabis use, abuse, and dependence in young adults, measures of comorbid illicit drug use disorders are also being collected. In addition, a variety of internalizing and externalizing disorders are being assessed, funded by support from the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. Because these same twins have participated in numerous twin studies since 1992, future plans will include linking different phenotypes to investigate relationships between drug use, psychiatric disorders, and psychological phenotypes within cross-sectional and longitudinal or developmental frameworks.
Genetic studies in adults indicate that genes influencing the personality trait of neuroticism account for substantial genetic variance in anxiety and depression and in somatic health. Here, we examine for the first time the factors underlying the relationship between neuroticism and anxiety/depressive and somatic symptoms during adolescence.
The Somatic and Psychological Health Report (SPHERE) assessed symptoms of anxiety/depression (PSYCH-14) and somatic distress (SOMA-10) in 2459 adolescent and young adult twins [1168 complete pairs (35.4% monozygotic, 53% female)] aged 12–25 years (mean=15.5±2.9). Differences between boys and girls across adolescence were explored for neuroticism, SPHERE-34, and the subscales PSYCH-14 and SOMA-10. Trivariate analyses partitioned sources of covariance in neuroticism, PSYCH-14 and SOMA-10.
Girls scored higher than boys on both neuroticism and SPHERE, with SPHERE scores for girls increasing slightly over time, whereas scores for boys decreased or were unchanged. Neuroticism and SPHERE scores were strongly influenced by genetic factors [heritability (h2)=40–52%]. A common genetic source influenced neuroticism, PSYCH-14 and SOMA-10 (impacting PSYCH-14 more than SOMA-10). A further genetic source, independent of neuroticism, accounted for covariation specific to PSYCH-14 and SOMA-10. Environmental influences were largely specific to each measure.
In adolescence, genetic risk factors indexed by neuroticism contribute substantially to anxiety/depression and, to a lesser extent, perceived somatic health. Additional genetic covariation between anxiety/depressive and somatic symptoms, independent of neuroticism, had greatest influence on somatic distress, where it was equal in influence to the factor shared with neuroticism.
We present the first assessments of the population, distribution and conservation status of the recently described kipunji Rungwecebus kipunji in forests in the Southern Highlands and Udzungwa Mountains of southern Tanzania. Surveys totalling 2,864 hours and covering 3,456 km of transects were undertaken to determine distribution and group numbers, following which 772 hours of simultaneous multi-group observations in Rungwe-Kitulo and Ndundulu forests, in the Southern Highlands and Udzungwa Mountains respectively, enabled 209 total counts to be carried out. We estimate there are c. 1,042 individuals in Rungwe-Kitulo, with 25–39 individuals per group (mean 30.65 ± SE 0.62, n = 34), and 75 individuals, with 15–25 per group (mean 18.75 ± SE 2.39, n = 4) in Ndundulu. We estimate a total kipunji population of 1,117 in 38 groups, with 15–39 per group (mean 29.39 ± SE 0.85, n = 38). The Ndundulu population may no longer be viable and the Rungwe-Kitulo population is highly fragmented, with isolated sub-populations in degraded habitat. We recorded areas of occupancy of 1,079 and 199 ha in Rungwe-Kitulo and Ndundulu, respectively, giving a total of 1,278 ha. We estimate the species’ extent of occurrence to be 1,769 ha, with 1,241 and 528 ha in Rungwe-Kitulo and Ndundulu, respectively. We believe the kipunji faces an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild and recommend the species and genus be categorized as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List.
Paula D. McClain, Professor, Department of Political Science, Duke University,
Victoria M. DeFrancesco Soto, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Northwestern University,
Monique L. Lyle, Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Political Science, Duke University,
Niambi M. Carter, Visiting Assistant Professor, Department of Political Sciences, Duke University,
Gerald F. Lackey, Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Sociology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill,
Jeffrey D. Grynaviski, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Chicago,
Kendra Davenport Cotton, Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Political Science, University, North Carolina, Chapel Hill,
Shayla C. Nunnally, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Connecticut,
Thomas J. Scotto, Assistant Professor, Department of Government, University of Essex,
J. Alan Kendrick, Graduate School, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
The United States is becoming more racially and ethnically diverse as a function of immigration, both legal and illegal, from Asia, Mexico, and Latin America. Latinos are the fastest growing population, and in 2000, Latinos replaced African Americans as the largest minority group in the United States. Although much of the media and scholarly attention has focused on demographic changes in traditional Latino immigrant destinations such as California, New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona, the rapid growth in Latino populations is occurring across the nation. The South has undergone a particularly dramatic alteration in terms of racial composition, with six of seven states tripling the size of their Latino populations between 1990 and 2000. This settlement of Latinos in the South is no more than ten to fifteen years old, and new immigrants from Mexico and Latin America are settling in states like North Carolina, Georgia, and Tennessee (Durand, Massey, and Carvet 2000). They bring ethnic and cultural diversity to areas previously defined exclusively as black and white.
Not only have new Latino populations migrated to urban and suburban locations in the South, they also have settled in small towns and rural areas, reinforcing projections of the “Latinization” of the American South. Examples of these “New Latino Destinations” (Suro and Singer 2000) include cities such as Atlanta, Georgia; Charlotte, Greensboro-Winston Salem, and Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina; Nashville and Memphis, Tennessee; and Greenville, South Carolina.
Natural Mn oxides are an important component of biogeochemical cycles in many environmental settings. Mn oxides are strong oxidizing agents, facilitating the breakdown of organic contaminants and enhancing humification of soil organic matter. Interactions with metals and radionuclides, including surface adsorption, sequestration and oxidation can lead to incorporation of metals into insoluble mineral phases and a consequent reduction in bioavailability of toxic contaminants. Because of these properties, addition of Mn oxides may prove an effective treatment method for land contaminated by a range of organic and inorganic contaminants.
Dramatic demographic changes are occurring in the United States, and some of the most dramatic changes are occurring in the South from Latino immigration. Latinos, by and large, are an entirely new population in the region. How are Black southerners reacting to this new population? Using survey data gathered from a southern location, this article explores several questions related to whether Blacks see these new residents as friendly neighbors or economic competitors. Results suggest that Blacks and non-Blacks perceive a potential economic threat from continued Latino immigration, but Blacks are more concerned about the effects of Latino immigration than are Whites.
The effect of tidal emersion on the epifauna of three common British intertidal macroalgae, Cladophora rupestris (Chlorophyceae), Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae) and Fucus serratus (Phaeophyceae) was investigated. Tidally-induced migration of intertidal fauna is well documented, but the aim of this study was to determine the effect of algal complexity on the degree of change in epifaunal community structure between tidal states. The structural complexity of each algal species was determined by measuring the fractal dimension (D) of algal outlines (1.76, 1.23 and 1.11 respectively for the three species). In the case of L. digitata, a weighted value for D was used to take account of the varying morphologies of the holdfast, stipe and blade. The hypotheses tested were: (i) that increased algal fractal complexity is associated with increased abundance and diversity of associated epifaunal communities; (ii) that community composition is significantly reduced during emersion in intertidal algae (due to faunal migration); and (iii) that the degree of migration due to the receding tide is significantly reduced in more geometrically complex algae. Overall, faunal communities associated with C. rupestris were significantly more abundant and diverse than those associated with the other algal species investigated. No significant migration away from seaweeds was observed for any faunal taxon from any of the algal species studied during emersion. However, harpacticoid copepod abundance increased significantly on L. digitata at low tide. It is likely that these copepods were associated with the holdfast or underside of the lamina for protection from desiccation and the elements. This suggested an advantage associated with inhabiting low shore macroalgae during emersion compared with migration into the subtidal zone.
Locomotion of the box jellyfish Chiropsalmus sp. (cf quadrigatus)1 (Haeckel) and Chironex fleckeri (Southcott) was analysed using digital video. Specimens of Chiropsalmus sp. and C. fleckeri were collected in 2001 and 2002, respectively, from coastal waters of Northern Queensland, Australia. Chiropsalmus sp. animals were videoed swimming in an aquarium, and C. fleckeri in a large outdoor tank. Locomotor sequences of nine Chiropsalmus sp. and seven C. fleckeri individuals were analysed using video techniques. A subset of animals had fluorescent dye injected into the sub-umbrellar cavity, to allow observation of water movements during ejection from the bell. Both species used an intermittent style of jet propulsion similar to that documented for some other species of cubozoan medusae. Computer analysis allowed examination of positions of bell parts over time intervals (0.04 s) by comparing coordinates of nodes marked on various bell parts using imaging software. Examination of node coordinates allowed a detailed qualitative description of gait, in addition to quantitative statistical analyses. General linear modelling showed that interspecific differences in locomotion were explicable in terms of body size. Larger animals of both species tended to swim faster, and with a lower pulse frequency, than smaller individuals. Smaller animals also tended to swim faster relative to their bell diameter.
Asymptomatic carriage of Neisseria meningitidis is common (5–35% of individuals) while the incidence of invasive meningococcal disease is fairly low (<1–5 per 100000 per annum in Europe). Naturally acquired protective immunity may account for this difference. In this study, we investigated the relationship between anti-meningococcal salivary IgA and age and carriage. We showed that salivary IgA to a range of meningococcal antigens increased successively with age with some specificity for commonly circulating serosubtypes. In a group of 258 students 37 (14%) of whom were carriers of N. meningitidis serogroup B, higher levels of specific IgA were associated with carriage. Stratified analysis revealed a positive relationship between smoking and specific anti-N. meningitidis IgA independent of current carriage, weighted odds ratio (OR) 4·1 (95% CI 1·1–18) and OR 3·8 (95% CI 0·96–16) for reference strains B:1:P1.14 and B:4:P1.5,4 respectively. These data implicate IgA as a factor in host defence from meningococcal invasion, although the precise mechanisms remain uncertain.
This paper reports the first study of breeding in the boreo-arctic barnacle Semibalanus balanoides in which latitudinal variation in timing of egg mass hardening has been examined simultaneously over the geographical scale involved, thereby excluding temporal confounding of the data. The timing of autumn egg mass hardening on the middle shore was established in 2002 and 2003 at ten stations ranging latitudinally from Trondheim (63°24′N) to Plymouth (50°18′N). To assess variation at local scale (<10 km), breeding was studied on three shores at each of two Irish locations (Cork and Galway). At Oban (Scotland) and Cork, the effect of shore height on timing of breeding was investigated. A strong influence of latitude and day length on timing of breeding was found in both 2002 and 2003. In both years, barnacles bred much earlier (when day length was longer) at high rather than low latitudes. No significant effect of environmental temperature or insolation on timing of breeding was detected. Shores no more than 10 km apart showed minimal difference in middle shore breeding date (<4 days). However, upper shore barnacles bred significantly earlier (by 7–13 days) than middle shore animals. The data indicate that breeding is controlled by period of daily darkness, with high shore animals encountering longer effective ‘nights’ because of the opercular closure response to emersion (which will reduce light penetration to tissues). Predictions concerning the effects of global changes in climate and cloud cover on breeding and population distribution are made. It is suggested that increased cloud cover in the northern hemisphere is likely to induce earlier breeding, and possibly shift the present southern limit of Semibalanus southwards.
A study of Conger conger diet was carried out with 213 specimens from Irish inshore waters (0–200 m) collected from winter 1998 to spring 1999 and 96 from offshore waters (200–600 m) from spring to summer 2000. The primary diet in both areas was fish, with a complete species shift in diet between areas. The dominant species inshore were Merlangius merlangus and offshore Micromesistius poutassou. Decapod crustaceans and cephalopods were observed in stomachs, but contributed little to the overall diet.