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Plasma flow field temperatures are determined in a nontransferred arc plasma using emission spectroscopy. This technique is then utilized to identify thermal decomposition and reduction products produced in the plasma plume when metal oxide particles are injected into the plasma arc. The processed particles are then studied using AAS, SEM, EDS and XRD to characterize the chemical changes that have occurred in the particles. A Fourier transform method is used to study changes in particle morphology.
Experimental measurements and computed results are reported, describing the behavior of a non-transferred arc plasma torch operating in a laminar mode, discharging into a nitrogen environment. The experimental measurements of the temperature fields in the vicinity of the torch exit, obtained using emission spectroscopy, were compared with theoretical predictions. The calculations were based on the solution of the axi-symmetric heat, mass, momentum, and species balance equations. The theoretical predictions were found to be in excellent agreement with measurement, with the error usually being in the 5–10% range and the maximum error being about 15%.
A compact tube furnace has been developed for high temperature X-ray diffraction studies using high energy synchrotron radiation. The furnace design has a low absorption path in transmission yet allows for a high degree of control of the sample atmosphere and a minimal temperature gradient across the sample. The design allows for a maximum temperature of 1500°C with a variety of atmospheres including inert, reducing, and oxidizing. Preliminary results obtained at the SRI-CAT I-ID undulator line (60keV) at the APS facility and the A2 24 pole wiggler line (45keV) at CHESS on the Ti5Si3Z5 (Z = C, N, O) system will be presented to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach.
Infection by the cestode Taenia taeniaeformis was investigated within numerous cyclic populations of the fossorial water vole Arvicola terrestris sampled during 4 years in Franche-Comté (France). The relative influence of different rodent demographic parameters on the presence of this cestode was assessed by considering (1) the demographic phase of the cycle; (2) density at the local geographical scale (<0·1 km2); (3) mean density at a larger scale (>10 km2). The local scale corresponded to the rodent population (intermediate host), while the large scale corresponded to the definitive host population (wild and feral cats). General linear models based on analyses of 1804 voles revealed the importance of local density but also of year, rodent age, season and interactions between year and season and between age and season. Prevalence was significantly higher in low vole densities than during local outbreaks. By contrast, the large geographical scale density and the demographic phase had less influence on infection by the cestode. The potential impacts of the cestode on the fitness of the host were assessed and infection had no effect on the host body mass, litter size or sexual activity of voles.
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