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Species distribution models (SDMs) are statistical tools used to develop continuous predictions of species occurrence. ‘Integrated SDMs’ (ISDMs) are an elaboration of this approach with potential advantages that allow for the dual use of opportunistically collected presence-only data and site-occupancy data from planned surveys. These models also account for survey bias and imperfect detection through the use of a hierarchical modelling framework that separately estimates the species–environment response and detection process. This is particularly helpful for conservation applications and predictions for rare species, where data are often limited and prediction errors may have significant management consequences. Despite this potential importance, ISDMs remain largely untested under a variety of scenarios. We performed an exploration of key modelling decisions and assumptions on an ISDM using the endangered Baird’s tapir (Tapirus bairdii) as a test species. We found that site area had the strongest effect on the magnitude of population estimates and underlying intensity surface and was driven by estimates of model intercepts. Selecting a site area that accounted for the individual movements of the species within an average home range led to population estimates that coincided with expert estimates. ISDMs that do not account for the individual movements of species will likely lead to less accurate estimates of species intensity (number of individuals per unit area) and thus overall population estimates. This bias could be severe and highly detrimental to conservation actions if uninformed ISDMs are used to estimate global populations of threatened and data-deficient species, particularly those that lack natural history and movement information. However, the ISDM was consistently the most accurate model compared to other approaches, which demonstrates the importance of this new modelling framework and the ability to combine opportunistic data with systematic survey data. Thus, we recommend researchers use ISDMs with conservative movement information when estimating population sizes of rare and data-deficient species. ISDMs could be improved by using a similar parameterization to spatial capture–recapture models that explicitly incorporate animal movement as a model parameter, which would further remove the need for spatial subsampling prior to implementation.
Objectives: Children with acquired brain injury (ABI) can present with disruptive behavior, which is often a consequence of injury and parent factors. Parent factors are associated with child disruptive behavior. Furthermore, disinhibition in the child also leads to disruptive behavior. However, it is unclear how these factors interact. We investigated whether parental factors influence child disruptive behavior following ABI and how these factors interact. Methods: Parents of 77 children with ABI participated in the study. Parent factors (executive dysfunction, trait-anxiety), potential intervention targets (dysfunctional parenting practices, parental stress, child disinhibition), and child disruptive behavior were assessed. A hypothetical model based on the literature was tested using mediation and path analysis. Results: Mediation analysis revealed that child disinhibition and dysfunctional parenting practices mediated the association of parent factors and child disruptive behavior. Parents’ executive dysfunction mediated the association of dysfunctional parenting practices, parental stress and parent trait-anxiety. Parenting practices mediated the association of executive dysfunction and child disruptive behavior. Path analysis indices indicated good model adjustment. Comparative and Tucker-Lewis Index were >0.95, and the root mean square error of approximation was 0.059, with a chi-square of 0.25. Conclusions: A low level of parental trait-anxiety may be required to reduce dysfunctional parenting practices and child disinhibition. Impairments in child disinhibition can be exacerbated when parents present with high trait-anxiety. Child disinhibition is the major contributor of disruptive behavior reported by parents and teachers. The current study provides evidence of parent anxiety and child disinhibition as possible modifiable intervention targets for reducing child disruptive behavior. (JINS, 2019, 25, 237–248)
The fraction of organic matter present affects the fragmentation behavior of sialoliths; thus, pretherapeutic information on the degree of mineralization is relevant for a correct selection of lithotripsy procedures. This work proposes a methodology for in vivo characterization of salivary calculi in the pretherapeutic context. Sialoliths were characterized in detail by X-ray computed microtomography (μCT) in combination with atomic emission spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Correlative analysis of the same specimens was performed by in vivo and ex vivo helical computed tomography (HCT) and ex vivo μCT. The mineral matter in the sialoliths consisted essentially of apatite (89 vol%) and whitlockite (11 vol%) with average density of 1.8 g/cm3. In hydrated conditions, the mineral mass prevailed with 53 ± 13 wt%, whereas the organic matter, with a density of 1.2 g/cm3, occupied 65 ± 10% of the sialoliths’ volume. A quantitative relation between sialoliths mineral density and X-ray attenuation is proposed for both HCT and μCT.
The current study aims to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of xylanase enzyme (XYL) on sugarcane silage fermentation, fermentative losses, chemical composition, dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) degradation and aerobic stability. A completely randomized design trial was performed with five treatments and 50 experimental silos. Treatments were: 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg of XYL per kg of DM. XYL contained 10 000 U/g. There was a quadratic effect of XYL on silage pH and acetic acid concentration: lower pH and higher acetic acid concentrations were found at intermediary levels of the enzyme. XYL decreased lactic acid concentration linearly. Furthermore, the enzyme had a quadratic effect on effluent and total losses, with higher losses at intermediary XYL levels. There was a quadratic effect of XYL on organic matter (OM), non-fibre carbohydrates (NFC) and crude protein (CP) content. In addition, a quadratic effect of XYL was observed on NDF content and degradation. Intermediary levels of XYL showed higher concentration of OM and NFC. The addition of XYL had no effect on silage temperature and pH after aerobic exposure. Thus, intermediate levels of XYL increased acetic acid and decreased silage pH. Besides positive effects on silage composition, intermediary XYL levels decreased NDF degradation.
Although the Near Threatened jaguar Panthera onca ranges from the south-west USA to central Argentina, populations outside Amazonia are generally small and isolated. One such area, the Sierra Madre de Chiapas in the state of Chiapas, Mexico, is potentially an important area for jaguar conservation but information on the species in this region is limited and its conservation status is unknown. In this study we documented the occurrence and abundance of jaguars in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas complex. We compiled all available records of the species within the region and conducted a camera-trap survey during August 2015–December 2016. Interviews were conducted to determine the perception of the jaguar by cattle owners and to obtain information on any livestock predation. We found that jaguars still occur throughout the Sierra Madre de Chiapas landscape, including the plains on the Pacific Coast of Chiapas, but its abundance in the region is low. On the basis of our findings we have incorporated the Sierra Madre de Chiapas in Mexico's National Jaguar Conservation Strategy, and recommend that international organizations include this area in their priorities for jaguar conservation. To improve coexistence between jaguars and the communities of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas, strategies need to be developed, in collaboration with the local communities, to improve livestock practices for reduction of predation by jaguars, to strengthen government conservation policies and to implement educational and communication programmes about the importance of this species in the region.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The aims of this study are (1) to develop and characterize a novel nonhuman primate model of pneumococcal pneumonia that mimics human disease; and (2) determine whether Streptococcus pneumoniae can: (a) translocate to the heart, (b) cause adverse cardiac events, (c) induce cardiomyocyte death, and (d) lead to scar formation during severe pneumonia in baboons. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Six adult baboons (Papio cynocephalus) were surgically tethered to a monitoring system to continuously assess their heart rate, temperature, and electrocardiogram (ECG). A baseline transthoracic echocardiogram, 12-lead ECG, serum troponin-I levels, brain natriuretic peptide, and heart-type fatty acid binding protein (HFABP) levels were obtained before infection and at the end of the experiment to determine cardiovascular damage during pneumococcal pneumonia. Animals were challenged with 108 colony-forming units of S. pneumoniae in the right middle lobe using flexible bronchoscopy. Three baboons were rescued with ampicillin therapy (80 mg/kg/d) after the development of pneumonia. Cardiac damage was confirmed by examination of tissue sections using immunohistochemistry as well as electron and fluorescence microscopy. Western-blots and tissue staining were used to determine the presence of necroptosis (RIP3 and pMLKL) and apoptosis (Caspase-3) in the cardiac tissue. Cytokine and chemokine levels in the heart tissue were determined using Luminex technology. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Four males (57%) and three (43%) females were challenged. The median age of all baboons was 11 (IQR, 10-19) years old, which corresponds to a middle-aged human. Infected baboons consistently developed severe pneumonia. All animals developed systemic inflammatory response syndrome with tachycardia, tachypnea, fever, and leukocytosis. Infection was characterized by initial leukocytosis followed by severe leukopenia on day 3 postinoculation. Non-specific ischemic alterations by ECG (ST segment and T-wave flattering) and in the premortem echocardiogram were observed. The median (IQR) levels of troponin I and HFABP at the end of the experiment were 3550 ng/mL (1717–5383) and 916.9 ng/mL (520.8–1323), respectively. Severe cardiomyopathy was observed using TEM and H&E stains in animals with severe pneumonia. Necroptosis was detected in cardiomyocytes of infected animals by the presence of pMLKL and RIP3 in cardiac tissues. Signs of cardiac remodeling indicated by disorganized collagen deposition was present in rescued animals but not in the other animals. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We confirmed that baboons experience cardiac injury during severe pneumococcal pneumonia that is characterized by myocardial invasion, activation of necroptosis, and tissue remodeling in animals rescued by antimicrobial therapy. Cardiac damage by invading pneumococci may explain why adverse cardiac events that occur during and after pneumococcal pneumonia in adult human patients.
To compare the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and mortality of patients with bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) versus ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP) and to examine the differences in clinical characteristics and outcome between BSIs caused by isolates with CTX-M versus other ESBL genotypes
As part of the INCREMENT project, 33 tertiary hospitals in 12 countries retrospectively collected data on adult patients diagnosed with ESBL-EC BSI or ESBL-KP BSI between 2004 and 2013. Risk factors for ESBL-EC versus ESBL-KP BSI and for 30-day mortality were examined by bivariate analysis followed by multivariable logistic regression.
The study included 909 patients: 687 with ESBL-EC BSI and 222 with ESBL-KP BSI. ESBL genotype by polymerase chain reaction amplification of 286 isolates was available. ESBL-KP BSI was associated with intensive care unit admission, cardiovascular and neurological comorbidities, length of stay to bacteremia >14 days from admission, and a nonurinary source. Overall, 30-day mortality was significantly higher in patients with ESBL-KP BSI than ESBL-EC BSI (33.7% vs 17.4%; odds ratio, 1.64; P=.016). CTX-M was the most prevalent ESBL subtype identified (218 of 286 polymerase chain reaction-tested isolates, 76%). No differences in clinical characteristics or in mortality between CTX-M and non–CTX-M ESBLs were detected.
Clinical characteristics and risk of mortality differ significantly between ESBL-EC and ESBL-KP BSI. Therefore, all ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae should not be considered a homogeneous group. No differences in outcomes between genotypes were detected.
Cognitive deficits are a core feature of early stages in schizophrenia. However, the extent to which antipsychotic (AP) have a deleterious effect on cognitive performance remains under debate. We aim to investigate whether anticholinergic loadings and dose of AP drugs in first episode of psychosis (FEP) in advanced phase of remission are associated with cognitive impairment and the differences between premorbid intellectual quotient (IQ) subgroups.
Two hundred and sixty-six patients participated. The primary outcomes were cognitive dimensions, dopaminergic/anticholinergic load of AP [in chlorpromazine equivalents (Eq-CPZ) and the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), respectively].
Impairments in processing speed, verbal memory and global cognition were significantly associated with high Eq-CPZ and verbal impairment with high ARS score. Moreover, this effect was higher in the low IQ subgroup.
Clinicians should be aware of the potential cognitive impairment associated with AP in advanced remission FEP, particularly in lower premorbid IQ patients.
Heat stress (HS) is among the major limiting factors to growth of broilers. Heat stress also results in changes in the characteristics of the carcass, such as an increase in fat deposition. The molecular mechanisms responsible for fat deposition in broilers as a response to HS remain unknown. The current study aimed to describe the molecular mechanisms associated with the effects of high temperature and feed restriction due to chronic heat exposure at 32 °C, and to describe the resulting changes in the growth performance and carcass characteristics of the broilers at 21 and 42 days of age. In the current study, 441 male Cobb-500® broilers were subjected to three treatments that differed in rearing temperature and feeding regime: chronic HS fed ad libitum (HS/AL), thermoneutral environment fed ad libitum (TN/AL) and TN and pair-feeding on the feed intake (FI) of the heat-exposed group (TN/PF). HS increased fat content in the breast and wings and decreased fat content in the legs, but did not influence abdominal fat. These effects occurred regardless of reducing consumption induced by HS. Furthermore, HS, independently of reduced FI, increased liver sterol-regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) mRNA in both ages and growth hormone receptor (GHR) mRNA at 42days, whereas feed restriction reduced GHR mRNA only at 21days. In conclusion, increased fat content in the breast and wings was accompanied by a higher gene expression of GHR and SREBP-1, suggesting the involvement of both genes in the control of fat deposition in broilers exposed to HS.
To investigate dietary sources of Ca and vitamin D (VitD) intakes, and the associated sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, among European adolescents.
Linear regression mixed models were used to examine sex-specific associations of Ca and VitD intakes with parental education, family affluence (FAS), physical activity and television (TV) watching while controlling for age, Tanner stage, energy intake and diet quality.
The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA)Cross-Sectional Study.
Adolescents aged 12·5–17·5 years (n 1804).
Milk and cheese were the main sources of Ca (23 and 19 % contribution to overall Ca intake, respectively). Fish products were the main VitD source (30 % contribution to overall VitD intake). Ca intake was positively associated with maternal education (β=56·41; 95 % CI 1·98, 110·82) and negatively associated with TV viewing in boys (β=–0·43; 95 % CI −0·79, −0·07); however, the significance of these associations disappeared when adjusting for diet quality. In girls, Ca intake was positively associated with mother’s (β=73·08; 95 % CI 34·41, 111·74) and father’s education (β=43·29; 95 % CI 5·44, 81·14) and FAS (β=37·45; 95 % CI 2·25, 72·65). This association between Ca intake and mother’s education remained significant after further adjustment for diet quality (β=41·66; 95 % CI 0·94, 82·38). Girls with high-educated mothers had higher Ca intake.
Low-educated families with poor diet quality may be targeted when strategizing health promotion programmes to enhance dietary Ca.
Lithotripsy methods show relatively low efficiency in the fragmentation of sialoliths compared with the success rates achieved in the destruction of renal calculi. However, the information available on the mechanical behavior of sialoliths is limited and their apparently tougher response is not fully understood. This work evaluates the hardness and Young’s modulus of sialoliths at different scales and analyzes specific damage patterns induced in these calcified structures by ultrasonic vibrations, pneumoballistic impacts, shock waves, and laser ablation. A clear correlation between local mechanical properties and ultrastructure/chemistry has been established: sialoliths are composite materials consisting of hard and soft components of mineralized and organic nature, respectively. Ultrasonic and pneumoballistic reverberations damage preferentially highly mineralized regions, leaving relatively unaffected the surrounding organic matter. In contrast, shock waves leach the organic component and lead to erosion of the overall structure. Laser ablation destroys homogeneously the irradiated zones regardless of the mineralized/organic nature of the underlying ultrastructure; however, damage is less extensive than with mechanical methods. Overall, the present results show that composition and internal structure are key features behind sialoliths’ comminution behavior and that the organic matter contributes to reduce the therapeutic efficiency of lithotripsy methods.
The IUCN Red List is widely used to guide conservation policy and practice. However, in most cases the evaluation of a species using IUCN Red List criteria takes into account only the global status of the species. Although subpopulations may be assessed using the IUCN categories and criteria, this rarely occurs, either because it is difficult to identify subpopulations or because of the effort involved. Using the jaguar Panthera onca as a model we illustrate that wide-ranging species that are assigned a particular category of threat based on the IUCN Red List criteria may display considerable heterogeneity within individual taxa in terms of the level of risk they face. Using the information available on the conservation status of the species, we evaluated the jaguar's current geographical range and its subpopulations. We identified the most threatened subpopulations, using the extent of occurrence, area of occupancy, population size and the level of threat to each subpopulation. The main outcome of this analysis was that although a large subpopulation persists in Amazonia, virtually all others are threatened because of their small size, isolation, deficient protection and the high human population density. Based on this approach, future conservation efforts can be prioritized for the most threatened subpopulations. Based on our findings we recommend that for future Red List assessments assessors consider the value of undertaking assessments at the subpopulation level. For the jaguar, sub-global assessments should be included on the Red List as a matter of urgency.
Short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are an extremely elusive family of cosmic explosions. They are thought to be related to the violent merger of compact objects (such as a neutron stars or black holes). Their optical counterparts were not discovered until 2005, and since then, there had been no successful spectroscopic observations. Here we present the first spectra of a short GRB, which we use to study the environment and derive implications on the progenitors of these cosmic explosions. This poster is based on the work by de Ugarte Postigo et al. (2014).
Local people's involvement in the management of conservation initiatives is central to ongoing debates on the relative merits of distinct biodiversity conservation models. Since different governance models provide distinct opportunities for local people to participate in the management of protected areas, their knowledge of these governance models and motivation to collaborate will vary. This paper analyses cognisance and participation in (1) government-imposed biosphere reserves and (2) community conservation areas, in which ecotourism projects take place. Qualitative and quantitative data (n = 205) were gathered in two indigenous communities in Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Whereas local cognisance of community-driven conservation initiatives is not always greater than cognisance of government-imposed Biosphere Reserves, local participation is always greater. Cognisance of and participation in conservation initiatives depend on the management approach, extent of external resource support, and a community's social organization. Gender and land holding status influence access to information about conservation initiatives, since men with land rights had more access than other people. More participatory mechanisms for decision-making and direct communication strategies between managers and local people are required to improve communities’ involvement in conservation.
Theories have been put forward on the etiology of sialoliths; however, a comprehensive understanding of their growth mechanisms is lacking. In an attempt to fill this gap, the current study has evaluated the internal architecture and growth patterns of a set of 30 independent specimens of sialoliths characterized at different scales by computed microtomography and electron microscopy. Tomography reconstructions showed cores in most of the sialoliths. The cores were surrounded by concentric or irregular patterns with variable degrees of mineralization. Regardless of the patterns, at finer scales the sialoliths consisted of banded and globular structures. The distribution of precipitates in the banded structures is compatible with a Liesegang–Ostwald phenomenon. On the other hand, the globular structures appear to arise from surface tension effects and to develop self-similar features as a result of a viscous fingering process. Electron diffraction patterns demonstrated that Ca- and P-based electrolytes crystallize in a structure close to that of hydroxyapatite. The organic matter contained sulfur with apparent origin from sulfated components of secretory material. These results cast new light on the mechanisms involved in the formation of sialoliths.