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Neighboring tidewater glaciers often exhibit asynchronous dynamic behavior, despite relatively uniform regional atmospheric and oceanic forcings. This variability may be controlled by a combination of local factors, including glacier and fjord geometry, fjord heat content and circulation, and glacier surface melt. In order to characterize and understand contrasts in adjacent tidewater glacier and fjord dynamics, we made coincident ice-ocean-atmosphere observations at high temporal resolution (minutes to weeks) within a 10 000 km2 area near Uummannaq, Greenland. Water column velocity, temperature and salinity measurements reveal systematic differences in neighboring fjords that imply contrasting circulation patterns. The observed ocean velocity and hydrography, combined with numerical modeling, suggest that subglacial discharge plays a major role in setting fjord conditions. In addition, satellite remote sensing of seasonal ice flow speed and terminus position reveal both speedup and slow-down in response to melt, as well as differences in calving style among the neighboring glaciers. Glacier force budgets and modeling also point toward subglacial discharge as a key factor in glacier behavior. For the studied region, individual glacier and fjord geometry modulate subglacial discharge, which leads to contrasts in both fjord and glacier dynamics.
A geological disposal facility (GDF) will include fissile materials that could, under certain conditions, lead to criticality. Demonstration of criticality safety therefore forms an important part of a GDF's safety case.
Containment provided by the waste package will contribute to criticality safety during package transport and the GDF operational phase. The GDF multiple-barrier system will ensure that criticality is prevented for some time after facility closure. However, on longer post-closure timescales, conditions in the GDF will evolve and it is necessary to demonstrate: an understanding of the conditions under which criticality could occur; the likelihood of such conditions occurring; and the consequences of criticality should it occur.
Work has addressed disposal of all of the UK's higher-activity wastes in three illustrative geologies. This paper, however, focuses on presenting results to support safe disposal of spent fuel, plutonium and highlyenriched uranium in higher-strength rock.
The results support a safety case assertion that post-closure criticality is of low likelihood and, if it was to occur, the consequences would be tolerable.
An overview of the Czech national R&D project HiLASE (High average power pulsed laser) is presented. The project focuses on the development of advanced high repetition rate, diode pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) systems with energies in the range from mJ to 100 J and repetition rates in the range from 10 Hz to 100 kHz. Some applications of these lasers in research and hi-tech industry are also presented.
We investigated an international outbreak of Salmonella Agona with a distinct PFGE pattern associated with an Irish Food company (company X) producing pre-cooked meat products sold in various food outlet chains in Europe. The outbreak was first detected in Ireland. We undertook national and international case-finding, food traceback and microbiological investigation of human, food and environmental samples. We undertook a matched case-control study on Irish cases. In total, 163 cases in seven European countries were laboratory-confirmed. Consumption of food from food outlet chains supplied by company X was significantly associated with being a confirmed case (mOR 18·3, 95% CI 2·2–149·2) in the case-control study. The outbreak strain was isolated from the company's pre-cooked meat products and production premises. Sufficient evidence was gathered to infer the vehicles of infection and sources of the outbreak and to justify the control measures taken, which were plant closure and food recall.
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety mixtures represent a relatively unexplored avenue for maintaining and stabilizing yield for both organic and conventional producers. The present study examined the responses of three Canadian western red spring wheat varieties in sole crop and in variety mixtures to varying levels of simulated and natural competition, as well as environmental stress at one conventionally and two organically managed locations in central Alberta, Canada, between 2003 and 2005. Three modern hard red spring wheat varieties (Superb, semi-dwarf; AC Intrepid, early maturing and 5600HR, tall), along with 13 two- and three-way variety mixtures, were planted under two levels of simulated weed (Brassica juncea L.) competition at each of the eight location-years. The B. juncea weed competition treatment decreased yields at all locations. Overall yield was lowest at the certified organic farm and highest under conventional management. Sole-crop semi-dwarf Superb and all three Superb–Intrepid mixture entries consistently yielded among the highest, regardless of management system, testing location or competition treatment. The 1:1 and 1:2 Superb–Intrepid mixture entries were the most stable of all entries tested. Early season vigour was strongly associated with yield, with the strongest correlation occurring under low-moisture, low-nutrient, high-competition conditions at the certified organic farm. Spring wheat variety mixtures may provide greater stability with little or no reduction in yield, while providing greater competitive ability.
A new extractant for the separation of actinide(III) and lanthanide(III), bis(o-trifluoromethylphenyl)phosphinic acid (O-PA) was synthesized. The synthetic route employed mirrors one that was employed to produce the sulfur containing analog bis(o-trifluoromethylphenyl)dithiophosphinic acid (S-PA). Multinuclear NMR spectroscopy was used for elementary characterization of the new O-PA derivative. This new O-PA extractant was used to perform Am(III)/Eu(III) separations and the results were directly compared to those obtained in identical separation experiments using S-PA, an extractant that is known to exhibit separation factors of ∼100,000 at low pH. The separations data are presented and discussed in terms comparing the nature of the oxygen atom as a donor to that of the sulfur atom in extractants that are otherwise identical.
Stellar multiplicity is a fundamental astrophysical property. In addition to being the only physical basis for accurate mass determination, this parameter is believed to influence important aspects such as planet formation and stability. Contrary to earlier expectations, recent studies have shown that even against selection biases, as many as 23% of the planetary systems reside in multiple star systems (Raghavan et al. 2006)). Leveraging recent efforts in identifying stellar and substellar companions to solar-type stars, and augmenting them with targeted observations, we are conducting a comprehensive survey, aimed at providing a modern update to the seminal work of Duquennoy & Mayor (1991). The details of our sample, survey methods, and some preliminary results are presented here.
BOOMERanG has recently resolved structures on the last scattering surface at redshift ˜ 1100 with high signal to noise ratio. We review the technical advances which made this possible, and we focus on the current results for maps and power spectra, with special attention to the determination of the total mass-energy density in the Universe and of other cosmological parameters.
We report the discovery, using FORS1 at the ESO-VLT and ESPaDOnS at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, of magnetic fields and chemical peculiarities in the Herbig Ae/Be stars HD 72106 and HD 101412. These stars may well represent pre-main sequence progenitors of the magnetic Ap/Bp stars. At the same time, we fail to confirm claims by Hubrig et al. (2004) of the presence of magnetic fields in the Herbig Ae star HD 139614.
In the 1998-99 flight, BOOMERanG has produced maps of ∼4% of the sky at high Galactic latitudes, at frequencies of 90, 150, 240 and 410 GHz, with resolution ≳ 10'. The faint structure of the Cosmic Microwave Background at horizon and sub-horizon scales is evident in these maps. These maps compare well to the maps recently obtained at lower frequencies by the WMAP experiment. Here we compare the amplitude and morphology of the structures observed in the two sets of maps. We also outline the polarization sensitive version of BOOMERanG, which was flown early this year to measure the linear polarization of the microwave sky at 150, 240 and 350 GHz.
We present two cases of alar haematoma. This is a very rare complication of nasal trauma, and only two cases have been described previously. One case presented late and did not undergo surgical drainage and has a persistent cosmetic deformity. We recommend early surgical drainage when possible.
Computed tomography (CT) provides an excellent map for the sinus surgeon aswell as providing information about the extent of disease and the presence of bony destruction. Surgeons need to be aware of the anatomical configuration of the sinuses and the presence of any structural changes such as a dehiscent lamina papyracea, asymmetric skull base, low level of posterior skull base or an Onodi cell, which place the patient at increased risk. Described here is a six-step guide to help the sinus surgeon avoid missing any of the radiologically important features.
This article describes the anatomy of the visual pathways and how they should be assessed under anaesthesia. The differential diagnosis of asymmetrical pupils is illustrated with clinical examples and a strategy as to how they should be examined.
Graphitically encapsulated ferromagnetic Ni nanocrystals have been synthesized via a modified tungsten arc-discharge method. By virtue of the protective graphitic coating, these nanocrystals are stable against environmental degradation, including extended exposure to strong acids. The magnetic properties of the encapsulated particles are characterized with regard to the nanoscale nature of the particles and the influence of the graphitic coating which is believed to be benign insofar as the intrinsic magnetic properties of the encapsulated nanocrystals are concerned. The Curie temperature of graphitically encapsulated Ni nanocrystals is the same as that of microcrystalline Ni. However, saturation magnetization, remanent magnetization, and coercivity of these particles are reduced, for a range of temperatures. The unique features are compared with those of unencapsulated nanocrystalline and coarse microcrystalline nickel particles.
The aim of this study was to assess whether client centred hypnotherapy (CCH) which required three sessions with a trained therapist was superior to a single counselling session in reducing the impact of tinnitus.
Patients were randomly allocated to receive either counselling (n = 42) or CCH (n = 44). The outcome measures were: tinnitus loudness match, subjective tinnitus symptom severity score, trend of linear analogue scale, request for further therapy and whether the patient had an impression of improvement in their tinnitus after treatment.
CCH was no better than counselling in reducing the impact of tinnitus using the three quantative measures of tinnitus, and requests for further follow up.
The only significant difference between the two therapies was that 20 (45.5 per cent) of the CCH group reported a general sense of improvement compared to six (14.3 per cent) in the counselling group, this is significant p<O.Ol. The study did not demonstrate whether this was a genuine hypnotic effect or simply a response to the additional attention from the therapist.
Layered copper-oxide superconductors exhibit the highest critical transition temperatures of any materials. Yet all of the known double perovskites A′A″B′B″O6 containing copper have a random or rock salt distribution of the B cations with the exception of the unique layered arrangement found in La2CuSnO6. Only the layered arrangement contains the CuO22- planes which are necessary for high-temperature superconductivity. The occurrence of layered or two dimensional structures increases markedly when vacancies are introduced on the oxygen sublattice, as evidenced in Ln2AEmCu2TimO5+3m (Ln = lanthanide, Y: AE = Ba, Ca: 2 ≤ m ≤ 4). Similarities among oxygen-deficient structures, especially those with two-dimensional solid-state features, are discussed. Combined conductivity and thermopower analysis are presented to elucidate their unique internal chemistry, defect structure, and conduction parameters. In particular, data for La2-xSrxCuSnO6 are presented and related to the crystal chemistry of the copper-oxygen layer. These data are compared with La2Ba2Cu2Sn2O11 and La2Ba2Cu2Ti2O11 to illustrate the significance of oxygen vacancies on the properties of the copper oxygen planes. New layered cuprates are discussed including the mixed A-site stoichiometries Ln′Ln″AEmCu2TimO5+3m (Ln = lanthanide, Y: AE = Ba, Ca: 2 ≤ m ≤ 4) which contain the smaller lanthanide (Ln″) ordered between the closely spaced, facing sheets of Cu-O square pyramids.