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Background: There are few published reports on the safety and efficacy of stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) in the presurgical evaluation of pediatric drug-resistant epilepsy. Our objective was to describe institutional experience with pediatric SEEG in terms of (1) insertional complications, (2) identification of the epileptogenic zone and (3) seizure outcome following SEEG-tailored resections. Methods: Retrospective review of 29 patients pediatric drug resistant epilepsy patients who underwent presurgical SEEG between 2005 – 2018. Results: 29 pediatric SEEG patients (15 male; 12.4 ± 4.6 years old) were included in this study with mean follow-up of 6.0 ± 4.1 years. SEEG-related complications occurred in 1/29 (3%)—neurogenic pulmonary edema. A total of 190 multi-contact electrodes (mean of 7.0 ± 2.5per patient) were implanted across 30 insertions which captured 437 electrographic seizures (mean 17.5 ± 27.6 per patient). The most common rationale for SEEG was normal MRI with surface EEG that failed to identify the EZ (16/29; 55%). SEEG-tailored resections were performed in 24/29 (83%). Engel I outcome was achieved following resections in 19/24 cases (79%) with 5.9 ± 4.0 years of post-operative follow-up. Conclusions: Stereoelectroencephalography in presurgical evaluation of pediatric drug-resistant epilepsy is a safe and effective way to identify the epileptogenic zone permitting SEEG-tailored resection.
A new species, Contarinia brassicola Sinclair (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), which induces flower galls on canola (Brassica napus Linnaeus and Brassica rapa Linnaeus (Brassicaceae)), is described from Saskatchewan and Alberta, Canada. Larvae develop in the flowers of canola, which causes swelling and prevents opening, pod formation, and seed set. Mature larvae exit the galls, fall to the soil, and form cocoons. Depending on conditions, larvae will either pupate and eclose in the same calendar year or enter facultative diapause and emerge the following year. At least two generations of C. brassicola occur each year. Adults emerge from overwintering cocoons in the spring and lay eggs on developing canola flower buds. The galls produced by C. brassicola were previously attributed to the swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii (Kieffer) in Saskatchewan; here, we compare and list several characters to differentiate the two species.
Vitamin B12 is synthesised in the rumen from cobalt (Co) and has a major role in metabolism in the peri-paturient period, although few studies have evaluated the effect of the dietary inclusion of Co, vitamin B12 or injecting vitamin B12 on the metabolism, health and performance of high yielding dairy cows. A total of 56 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows received one of four treatments from 8 weeks before calving to 8 weeks post-calving: C, no added Co; DC, additional 0.2 mg Co/kg dry matter (DM); DB, additional 0.68 mg vitamin B12/kg DM; IB, intra-muscular injection of vitamin B12 to supply 0.71 mg/cow per day prepartum and 1.42 mg/cow per day post-partum. The basal and lactation rations both contained 0.21 mg Co/kg DM. Cows were weighed and condition scored at drying off, 4 weeks before calving, within 24 h of calving and at 2, 4 and 8 weeks post-calving, with blood samples collected at drying off, 2 weeks pre-calving, calving and 2, 4 and 8 weeks post-calving. Liver biopsy samples were collected from all animals at drying off and 4 weeks post-calving. Live weight changed with time, but there was no effect of treatment (P>0.05), whereas cows receiving IB had the lowest mean body condition score and DB the highest (P<0.05). There was no effect of treatment on post-partum DM intake, milk yield or milk fat concentration (P>0.05) with mean values of 21.6 kg/day, 39.6 kg/day and 40.4 g/kg, respectively. Cows receiving IB had a higher plasma vitamin B12 concentration than those receiving any of the other treatments (P<0.001), but there was no effect (P>0.05) of treatment on homocysteine or succinate concentrations, although mean plasma methylmalonic acid concentrations were lower (P=0.019) for cows receiving IB than for Control cows. Plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations increased sharply at calving followed by a decline, but there was no effect of treatment. Similarly, there was no effect (P>0.05) of treatment on plasma non-esterified fatty acids or glucose. Whole tract digestibility of DM and fibre measured at week 7 of lactation were similar between treatments, and there was little effect of treatment on the milk fatty acid profile except for C15:0, which was lower in cows receiving DC than IB (P<0.05). It is concluded that a basal dietary concentration of 0.21 mg Co/kg DM is sufficient to meet the requirements of high yielding dairy cows during the transition period, and there is little benefit from additional Co or vitamin B12.
Prolonged periods of stress have been associated with impaired immune function; the experiment reported here investigates a potential link between level of metabolic load and immune function in lactating dairy cattle. A group of 111 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows was used. The cows belonged to one of two genetic lines: a selection line (S) with high genetic merit for fat plus protein yield and an unselected control line (C). The cows were offered one of two silage-based total mixed diets containing either 200 g (LC) or 450 g (HC) of concentrate per kg dry matter. Combination of genetic selection and food gave four groups: S-LC, S-HC, C-LC and C-HC. All cows were inoculated with a live attenuated BHV-1 vaccine soon after parturition and the primary antibody response in whey monitored. The number of BHV-1 antibody positive cows was not significantly different between the four groups; but, the initial antibody response was lower in cows of high genetic merit which were given a low concentrate diet. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the contribution of diet to this effect was highly significant. One year later, again after parturition, the experiment was repeated, this time using serum as the test sample. The average antibody response of the BHV-1 antibody positive cows was not significantly different between the four groups but the number of antibody positive cows was group-dependent. In conclusion, diet type but not genetic merit for high fat plus protein yield made a highly significant contribution to the antibody response of dairy cows to BHV-1 vaccination, both initially and a year later.
Trans- 10, cis- 12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a biohydrogenation intermediate produced in the rumen, is a potent inhibitor of milk fat synthesis. Data from a number of studies where various doses of trans -10, cis -12 CLA have been abomasally infused demonstrate a curvilinear relationship between the percent reduction in milk fat yield and both the dose of trans- 10, cis- 12 CLA infused and the milk fat content of trans- 10, cis- 12 CLA. In addition to a reduction in milk fat output, under some circumstances an increase in milk yield and milk protein output are observed. To date, there has been no examination of the effects of trans- 10, cis- 12 CLA on milk fat synthesis in lactating sheep. The current study was therefore designed to determine if trans- 10, cis- 12 CLA would inhibit milk fat synthesis in lactating sheep. In order to test the effectiveness of trans- 10, cis- 12 CLA in inhibiting milk fat synthesis we used a lipid-encapsulated trans- 10, cis- 12 CLA supplement (LE-CLA) as a means to provide the trans- 10, cis- 12 CLA isomer post-ruminally.
The interval from calving to first ovulation is a major factor affecting reproductive and productive efficiency in beef cows. While this interval is affected by pre- and post-partum nutrition, the maternal-offspring bond is generally considered to be the major cause of delayed ovulation in beef cows. The endocrine and physiological mechanisms by which these factors either singularly or interactively control the duration of the post-partum anovulatory period are not well established, although they most likely involve the regulation of pulsatile LH release. The present study sought to examine the interactive effects of pre- and post-partum nutrition on LH secretion and follicle wave dynamics following acute calf isolation and once-a-day suckling (restricted access), after emergence of the fourth follicular wave post partum.
The prolonged interval from calving to first ovulation in beef cows is primarily due to the suckling-mediated inhibition of pulsatile LH release. Undernutrition both before and after calving also suppresses LH release, reduces ovarian follicular growth and delays ovulation. The interactive effects of these factors on the interval from calving to first ovulation in beef cows were quantified by studying the incidence of ovulation, following acute calf isolation and once-a-day suckling (restricted access), after emergence of the fourth follicular wave post partum in cows in differing body condition at calving and offered low or high planes of nutrition after calving.
The experiment was a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design, in which the factors were body condition score at calving (Low v. Moderate), feeding level after calving (0.6 v. 1.0 MJ ME/d/kg M0.75), and restricted (once-a-day) v. ad libitum access and suckling. The experiment, duplicated at each of the four participating sites, involved 16 Simmental, 16 Sarda, 16 Brown Swiss and 16 Hereford x Friesian multi-parous cows. Follicle growth was monitored daily from day 21 post partum until the earlier of second ovulation or Day 90 post partum using transrectal ovarian ultrasonography.
The re-grouping of sows is a common procedure in pig production systems and is one which can have adverse consequences for both welfare and production (Arey and Edwards, 1998). Sows in an indoor dynamic group system, in which group structure was changed repeatedly, had a high rate of returns to service which may have been due to them receiving greater levels of aggression (Rigat et al., 1998). The aim of this experiment was to determine the effects of re-grouping on sow aggression and how this affected behaviour, immune function and productivity.
There is anecdotal evidence that certain sheep breeds, reared in a particular way, produce unusual or characteristic tastes in cooked meat. Such effects could be linked to differences in meat fatty acid composition associated with the consumption of different diets. This study investigated eating quality and fat composition in 4 distinctively different breed x feeding system groups.
Four groups of 20 ram lambs were obtained as follows: Pure Soays (SO) finished off grass in April from commercial breeders; Pure Welsh Mountain (WM) finished off upland grass in October from ADAS Pwllpeiran; Suffolk x Mules from Harper Adams College finished off concentrates (grains) (SC) in April; and Suffolk x mules from the same source finished off grass (SG) in May. The animals were transported to Langford where they were slaughtered in Bristol University's abattoir.
Background: Selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) is a surgical option in well-selected cases of pediatric medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The objective of this study was to compare the surgical outcome and the rate of reoperation for ongoing or recurrent seizures between SAH and anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) in pediatric TLE. Methods: Retrospective review of 78 pediatric intractable TLE patients referred to the Comprehensive Epilepsy Program at our institution between 1988 and 2015 treated initially with either a trans-middle temporal gyrus SAH (19) or ATL (59). Patients underwent baseline long-term video electroencephalography and 1.5-Tesla MRI. Neuropsychological testing was performed preoperatively and 12-months postoperatively (including reoperations). Results: The mean follow-up was 64 months (range, 12-186 months). The average age at initial surgery was 10.6±5 years with an average delay of 5.7±4 years between seizure onset and surgery. Ultimately 78% were seizure-free (61/78) at most recent follow-up. Seizure freedom after initial surgical treatment was achieved in 81% of patients who underwent ATL (48 patients) versus 42% in SAH (8 patients; p<0.001). Of patients with ongoing disabling seizures following SAH, reoperation (ATL) was offered in 8 resulting in seizure freedom in 63%, without interval neuropsychological decline. Conclusions: SAH amongst well-selected pediatric TLE results in significantly worse seizure control compared with ATL.
The use of in vivo X-ray microcomputed tomography (μCT) to study plant root systems has become routine, but is often hampered by poor contrast between roots, soil, soil water, and soil organic matter. In clinical radiology, imaging of poorly contrasting regions is frequently aided by the use of radio-opaque contrast media. In this study, we present evidence for the utility of iodinated contrast media (ICM) in the study of plant root systems using μCT. Different dilutions of an ionic and nonionic ICM (Gastrografin 370 and Niopam 300) were perfused into the aerial vasculature of juvenile pea plants via a leaf flap (Pisum sativum). The root systems were imaged via μCT, and a variety of image-processing approaches used to quantify and compare the magnitude of the contrast enhancement between different regions. Though the treatment did not appear to significantly aid extraction of full root system architectures from the surrounding soil, it did allow the xylem and phloem units of seminal roots and the vascular morphology within rhizobial nodules to be clearly visualized. The nonionic, low-osmolality contrast agent Niopam appeared to be well tolerated by the plant, whereas Gastrografin showed evidence of toxicity. In summary, the use of iodine-based contrast media allows usually poorly contrasting root structures to be visualized nondestructively using X-ray μCT. In particular, the vascular structures of roots and rhizobial nodules can be clearly visualized in situ.
The Southern Hemisphere VLBI Experiment (SHEVE) program is aimed at producing high-resolution images of southern radio sources. The radio telescopes of the present SHEVE array are described below and some recent results presented.
Although only three antennas of the Australia Telescope Compact Array are currently operational, we have made use of the technique of bandwidth synthesis to make an image of the radio galaxy 2152 – 69. The three baselines were used to observe the source at three different frequencies, effectively resulting in nine baselines, which have been used to produce an image with a surprisingly high dynamic range, and with a slightly higher resolution than any existing image.
The production of such a worthwhile result, despite being made with a small subset of the capabilities of the Australia Telescope, bodes well for the future operation of the instrument.
During 1985-1987 Celestial Mechanics has been intensively developed in all its branches embracing physical bases, mathematical aspects, computational techniques and astronomical objectives. Commission 7 has organized three IAU conferences: Symposium No. 114 “Relativity in Celestial Mechanics and Astrometry” (Leningrad, May 1985), Colloquium No. 96 “The Few Body Problem” (Turku, June 1987) and Topical Session “Resonances in the Solar System” of the X-th European Regional Astronomy Meeting (Prague, August 1987). Members of the commission have broadly participated in the NATO Advanced Study Institute “Long-Term Dynamical Behaviour of Natural and Artificial N-Body Systems” (Cortina d’Ampezzo, August 1987) and some other international and regional conferences. Prospects of the actual celestial mechanics investigations have been discussed at a session of Commission 7 at the XIX-th IAU General Assembly (New Delhi, November 1985). Three papers dealing with the unsolved problems of celestial mechanics were primarily addressed to the rising generation of celestial mechanicians (V. A. Brumberg and J. Kovalevsky, CM. 39, 133, 1986; P.K. Seidelmann, CM. 39, 141, 1986).
Several extragalactic HI surveys using a λ21 cm 13-beam focal plane array will begin in early 1997 using the Parkes 64 m telescope. These surveys are designed to detect efficiently nearby galaxies that have failed to be identified optically because of low optical surface brightness or high optical extinction. We discuss scientific and technical aspects of the multibeam receiver, including astronomical objectives, feed, receiver and correlator design and data acquisition. A comparison with other telescopes shows that the Parkes multibeam receiver has significant speed advantages for any large-area λ21 cm galaxy survey in the velocity range range 0–14000 km s−1.
PKS 1830–211 is the strongest known radio gravitational lens by almost an order of magnitude and has the potential to provide a measurement of H0, provided the lensing system can be parameterized. Attempts to identify optical counterparts, to measure redshifts, have so far proved unsuccessful and this has lead to radio and millimetre spectral line observations. We present our discovery of an absorption system at z = 0.19. A brief description is also made of our ATCA observations to measure the lensing time delay for this source.
We present high-resolution radio observations of the second Galactic superluminal radio source GRO1655-40, which was detected as an X-ray transient on 1994 July 27. Our radio radio images reveal two components moving away from each other at an angular speed of 65±5 mas/day, corresponding to superluminal motion (υ/c = 1.4 ± 0.4) at the estimated distance of 3–5 kpc. The 12-day delay between the X-ray and radio outbursts suggests that the ejection of material at relativistic speeds occurs during a stable phase of accretion onto a black hole, which follows an unstable phase with a high accretion rate. A complete description and discussion of these observations can be found in Tingay et al 1995 (Nature, 374, pp 141–143).
On sub-Antarctic Marion Island, wandering albatross (Diomedea exulans) nests support high abundances of tineid moth, Pringleophaga marioni, caterpillars. Previous work proposed that the birds serve as thermal ecosystem engineers by elevating nest temperatures relative to ambient, thereby promoting growth and survival of the caterpillars. However, only 17 days of temperature data were presented previously, despite year-long nest occupation by birds. Previous sampling was also restricted to old and recently failed nests, though nests from which chicks have recently fledged are key to understanding how the engineering effect is realized. Here we build on previous work by providing nest temperature data for a full year and by sampling all three nest types. For the full duration of nest occupancy, temperatures within occupied nests are significantly higher, consistently by c. 7°C, than those in surrounding soils and abandoned nests, declining noticeably when chicks fledge. Caterpillar abundance is significantly higher in new nests compared to nests from which chicks have fledged, which in turn have higher caterpillar abundances than old nests. Combined with recent information on the life history of P. marioni, our data suggest that caterpillars are incidentally added to the nests during nest construction, and subsequently benefit from an engineering effect.