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Disease surveillance in wildlife populations presents a logistical challenge, yet is critical in gaining a deeper understanding of the presence and impact of wildlife pathogens. Erinaceus coronavirus (EriCoV), a clade C Betacoronavirus, was first described in Western European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) in Germany. Here, our objective was to determine whether EriCoV is present, and if it is associated with disease, in Great Britain (GB). An EriCoV-specific BRYT-Green® real-time reverse transcription PCR assay was used to test 351 samples of faeces or distal large intestinal tract contents collected from casualty or dead hedgehogs from a wide area across GB. Viral RNA was detected in 10.8% (38) samples; however, the virus was not detected in any of the 61 samples tested from Scotland. The full genome sequence of the British EriCoV strain was determined using next generation sequencing; it shared 94% identity with a German EriCoV sequence. Multivariate statistical models using hedgehog case history data, faecal specimen descriptions and post-mortem examination findings found no significant associations indicative of disease associated with EriCoV in hedgehogs. These findings indicate that the Western European hedgehog is a reservoir host of EriCoV in the absence of apparent disease.
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) due to Staphylococcus aureus have become increasingly common in the outpatient setting; however, risk factors for differentiating methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) SSTIs are needed to better inform antibiotic treatment decisions. We performed a case-case-control study within 14 primary-care clinics in South Texas from 2007 to 2015. Overall, 325 patients [S. aureus SSTI cases (case group 1, n = 175); MRSA SSTI cases (case group 2, n = 115); MSSA SSTI cases (case group 3, n = 60); uninfected control group (control, n = 150)] were evaluated. Each case group was compared to the control group, and then qualitatively contrasted to identify unique risk factors associated with S. aureus, MRSA, and MSSA SSTIs. Overall, prior SSTIs [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 7·60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3·31–17·45], male gender (aOR 1·74, 95% CI 1·06–2·85), and absence of healthcare occupation status (aOR 0·14, 95% CI 0·03–0·68) were independently associated with S. aureus SSTIs. The only unique risk factor for community-associated (CA)-MRSA SSTIs was a high body weight (⩾110 kg) (aOR 2·03, 95% CI 1·01–4·09).
To determine the prevalence of Acinetobacter baumannii, an important healthcare-associated pathogen, among mechanically ventilated patients in Maryland.
The Maryland MDRO Prevention Collaborative performed a statewide cross-sectional active surveillance survey of mechanically ventilated patients residing in acute care and long-term care (LTC) facilities. Surveillance cultures (sputum and perianal) were obtained from all mechanically ventilated inpatients at participating facilities during a 2-week period.
All healthcare facilities in Maryland that provide care for mechanically ventilated patients were invited to participate.
Mechanically ventilated patients, known to be at high risk for colonization and infection with A. baumannii, were included.
Seventy percent (40/57) of all eligible healthcare facilities participated in the survey, representing both acute care (n = 30) and LTC (n = 10) facilities in all geographic regions of Maryland. Surveillance cultures were obtained from 92% (358/390) of eligible Patients. A. baumannii was identified in 34% of all mechanically ventilated patients in Maryland; multidrug-resistant A. baumannii was found in 27% of all Patients. A. baumannii was detected in at least 1 patient in 49% of participating facilities; 100% of LTC facilities had at least 1 patient with A. baumannii, compared with 31% of acute care facilities. A. baumannii was identified from all facilities in which 10 or more patients were sampled.
A. baumannii is common among mechanically ventilated patients in both acute care and LTC facilities throughout Maryland, with a high proportion of isolates demonstrating multidrug resistance.
We sought to explain seasonality and other aspects of Campylobacter jejuni epidemiology by integrating population genetic and epidemiological analysis in a large 3-year longitudinal, two-centre, population-based study. Epidemiological information was collected for 1505 isolates, which were multilocus sequence-typed. Analyses compared pathogen population structure between areas, over time, and between clinical presentations. Pooled analysis was performed with published international datasets. Subtype association with virulence was not observed. UK sites had nearly identical C. jejuni populations. A clade formed by ST45 and ST283 clonal complexes showed a summer peak. This clade was common in a Finnish dataset but not in New Zealand and Australian collections, countries with less marked seasonality. The UK, New Zealand and Australian collections were otherwise similar. These findings map to known in-vitro differences of this clade. This identifies a target for studies to elucidate the drivers of the summer peak in human C. jejuni infection.
Optically detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy (ODXAS) and X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) have been applied in parallel to the study of local bonding in luminescent diamonds. Imaging ODXAS and XEOL reveal correlations between lateral variation in colour (transmitted light and luminescence) and local carbon bonding in selected samples showing strong optical absorption contrast. Dark regions of the crystals viewed in transmitted light correlate with a lower total luminescence yield when excited with soft X-rays of photon energy ~280 eV. ODXAS reveals a higher proportion of sp2-bonded carbon species in darker (less luminescent) regions associated with graphitic micro-inclusions.
Shock-wave/turbulent boundary-layer interactions (SWTBLIs) with separation are known to be inherently unsteady but their physical mechanisms are still not totally understood. An experimental investigation has been performed in a supersonic wind tunnel at a freestream flow Mach number of 2·42. The interaction between a shock wave created by a shock generator (α = 3°, α = 9°, α = 13° and α = 15° deflection angles) and a turbulent boundary layer with thickness δ = 5mm has been studied. High-speed Schlieren visualisations have been obtained and used to measure shock wave unsteadiness by means of digital image processing. In the interactions with separation, the reflected shock’s unsteadiness has been in the order of 102Hz. High-speed wall pressure measurements have also been obtained with fast-response micro-transducers along the interactions. Most of the energy of the incoming turbulent boundary layer is broadband and at high frequencies (>104Hz). An addition of low-frequency (<104Hz) fluctuation energy is found at separation. Along the interaction region, the shock impingement results in an amplification of fluctuation energy due to the increase in pressure. Under the main recirculation region core there is only an increase in high frequency energy (>104Hz). Amplification of lower frequency fluctuation energy (>103Hz) is also observed close to the separation and reattachment regions.
In many areas of south and south-eastern Asia, concentrations of As in ground water have been found to exceed the WHO maximum concentration limit of 10 μg/l. This is adversely affecting the health of millions of people and has grave current and future health implications. It has recently been suggested that extensive abstraction of ground water in these areas may accelerate the release of As to ground water. This study uses geochemical and isotopic data to assess this hypothesis. The area investigated in this study is in the Chakdaha block of the Nadia District, West Bengal. The ground water is predominantly of the Ca-Mg-HCO3 type, although some samples were found to contain elevated concentrations of Na, Cl and SO4. This is thought to reflect a greater degree of water-rock interaction at the locations of these particular samples. Arsenic concentrations exceeded the national limit of 50 μg/l in 13 of the 22 samples collected. Four of the 13 samples with high As were recovered from tubewells with depths of 60 m or more. Shallow ground water samples were found to have a stable isotopic composition which falls subparallel to the Global Meteoric Water Line. This probably represents a contribution of evaporated surface water to the ground water, possibly from surface ponds or re-infiltrating irrigation water. Deep ground water, conversely, was shown to have a composition that closely reflects that of meteoric water. The data presented in this study suggest that, whilst the drawdown of surface waters may drive As release in shallow ground waters, it is not responsible for driving As release in deep ground water. However, local abstraction may have resulted in changes in the ground water flow regime of the area, with contaminated shallow ground waters being drawn into previously uncontaminated deep aquifers.
We discuss the impact of strong absorption for thermal neutrons on data analysis and compare absorption corrections in the GSAS and MAUD Rietveld codes for texture and structural parameter refinement. Diffraction data were collected on the neutron powder diffractometer HIPPO at LANSCE from dysprosium and erbium, which are moderate-to-strong absorbers for thermal neutrons with absorption cross sections of 159 barns for Er and 994 barns for Dy at λ=1.8 Å. Both elements have hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) crystal structures, and the samples were various thicknesses of rolled foils. The orientation distribution functions (ODF) were fit to the same neutron time-of-flight data sets using two very different full pattern Rietveld analysis procedures. Spherical harmonics functions were fit to the textured data using GSAS. These data were also analyzed by the modified direct method E-WIMV using MAUD. The resulting pole figures from the ODFs determined by both Rietveld analysis packages are qualitatively similar, and the textures were confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Additionally, data from orthorhombic dysprosium and erbium fluoride powders show that atomic positions are not sensitive to absorption. We address inconsistencies and methodologies in data analysis when strong absorption is present.
The first topologies defined on a lattice directly from the lattice ordering (that is, Birkhoff's order topology and Frink's interval topology) involved “symmetrical” definitions – the topologies assigned to L and to Lop were identical. A guiding example was always the unit interval of real numbers in its natural order, which is of course a highly symmetrical lattice. The initial interest was in such questions as which lattices became compact and/or Hausdorff in these topologies. The Scott topology stands in strong contrast to such an approach. Indeed it is a “unidirectional” topology, since, for example, all the open sets are always upper sets; thus, for nontrivial lattices, the T0 separation axiom is the strongest it satisfies. Nevertheless, we saw in Chapter II that the Scott topology provides many links between domains and general topology in such classical areas as the theory of semicontinuous functions and in the study of lattices of closed (compact, convex) sets (ideals) in many familiar structures.
In this chapter we introduce a new topology, called the Lawson topology, which is crucial in linking continuous lattices and domains to topological algebra. Its definition is more in the spirit of the interval and order topologies, and indeed it may be viewed as a mixture of the two. However, it remains asymmetrical – the Lawson topologies on L and Lop need not agree. But, even if one is seeking an appropriate Hausdorff topology for continuous lattices, this asymmetry is not at all surprising in view of the examples we have developed.
In Chapter I we encountered the rich order theoretic structure of complete lattices and of continuous lattices. Wherever it was feasible to express statements on the level of generality of dcpos and domains we did so. Perhaps even more typical for these partially ordered sets is their wealth of topological structure. The aim of the present chapter is to introduce topology into the study – a program to be continued in Chapter III.
Section II-1 begins with a discussion of the Scott topology and its connection with the convergence given in order theoretic terms by lower limits, or liminfs. This leads to a characterization theorem for domains in terms of properties of their lattices of Scott open sets (II-1.14) – a type of theorem that will become a recurrent theme (see Chapter VII). One motivation for such considerations arises from the appearances of domain theory in theoretical computer science: one typically needs the generality of domains to model the structures and constructions under consideration, while continuous lattices enter the scene as their lattices of open sets.
In Section II-2 we determine that the functions continuous for the Scott topology are those preserving directed sups. We can thus express one and the same property of a function between dcpos either in topological or in order theoretical terms. The space [S → T] of all Scott-continuous functions between continuous lattices is itself a continuous lattice, and the category of continuous lattices proves to be cartesian closed.
Information content and programming semantics are just two of the applications of the mathematical concepts of order, continuity and domains. The authors develop the mathematical foundations of partially ordered sets with completeness properties of various degrees, in particular directed complete ordered sets and complete lattices. Uniquely, they focus on partially ordered sets that have an extra order relation, modelling the notion that one element 'finitely approximates' another, something closely related to intrinsic topologies linking order and topology. Extensive use is made of topological ideas, both by defining useful topologies on the structures themselves and by developing close connections with numerous aspects of topology. The theory so developed not only has applications to computer science but also within mathematics to such areas as analysis, the spectral theory of algebras and the theory of computability. This authoritative, comprehensive account of the subject will be essential for all those working in the area.
Our final chapter is devoted to exploring further links between topological algebra and continuous lattice and domain theory. This theme has already played an important role: the Fundamental Theorem of Compact Semilattices (VI-3.4) is just one example. In this chapter, however, the methods of topological algebra occupy a more central role, while the methods of continuous lattices are somewhat less prominent.
Section VII-1 is devoted to somewhat technical results about certain non-Housdorff topological semilattices; they are included primarily to facilitate the proof of later results concerning separate continuity of semilattice and lattice operations implying joint continuity. Section VII-2 makes various observations about topological lattices and their topologies, with a particular focus on completely distributive lattices.
Section VII-3 introduces the class of continuous lattices for which the Lawson topology is equal to the interval topology: the hypercontinuous lattices. The distributive ones are paired with the quasicontinuous domains via the spectral theory of Chapter V. Thus several earlier themes are nicely rounded out.
Section VII-4 characterizes those meet continuous complete lattices which admit a compact semilattice topology as being exactly those lattices whose lattice of Scott open sets forms a continuous lattice; this augments II-1.14, which shows that the continuous lattices are exactly those complete lattices whose Scott open sets form a completely distributive lattice. The final part of Section VII-4 is devoted to a proof that a compact semitopological semilattice is in fact topological.